(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Dictionary of National Biography Volume 32"

Google 



Dictionary of 

national 

biography 



Sir Sidney Lee 



m m 



4 



■ 







CT 

7 73 
.D+7 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Lambe Leigh 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



EDITED BY 



SIDNEY LEE 



VOL. XXXII. 
Lambe Leigh 



3Utt> $or& 
MACMILLAN AND CO. 

LONDON: SMITH, ELDER, & CO. 
1892 



LIST OF WBITEES 



IN THE THIRTY-SECOND VOLUME. 



J. G. A. . . J. G. Algbb. 
W. A. J. A. W. A. J. Archbold. 
R. B-l. . . Richard Bagwell. 
G. F. R. B. G. F. Russell Barker. 
R. B. .... The Rbv. Ronald Batnb. 

T. B Thomas Baynb. 

G. T. B. . . Thb latb G. T. Bbttany. 
H. E. D. B. Thb Rbt. H. E. D. Blakiston. 
G. C. B. . . G. C. Boasb. 
G. S. B. . . G. S. Boulgbb. 

B. B-S. . . ROBBRT BOWBS. 

E. T. B. . . Miss Bbadlbt. 

M* B. . . . . PfiOFESSOR MONTAGU BuBBOWS. 

H. M. 0. . . H. Manners Chichbstbb. 

A. M. C. . . Miss A. M. Clbbkb. 

T. C Thompson Coopbb, F.S.A. 

W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY. 

L. C Lionel Oust, F.S.A. 

G. B. D. . . G. B. DlBBLBB. 

A. B. . . . . Austin Bobson. 

R. B. . . . . ROBBBT BUNLOP. 

F. E. .... Fbancis Esfinassb. 

C. L. F. . . C. Litton Falxinrr. 
C. H. F. . . C. H. Fihth. 

J. G. F-h.. J. G. Fitch, LL.B. 
J. G. F. . . J. G. Fotheringham. 
J. G. .... Jambs Gairdnbr. 
S. R. G. . . S. R. Gardiner, LL.B. 



R. G. . . . . 


Richabd Garnrtt, LL.B. 


J. T. G. . . 


J. T. Gilbert, FJ3.A. 


G. G. . . . 


Gordon Goodwin. 


A.G. ... 


Thb Rbt. Albxandbb Gordon. 


R. E. G. . . 


R. E. Graves. 


J. M. G. . . 


J. M. Gray. 


W. A.G.. 


W. A. GbNENHILL, M.B. 


J. C. H. . 


. J. CuTHBBRT HADDBN. 


J. W.H.. 


. Propbssor J. W. Hales. 


J. A. H. . 


. J. A. Hamilton. 


T. H. . . . . 


Thb Rev. Thomas Hamilton, B.B. 


T. F. H. . 


. T. F. Hbndbbson. 


B. H-l. . 


. Daniel Hipwbll. 


A. H.-H. 


. A. Hughes-Hughes. 


W. H. . . 


. Thb Rby. William Hunt. 


B. B. J. . 


. B. B. Jackson. 


C. L. K. . 


. C. L. Kingsford. 


J. K. . . . 


. Joseph Knight. . 


J.K.L. . 


. Professor J. K. Laughton. 


T. G. L. . 


. T. G. Law. 


E. L. . . . 


. Miss Elisabeth Lbb. 


S.L..... 


. Sidney Lib. 


R. H. L. . 


. R. H. Lbggb. 


A. G. L. . 


. A. G. Little. 


H. R. L. . 


. The late Rbv. H. R. Luard, B.B. 


J.A.F.M 


. J. A. Fuller Mattland. 


A.H.M. 


. A. H. Millar. 


CM 


. Cosmo Monkhouse. 



3502SO 



vi List of Writers. 

N. M. . . . . Nobman Moore, M.D. 
J. B. M. . . J. Bass Mulunqrb. 

A. N. .... Albbbt Nicholson. 
K. N Miss Katb Nobgate. 

C. N. .... CoNOLLY NOBMAN, F.R.C.P. 

F. M. O'D. F. M. O'Donoghub. 

S. P. 0. . . Captain S. Pasfisld Oliver. 

J. H. 0. . . Thb Rev. Canon Overton. 

H. P. .... Henry Paton. 

S. L.-P. . . Stanley Lane-Poole. 

B. P. .... Miss Pobtbr, 
E. L. R. . . Mrs. Radford. 
W. R^l. . . The Rev. William Rbynbll, B.D, 
J. M. R. . . J. M. Rigg. 
T. B. S. . . T. Bailby Saunders. 
T. S. .... Thomas Sbccombb. 



R. F. S. . 


. R. Fabquhabson Shabp. 


W. A. S. . 


. W. A. Shaw. 


C.F. S. . 


. Miss Fell Smith. 


G.W. S.. 


. The Rev. 0. W. Sprott, D.D 


L. S. ... 


. Leslie Stephen. 


0. W. S. . 


. C. W. Sutton. 


J. T-t. . . 


. James Tait. 


H. B. T. . 


. H. R. Tedder. 


T. F. T. . 


. Professor T. F. Tour. 


E. V. . . . 


. The Rev. Canon Vbnablbs. 


R. H. V. . 


. Colonel R. H. Vetch, R.E. 


E. W... . 


. Edward Walfobd. 


J. R. W. . 


. Thb Rbv. J. R. Washbourn. 


m. a. w. 


. The Rev. M. G. Watkins. 


0. W-H. . 


. Charles Welch, F.S.A. 


W. W. . . 


. Wabwice Wboth, F.S.A. 



DICTIONARY 



OF 



NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY 



Lambe 



Lambe 



LAMBE. [See also Lamb.] 

LAMBE, JOHN (d. 1628), astrologer, 
seems to have belonged to Worcestershire. 
In youth he was tutor in English to gentle- 
men's sons, and afterwards studied medicine, 
but soon fell ' to other mysteries, as telling 
of fortunes, helping of divers to lost goods, 
shewing to young people the faces 01 their 
husbands or wives tnat should be in a crystal 
glass,' and the like. While practising his 
magical arts at Tardebigg, Worcestershire, 
he was indicted early in 1608 for having, on 
16 Dec. 1607, practised ' execrable arts to 
consume the body and strength of Th. Lo. 
W.,' apparently Thomas, sixth lord Wind- 
sor of Bromsgrove. He was found guilty, 
but judgment was suspended, and he soon 
gained his liberty. In May 1608 he was re- 
siding at Hindlip, Worcestershire, and on the 
13th of the month was arraigned at the assize 
on a charge of having invoked and enter- 
tained ' certain evil and impious spirits/ It 
was proved that he caused apparitions to pro- 
ceed from a crystal glass, and prophesied 
death and disaster with fatal success. He 
was again convicted and was imprisoned in 
Worcester Castle. It was asserted that after 
his second trial ' the high sheriff, foreman of 
jury, and divers others of the justices gentle- 
men then present of the same jury died 
within a fortnight/ The local authorities 
consequently petitioned for his removal to 
King's Bench prison in London. He was 
taken thither, and was apparently kept there 
in easy confinement for some fifteen years. 
His fame as an astrologer rapidly spread 
through London, and he was allowed to re- 
ceive nis numerous clients in the prison. On 
10 Jane 1623 he was indicted on a charge of 
seducing, in the King's Bench, Joan Seager, 

VOL. XXXII. 



a girl of eleven, and although he was found 
guilty he was pardoned and released. 

Lambe doubtless owed this lenient treat- 
ment to the influence of the Duke of Buck- 
ingham, the king's favourite. Buckingham 
and his mother had been attracted by Lambe's 
popular reputation, and Buckingham had 
consulted nim about 1622 respecting the 
insanity of his brother, Sir Jonn Vuliers, 
viscount Purbeck. Thenceforth Buckingham 
was a constant client of Lambe, and ' the 
doctor,' as he was called, shared the growing 
unpopularity of his patron. On Monday, 
12 June 1626, London was startled by a 
fearful storm of wind and rain, and a mist 
hung over the Thames, in which the super- 
stitious discerned many mystical shapes. 
Lambe appeared on the river during the day, 
and to 'his art of conjuring' the meteoro- 
logical disturbances were attributed (Rttsh- 
woeth, Hist. Coll. i. 891). When Sir John 
Eliot and his friends were attacking Buck- 
ingham in parliament early in 1628, ballads 
were sung about the London streets, in which 
Lambe's evil influence over the duke was 
forcibly insisted upon, and ' the doctor ' was 
charged with employing magical charms to 
corrupt chaste women so that they might 
serve the duke's pleasure. The populace was 
excited by such reports, and on Friday, 
23 June 1628, as he was leaving the Fortune 
Theatre in Finsbury, Lambe was attacked 
with stones and sticks by a mob of appren- 
tices, who denounced him as * the duke's 
devil.' He hurried towards the city, appeal- 
ing to some sailors on the way to protect 
him. He reached Moor Gate in safety, but the 
crowd pursued him through Coleman Street 
to the Old Jewry, and his efforts to seek re- 
fuge in an inn and in a lawyer's house proved 
of no avail. Nearly beaten to death, he was 

B 



Lambe 



Lambe 



at length rescued by four constables and con- 
veyed to the Counter in the Poultry, but he 
was fatally injured about the head and died 
next morning. He was buried the follow- 
ing dayin the new churchyard near Bishops- 
gate. Upon his person were found a crystal 
ball and other conjuring implements. 

The vengeance meted out to Lambe served 
to indicate the popular hatred of his patron. 

Let Charles and George do what they can, 
The duke shall die like Doctor Lambe, 

became the common cry of the London mob. 
Buckingham at once exerted all his influence 
to discover those who had been guilty of 
Lambe'8 murder. On 15 June — two days 
after the event — the privy council announced 
to the lord mayor the king's indignation at 
the outrage, and directed that the guilty 
persons should be arrested and treated witn 
the utmost severity. But no one was ap- 
prehended on the charge, although many 
constables and others were committed to 
prison for neglect of duty in failing to protect 
the doctor (Oyeball, ReTntmbrancia, p. 455). 
The lord mayor was afterwards summoned 
before the king in council and threatened 
with the loss of the city's charter. Ulti- 
mately the corporation was fined 6,000/., but 
the amount was soon reduced to fifteen hun- 
dred marks. 

Buckingham was himself assassinated on 
23 Aug., rather more than two months after 
Lambes death, and popular sentiment cele- 
brated the occasion in the lines — 

The shepheard's struck, the sheepe are fled, 
For want of Lambe the Wolfe is dead. 

'A Dialogue between the Duke and Dr. 
Lambe after Death ' formed the subject of 
a contemporary ballad (cf. Randolph, Poems, 
1638, p. 53). 

[Lambe's career is sketched in a very rare 
pamphlet, of which two copies are in the British 
museum, entitled A Briefs Description of the 
notorious Life of John Lambe, otherwise called 
Doctor Lambe, together with his ignominious 
Death. Printed in Amsterdam 1628. A wood- 
cut on the title-page represents the fatal scuffle 
in the streets. Poems and Songs relating to 
George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, and his 
Assassination, ed. Fairholt (Percy Soc. 1850), 
contains many references to Lambe. See also 
Gardiner's Hist. vi. 318-19; Forster's Sir John 
Eliot, i. 576, ii. 315-17; Court and Times of 
Charles 1, i. 363-5 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1628-9, pp. 94, 169, 172.] S. L. 

LAMBE, Sib JOHN (1666 P-1647), civi- 
lian, probably born about 1566, graduated 
B.A. at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 
1586-7, and M.A. in 1690. In the interval 
he made a pilgrimage to Rome {Coll. Top. et 



Gen. v. 86). On his return to England he 
'taught petties,' i.e. was undermaster in a 
school, and studied the civil and canon law. 
In 1600 he purchased the registrarship of 
the diocese ot Ely ; in 1602 he was admitted 
a member of the College of Advocates. About 
the same time he was appointed co-registrar,, 
and shortly afterwards chancellor of tne dio- 
cese of Peterborough. Thomas Dove [q^. v.], 
bishop of Peterborough, made him his vicar,, 
official, and commissary general, jointly with 
Henry Hickman, on 10 June 1615. In the* 
following year he took the degree of LLD. 
at Cambridge. In 1617 he was appointed 
by the dean and chapter of Lincoln commis- 
sary of their peculiars in the counties of 
Northampton, Rutland, Huntingdon, and 
Leicester. He had now established a certain 
reputation as an ecclesiastical lawyer, and 
in 1619 he was consulted by Williams, dean 
of Salisbury, afterwards archbishop of York, 
in reference to some delicate cases. A strong 
supporter of the royal prerogative, he carried 
matters with a high hand against the puri- 
tans in Northamptonshire, compelling them 
to attend church regularly on the Sunday, 
to observe holy days, and to contribute to 
church funds, imposing grievous penances 
on recusants, and commuting them for fines, 
and holding courts by preference at incon- 
venient times and places, in order that he 
might extort money by fining those who 
failed to appear. Li 1621 the mayor and 
corporation of Northampton presented a peti- 
tion to parliament complaining of these griev- 
ances, and the speaker issued his warrant 
for the examination of witnesses. The king, 
however, intervened to stop the proceedings, 
and during his progress through Northamp- 
tonshire knighted Lambe on 26 July at Castle 
Ashbv. In 1623 Lambe was selected by his 
old friend Williams, now bishop of Lincoln, 
to be his commissary in that diocese. Wil- 
liams's zeal began to cool, and at length in 
1626 he refused to sanction some proceedings 
proposed by Lambe against some Leices- 
tershire conventiclers. Lambe secretly in- 
formed the privy council against him. No im- 
mediate steps were taken against the bishop, 
but Lambe s information and the evidence 
were preserved for possible future use. Lambe 
was a member of the high commission court 
from 1629 until its abolition by the Long 
parliament, and was one of Laua's most ac- 
tive supporters throughout that period. In 
the autumn of 1633 he succeeded Sir Henry 
Marten [q. v.] as dean of the arches court of 
Canterbury. On 25 Feb. 1634-5 he was ap- 
pointed commissary of the archdeaconries of 
Leicestershire ana Buckinghamshire. In 
1637 he was commissioned to exercise eccle- 



Lambe 



Lambe 



siastical jurisdiction within the county of 
Leicester during the suspension of Bishop 
Williams. On 26 Jan. 1639-40 he was ap- 
pointed chancellor and keeper of the great 
seal to Queen Henrietta Maria. He was 
one of the first to suffer the vengeance of the 
Long parliament. The parishioners of Wad- 
desdcm, Buckinghamshire, whom he*had com- 
pelled to maintain two organs and an organist 
at a cost of 16/. a year, petitioned for redress, 
and on 1 Feb. 1640-1 Lambe was summoned 
to appear before a committee of the House of 
Commons to answer the charge. He made 
default, was sent for ' as a delinquent/ and on 
22 Feb. was produced at the bar ' in extremity 
of sickness both of body and mind.' He made 
formal submission on 6 March, and was re- 
leased on bail. At the same time he was 
harassed by proceedings in the House of 
Lords by the widow of one of the church- 
wardens of Colchester, whom he had excom- 
municated in 1635 for refusing to rail in the 
altar, and by a certain "Walter Walker, whom 
he had unlawfully deprived of the office of 
commissary of Leicester. The house found 
both charges proved, and awarded 100/. to 
the widow and 1,250/. to Walker, It was 
even contemplated to impeach him along 
with Laud {Cal State Papers, Dom. 1640-1, 
p. 479). He fled to Oxford, where he was 
incorporated on 9 Dec. 1643. His property 
was sequestrated ( Commons' Journal, iiL 149). 
He died according to Wood (Fasti Oxon. ii. 
58) 'in the beginning of the year 1647/ 
Lambe had two daughters, both of rare 
beauty, one of whom married Dr. Robert 
Sibthorpe [q. v.]; the other, Barbara, was 
second wife of Basil Feilding, afterwards earl 
of Denbigh [q. v.] 

[Baker's Hist, of St. John's ColL Cambridge, 
ed. Mayor, p. 520; Coote's Civilians; Petyt's 
Misc. Pari. pp. 161 et seq.; CaL State Papers, 
Donu 161&-23 p. 280, 1628-9 p. 445, 1633-4 
pp. 155, 246, 337, 1634-5 pp. 215, 523, 1637 
pp. 335, 399, 1639p. 452, 1639-40 p. 379, 1640-1 
pp. 282, 456-7, 479 ; Laud's Works, v. 646 ; 
Bushworth'sHist. CoU.L 420 ; Whitelocke'sMem. 



&8 ; Cases in the Courts of Star-chamber and 
igh Commission (Camd. Soc.), pp. 221, 254 ; 
Cofl. Top. et Gen. vii. 365; CollWs Peerage 



(Brydges), iii. 274 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep 
App.; Wood's Athen® Oxon. iii. 550.] 

J. M, B. 

LAMBE, KOBERT (1712-1795), author, 
the son of John Lambe, mercer, was born at 
Durham in 1712. He was admitted a sizar 
of St. John's College, Cambridge, 13 April 
1728, and graduated B.A. in 173S-4. TaJang 
holy orders, he was successively a minor canon 
of Durham Cathedral, perpetual curate of 
SouthShields, and from 1747 vicar of Norham 



in Northumberland. He was of eccentric 
disposition. Suddenly determining to marry 
Philadelphia Nelson, the daughter of a Dur- 
ham carrier, whom he had seen only once, and 
that many years before, he sent a proposal to 
her by letter, inviting her to meet him on Ber- 
wick pier, and bidding her carry a tea-caddy 
under her arm for purposes of identification. 
On the appointed day, owing to his habitual 
absent-mindedness, he failed to meet her, but 
the marriage took place on 11 April 1755. 
He died at Edinburgh in 1795, and was buried 
in Eyemouth ehurchyard,Berwick-on-Tweed. 
His wife had died in 1772. A daughter, 
Philadelphia, married Alexander Robertson 
of Prenderguest in Berwickshire ; two sons 
died young. 

Lambe wrote *The History of Chess/ 
London, 1764 ;* another edition, 1765. His 
chief work, however, was ' An Exact and 
Circumstantial History of the Battle of 
Flodden, in verse, written about the time of 
Queen Elizabeth/ Berwick, 1774, 8vo; New- 
castle, 1809, 8vo. This is said to be published 
from a manuscript in the possession of John 
Askew of Pallingsburn, Northumberland; 
the notes, especially those on etymology, are 
numerous and very curious. Lambe was also 
the author of the ballad * The Laidley Worm 
of Spindleston Heugh/ which Hutchinson 
thought ancient, and inserted in his ' History 
of Northumberland.' Percy, in the preface 
to his 'Reliques/ mentions Lambe as one 
who had been of service to him. 

[Notes and Queries, 6th ser. iv. 308, 392, 418, 
492, 620, v. 178, x. 887, xii. 356 ; Nichols's Lit. 
Blustr. viL 391-3 ; Child's Ballads, i. 281.] 

W. A. J. A, 

LAMBE or LAMB, THOMAS (d. 1686), 
philanthropist, and sometime nonconformist, 
was born in Colchester. He could not have 
been, as Brook thinks possible, the Thomas 
Lamb who became vicar of South Benfleet, 
Essex, on 23 July 1641. On 6 Feb. 1640, 
when he was already married and had eight 
children, he was brought up, at Laud's in- 
stance, to the Star-chamber from Colchester, 
with Francis Lee, on a charge of preaching 
to a separatist congregation there, and on 
suspicion of having administered the sacra- 
ments. He was committed to the Fleet, and 
suffered several imprisonments. At Whit- 
suntide 1640 he and another gave information 
to John Langley, mayor of Colchester, of a 
suspected plot to fire the town by * two Irish- 
men/ He gained his liberty, through his 
wife's intercession, on 25 June 1640, on giving 
a bond not to preach, baptise, or frequent any 
conventicle. He was brought up on his bond 
by order of 16 Oct. 1640, but seems to have 
been finally released by the Long parliament 

b2 



Lambe 



Lambe 






soon after. From a letter written on 12 Aug. 
1658 by his wife, Barbara Lambe, to Richard 
Baxter, it appears that in 1640 or 1641 he 
"oined the congregation of John Goodwin 
Vj. v.] at St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, Lon- 
was afterwards ordained an elder of 
Good win's congregational church, and became 
an active preacher. He was then a soap- 
boiler, carrying on business in Bell Alley, 
Coleman Street, and preached there, as well 
as in parish churches on occasion. He also tra- 
velled into Essex * to make disciples.' Henry 
Denne [q. v.] joined his meeting at Bell Alley 
in 1648. On 5 Nov. 1644 he preached uni- 
versal redemption (in Goodwin's sense) at 
St. Benedict's, Gracechurch. By this time 
he had rejected infant baptism without as yet 
becoming an adult baptist. He encouraged 
female preachers, notably one Mrs. Atta- 
way, 'the mistress of all the she-preachers in 
Coleman Street.' In 1646 he was brought 
before the lord mayor for unlicensed preach- 
ing, and imprisoned for a short time by order 
of a committee of parliament. Edwards, who 
calls him ' one Lam,' gives an odd account of 
a public disputation at the Spital in January 
1646, between Robert Overton [q. v.] and 
Lambe and others, on the immortality of the 
soul. The discussion had been prohibited by 
the lord mayor, whom Lambe was at first in- 
clined to obey. In February 1650 he was an 
importer of corn by way of Exeter to London ; 
in July he was engaged in the French trade. 
He wrote one of the 'nyms or spiritual songs' 
sung by Goodwin's congregation on 24 Oct. 
1651, after the battle of Worcester, and pub- 
lished by Goodwin. 

It was not till about 1653 that the argu- 
ments of William Allen, derived from Samuel 
Fisher (1605-1665) [q. v.], brought him to 
belief in the necessity oi adult baptism. For a 
short time he remained in communion with 
Goodwin, but soon seceded with Allen and 
some twenty others, who met as a particular 
baptist church in Bell Alley. In 1658 Lambe 
and Allen had increased their following by 
about one hundred. Lambe was now living 
in the parish of St. Bartholomew the Great ; 
his church, or part of it, met in Lothbury. 
He was probably the Thomas Lambe or Lamb 
who was appointed by the navy commissioners 
in May 1658 as minister of the Nantwich, on 
a certificate signed by Peter Sterry [q. v.] and 
two others. Meanwhile Fisher's secession to 
Quakerism had caused a reaction in his mind ; 
before the end of 1657 he began to think of 
retracing his steps; a correspondence with 
Baxter m 1668 and 1659, begun by his wife 
and continued by himself and Allen, con- 
vinced him of his error in leaving Good- 
win. Lambe and Allen dissolved their baptist 



church, and had a meeting with ' the most 
moderate pastors of the rebaptised churches,' 
to consult about a wider basis of church mem- 
bership. Baxter supplied terms of agree- 
ment, Dut the negotiations were interrupted 
by the Restoration. Lambe signed the baptist 

Srotestation against Yenner's insurrection in 
anuary 1661. 

Lambe and Allen both returned as lay 
members to the established church. Lambe 
subsequently dated his return from 1658, but 
Baxter says they became more vehement 
against separation than any of the con- 
forming clergy. Lambe made a 'publick 
Erofession of repentance,' and succeeded in 
ringing many of his followers with him to 
the established church. According to Crosby 
he died about 1672. Crosby, however (who 
seems unacquainted with the facts presented 
in the appendix to ' Reliquiae Baxterian® 1 
and in Lucas's sermon), erroneously tries to 
make out that Lambe of Bell Alley and 
Lambe who conformed were different per- 
sons. * Mr. Lamb, Bell Alley, Coleman Street,' 
appears in the ' Catalogue of the Names of 
the Merchants ' of 1677 ; in 1679 Baxter pub- 
lished his ' Nonconformist's Plea for Peace,' 
in reply to Lambe's attack on nonconformist 
preachers. 

In later life he was remarkable for the 
fervour of his personal religion, as well as 
for his philanthropic work. He was an or- 
ganiser of charity, contributing largely from 
his own means, and distributing the bounty 
of others. 'Several hundreds of prisoners' 
were by his means set free, and the internal 
arrangements of prisons improved in conse- 
quence of his exertions. He was interested 
also in the religious education of children. 
So extensive were his charitable operations 
that ' he was continually throng'd dv flocks 
of his clients (as he called them).' He de- 
clined to resort to the country for his health, 
saying, 'What shall my poor then doP' 
When too infirm to give personal supervision 
to his charitable schemes, he employed an 
agent for the purpose. He died at an ad- 
vanced age in 1686. His funeral sermon was 
preached on 23 July by Richard Lucas, D.D. 
fq. v.], then vicar of St. Stephen's, Coleman 
Street, who speaks of him as his ' dear friend.' 
One of his sons, Isaac Lamb, was a particular 
baptist minister who signed the confession of 
faith issued by that body in 1688. Another 
son, John Lambe, was appointed vicar of 
Wheathamp8tead, Hertfordshire, in May 
1678, and was living in 1706. 

Lambe published: 1. 'The Fountain of 
Free Grace Opened,' &c., 8vo (Crosby). 
2. ' A Treatise of Particular Predestination,' 
&c, 1642, 8vo. 8. 'The Unlawfulness of 



Lam be 



Lambe 



Infant Baptisme,'&c,1644 (Angus). 4. 'The 
Anabaptists Groundwork . . . found false. 
, . . Whereunto one T. L. hath given his 
Answers/ &c, 1644, 4to. 5. ' The Summe 
of a Conference . . . betweene J. Stalham 
and ... T. Lamb/ &c, 1644, 4to. 6. « Truth 
prevailing against . . . J. Goodwin/ &c, 1665, 
4to. 7. ' Absolute Freedom from Sin/ &c., 
1656, 4to (against Good win's theology; dedi- 
cated to the Lord Protector). Lucas refers 
to his ' two excellent treatises ... for the dis- 
abusing those pf the separation ; ' one of these 
was : 8. * A Fresh Suit against Independency/ 
&c. (mentioned in preface to Allen's ' Works ) ; 
also ' a catechism of his own composing ' which 
he used in his charitable work. 

[CaL of State Papers, Dom. 1640, 1641, 1650, 
1651, 1652, 1653, 1655, 1658; Edwards's Gan- 
grsena, 1646, i. 124 sq. (2nd edit.), ii. 17 sq. ; 
Lucas's Funeral Sermon, 1 686 ; Reliquiae Bax- 
terianse, 1696, i. 180 sq., iii. 180, App. 51 sq.; 
Works of William Allen, 1707; Crosby's Hist, 
of English Baptists, 1738-40, iii. 55 sq.; Wilson's 
Dissenting Churches of London, 1808, ii. 430 sq., 
445 sq.; Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 1813, 
iii. 461 sq. ; Wood's Condensed Hist, of General 
Baptists [1847], pp. 109, 121 (erroneously treats 
Lambe as a general baptist); Records of Fen- 
stanton (Hanserd Knollys Soc.), 1 854, pp. vii, 
153 ; Confessions of Faith (Hanserd Knollys 
Soc), 1854, p. 171 ; Barclay's Inner Life of Rel. 
Societies of the Commonwealth, 1876, p. 157 ; 
London Directory of 1677, 1878; Urwick's Non- 
conformity in Herts, 1884, p. 474 ; Angus's Early 
Baptist Authors, January 1886.] A. G. 

LAMBE, WILLIAM (1495-1580), Lon- 
don merchant and benefactor, son of William 
Lambe, was born at Sutton Valence, Kent, 
in 1495. According to the statement of 
Abraham Fleming, his contemporary bio- 
grapher, Lambe came from ' a mean estate ' 
in the country to be a gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal to Henry VIII. He was ad- 
mitted a freeman of the Clothworkers' Com- 
pany in 1568, and served the office of master 
in 1569-70. In early life he lived in Lon- 
don Wall, next to the ancient hermitage 
chapel of St. James's, belonging to the abbey 
of (Jerendon in Leicestershire. Two monks 
of this community served the chapel as chap- 
lains. A well belonging to them supplied 
its name to the adjoining Monkwell street. 
Through his influence with the king Lambe 
purchased this chapel at the dissolution, by 
letters patent dated 80 March 84 Henry VIII 
(1542), and bequeathed it with his house, 
lands, and tenements, to the value of 30/. 
yearly, to the Company of Clothworkers. 
Out of this he directed that a minister should 
be engaged to perform divine service in his 
chapel every Sunday, Wednesday, and Fri- 
day throughout the year, and to preach four 



sermons yearly before the members of the 
company, who were to attend in their gowns. 
The company were also to provide clothing 
for twenty-four poor men and women, and re- 
ceived 4/. yearly from the trust for their pains. 
Lambe'8 chapel, with the almshouses adjoin- 
ing, was pulled down in 1825, and in 1872, 
under an act of 85 & 86 Vict. cap. 154, the 
chapel was finally removed to Prebend 
Square, Islington, where the present church 
of St. James's, of the foundation of William 
Lambe, was erected in its stead. At the 
west end of the church is a fine bust of the 
founder in his livery gown, with a purse in 
one hand and his gloves in the other. It 
bears the date 1612, and was removed from 
the chapel in London Wall. 

Lambe also built at his own expense a 
conduit in Holborn, and provided 120 pails to 
enable poor women to gain a living by selling 
water. He also left an annuity of 6/. 18*. 4d. 
to the Stationers' Company, to be distri- 
buted to the poor in St. Faith's parish, besides 
other benefactions to St. Giles 8, Cripplegate, 
Christ's and St. Thomas's Hospitals, and the 
city prisons. For his native town of Sutton 
Valence he established in 1578, at his own 
expense, a free grammar school for the educa- 
tion of vouth, providing a yearly allowance 
of 20/. for the master and 10/. for the usher, 
besides a good house and garden for the ac- 
commodation of the former. He also erected 
in the village of Town Sutton six almshouses, 
with an orchard and gardens, for the comfort 
of six poor inhabitants of that parish, and 
allotted the sum of 2/. to be paid to each of 
them yearly, entrusting the Company of 
Clothworkers with the estates and direction 
of these charities. 

He died 21 April 1580, and was buried 
in the church of St. Faith under St. Paul's. 
His tomb, which was destroyed with the 
church of St. Faith in the fire of London, 
bore a brass plate with figures of himself in 
armour and his three wives. His epitaph is 
printed by Dugdale (History of St PauTs, 
1818, p. 77). The names of his wives were 
Joan, Alice, and Joan. The last survived 
him, and was buried in St. Olave's Church, 
Silver Street. 

Lambe was a strong adherent of the re- 
formed religion and a mend of Dean Nowell 
and John Foxe. He was deservedly esteemed 
for his piety and benevolence, and, according 
to his Diographer, ' hath bene seene and 
marked at Powle's crosse to haue continued 
from eight of the clocke until eleuen, atten- 
tiuely listening to the Preachers voice, and 
to haue endured the ende, being weake and 
aged, when others both strong and lustie 
went away.' 



Lambe 



Lambert 



[A Memoriall of the famous Monuments and 
Charitable Almesdeedes of Right Worshipfuli 
Maister William Lambe, Esquire, by Abraham 
Fleming, 1683, reprinted, with pedigree and notes 
by Charles Frederick Angell, 1875; Timbs'a 
Curiosities of London.] C. W-h. 

LAMBE, WILLIAM (1766-1847), phy- 
sician, son of Lacon Lambe, an attorney, 
was born at Warwick on 26 Feb. 1765, He 
was educated at Hereford grammar school 
and St. John's College, Cambridge, whence 
he graduated B.D. (as fourth wrangler) in 
1786, M.B. in 1789, and M.D. in 1802. He 
was admitted a fellow of his college on 
11 March 1788. In 1790 he succeeded to 
the practice of a friend, one Dr. Landon of 
Warwick, and in the same year published 
his * Analyses of the Leamington Water.' 
The results of further minute chemical ex- 
amination of these waters were published 
by him in the fifth volume of the * Transac- 
tions ' of the Philosophical Society of Man- 
chester. Removing to London about 1800, 
Lambe was admitted a fellow of the College 
of Physicians on 22 Dec. 1804. He held both 
the censorship and Croonian lectureship on 
several occasions between 1806 and 1828, 
and he was Harveian orator in 1818. His 
London practice being neither very large nor 
remunerative, Lambe resided a short distance 
from town, but retained a consulting room in 
King's (now Theobald's) Road, Bedford Row, 
where he attended three times a week. Many 
of his patients were needy people, from whom 
he would accept no fees. Lambe was ac- 
counted an eccentric by his contemporaries, 
mainly on the ground that he was a strict, 
though by no means fanatical, vegetarian. 
Hisiavourite prescription was filtered water. 
He retired from practice about 1840, and died 
at Dilwyn on 11 June 1847. He was buried 
in the family vault in the churchyard of that 
parish. William Lacon Lambe, Lambe's son, 
born at Warwick in 1797, was a Tancred 
student and scholar on the foundation of 
Caius College, Cambridge, whence he gra- 
duated M.B. in 1820. 

Besides the work mentioned above Lambe 
wrote: 1. 'Researches into the Properties 
of Spring Water, with Medical Cautions 
against the use of Lead in Water Pipes, 
Pumps, Cisterns,' &c, 1808, 8vo. 2. 'A 
Medical and Experimental Enquiry into the 
Origin, Symptoms, and Cure of Constitu- 
tional Diseases, particularly Scrofula, Con- 
sumption, Cancer, and Gout,' 1805, 8vo ; re- 
published, with notes and additions by J. 
Shew, New York, 1854. 3. « Reports of the 
Effects of a Peculiar Regimen on Scirrhous 
Tumours and Cancerous Ulcers,' 1809, 8vo. 
The British Museum copy contains a manu- 



script letter from the author to Lord Erskine, 
and some remarks upon the work hy the latter* 
4. ' Additional Reports on the Effects of a 
Peculiar Regimen/ &c, London, 1815, 8vo« 
Extracts from these two works, with a pre- 
face and notes by E. Hare, and written in 
the corresponding style of phonography by 
I. Pitman, were published at Bath in 18Q9, 
12mo. 5. ' An Investigation of the Pro- 
perties of Thames Water,' London, 1828, 8vo. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. hi. 17-18; Baker's St. 
John's College, i. 310 ; Graduati Cantabr. p. 280 ; 
Cains College Register ; Lives of British Physi- 
cians, 1857, p. 406; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

LAMBERT. [See also Lambabt.] 

LAMBERT or LANBRIHT (d. 791), 
archbishop of Canterbury. [See Jaenbebt.] 

LAMBERT, AYLMER BOURKE 
(1761-1842), botanist, was born at Bath, 
2 Feb. 1761. He was the only son of Ed- 
mund Lambert of Boyton House, near Hey- 
tesbury, Wiltshire, by his first wife, Hon. 
Bridget Bourke, heiress of John, viscount 
Mayo, and eighth in descent from Richard 
Lambert, sheriff of London, who bought 
Boyton in 1572 (see pedigree in Sib R. C. 
Hoare's South Wiltshire, i Heytesbury Hun- 
dred/ p. 203). A collector from his boyhood, 
Lambert formed a museum at Boyton before 
he was old enough to go to school. When 
twelve he was sent to Hackney School, then 
under a Mr. Newcome, and here he kept up 
his taste for collecting, and especially for 
botany. He spent some of his vacations 
with his stepmother's brother, Henry Sey- 
mer, at Hanford, Dorset, and there made the 
acquaintance of Dr. Richard Pulteney [q. v.] 
of Blandford, and of the Dowager Duchess of 
Portland, whose herbarium he afterwards 
purchased. Lambert matriculated as a com- 
moner at St. Mary Hall, Oxford, 26 Jan. 
1779, but never graduated. At the univer- 
sity he made the acquaintance of a brother 
botanist, Daniel Lysons [q. v.], the topo- 
grapher, and shortly afterwards came to know 
Joseph Banks and James Edward Smith. 

On the foundation of the Linnean Society 
in 1788 Lambert became a fellow, and from 
1796 till his death — a period of nearly fifty 
years — acted as vice-president, being the last 
survivor of the original members (Nichols, 
Lit IUustr. vi. 835). His contributions to its 
' Transactions ' extend from vol. iii. (1794) to 
vol. xvii. (1837), and include various papers, 
zoological as well as botanical, on such subjects 
as the Irish wolf-dog, Bos frontalis, the blight 
of wheat, oak-galls, &c. In 1791 Lambert 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, 
and he also joined the Society of Antiquaries, 



Lambert 



7 



Lambert 



and was elected a member of numerous foreign 
societies. On his father's death in 1802 he 
removed from Salisbury to Bovton, where he 
entertained many eminent foreign naturalists, 
■and formed an herbarium of some thirty thou- 
sand specimens. This collection, of the sources 
•of which there is a full account by David Don 
in Lambert's ' Pinus,' vol. ii., reprinted with 
some abridgment in Sir R. C. Hoare's ' His- 
tory of Wiltshire,' was at all times freely 
open to botanical students. Sir J. E. Smith 
styles Lambert ' one of the most ardent and 
experienced botanists of the present age,' and 
his skill is shown by his recognition for the 
first time of Carduus tuberosum and Centaurea 
fttprescens, and by his first independent work, 

* A Description of the genus Cinchona,' pub- 
lished in 1797. This work, dedicated to Banks 
and the Linnean Society, describes eight 
species, mostly from Banks's specimens. To- 
wards the close of his life, finding that Boyton 
did not suit his health, Lambert took a house 
at Kew Green, where he died 10 Jan. 1842. 
His library and herbarium were subsequently 
dispersed by auction, Ruiz and Pavon's Chilian 
ana Peruvian specimens being purchased 
for the British Museum. Lambert married 
Catherine, daughter of Richard Bowater of 
AHesley, Warwickshire, but she died before 
him, leaving no issue. 

An oil portrait of Lambert by Russell, 
now at the Linnean Society's rooms, was en- 
graved by Holl, and an engraving by W. 
Evans from a drawing by H. Edndge was 
published in Cadell's * Contemporary Por- 
traits ' in 1811. Besides various species of 
plants that bear his name, Smith dedicated 
to his friend the genus Lambertia among 
Australian Proteacea, and Martius founded 
a genus Aylmeria, not now maintained. 

Lambert's chief work, to which his paid 
assistant, David Don [q. v.], was a large con- 
tributor, was his monograph of the genus 

* Pinus,' one of the most sumptuous botanical 
works ever issued. Of this the first volume, 
•comprising forty-three folio coloured plates 
and dedicated to Banks, appeared in 1803 ; 
the second, comprising twelve plates, dedi- 
cated to Sir R. C. Hoare, in 1824. Of the 
second edition, vol. i., containing thirty-six 
plates, appeared in 1828 ; vol. ii., with thirty- 
nve plates, in 1828 ; and vol. iii., with seven- 
teen plates, in 1837. A quarto edition in two 
volumes, dedicated to William IV, appeared 
in 1832. Besides this he published m 1821 
*An Illustration of the Genus Cinchona,' 
4to, dedicated to Humboldt, describing 
twenty-one species, and a translation of ' An 
Eulogium on Don Hippolito Ruiz Lopez,' 
1831, 8vo. Lambert's copy of Hudson's 'Flora 
Anglica/ the manual of his youth, with his 



manuscript notes, is in the library of the 
British Museum. 

[Athenaeum, 1842, p. 1137; Gent Mag. 1842, 
i. 667-8; Proceedings of the Linnean Society, i. 
187; Gardeners' Chronicle, 1842, pp. 271, 439 ; 
Rees's Cyclopaedia.] G. S. B. 

LAMBERT, DANIEL (1770-1809), the 
most corpulent man of whom authentic re- 
cord exists, elder of two sons of a Daniel 
Lambert who had been huntsman to the Earl 
of Stamford, was born in the parish of St. 
Margaret, Leicester, on 13 March 1770. He 
was apprenticed to the engraved button 
trade in Birmingham, but in 1788 returned 
to live with his father, who was at that time 
keeper of Leicester gaol. The elder Lam- 
bert resigned in 1791, and the son succeeded 
to his post. It was shortly after this period 
that Daniel's size and weight enormously in- 
creased. In his youth he had been greatly 
addicted to field-sports, was strong and active, 
a great walker and swimmer, but although 
his habits were still active Lambert weighed 
thirty-two stone in 1793. He only drank 
water, and slept less than eight hours a day. 
In 1805 he resigned his post at the prison on 
an annuity of 50/., and in the following year 
began to turn to profit the fame for corpulence 
which had hitherto brought him merely an* 
noyance. He had a special carriage con- 
structed, went to London, and in April 1806 
commenced 'receiving company' from twelve 
to five at No. 53 Piccadilly, ureat curiosity 
was excited, and many descriptions of Lam- 
bert were "published. ' When sitting ' (ac- 
cording to one account) ' he appears to be a 
stupendous mass of flesh, for his thighs are 
so covered by his belly that nothing but his 
knees are to be seen, while the flesh of his 
legs, which resemble pillows, projects in such 
a manner as to nearly bury his feet.' Lam- 
bert's limbs,however, were well proportioned ; 
his face was ' manly and intelligent/ and he 
was ready in repartee. He revisited London 
in 1807, when he exhibited at 4 Leicester 
Square, and then made a series of visits in 
theprovinees. He was at Cambridge in June 
1809, and went thence by Huntingdon to 
Stamford, where, according to the local paper, 
he * attained the acme of mortal hugeness.' 
He died there at the Waggon and Horses 
inn on 21 July 1809. His coffin, which con- 
tained 112 superficial feet of elm, was built 
upon two axle-trees and four wheels, upon 
wnich his body was rolled down a gradual 
incline from the inn to the burial-ground of 
St. Martin's, Stamford Baron (for Lambert's 
epitaph see Notes and Queries, 4th ser. xi. 
855). 

Lambert's sudden death was owing doubt- 



Lambert 



8 



Lambert 



less to fatty degeneration of the heart. At 
that time he was five feet eleven inches in 
height, and weighed 739 lbs., or 52} stone. 
He thus greatly exceeded in size the two 
men who had hitherto been most famons for 
their corpulence, John Love, the Weymouth 
bookseller, who died in October 1793, weigh- 
ing 26 stone 4 lbs., and Edward Bright of 
Maiden, who died 10 Nov. 1760, weighing 
44 stone. Since his death he has become a 
synonym for hugeness. Mr. George Meredith, 
in 'One of our Conquerors/ describes London 
as the ' Daniel Lamoert of cities/ Mr. Herbert 
Spencer, in his * Study of Sociology,' speaks 
of a * Daniel Lambert of learning, and Mr. 
Donisthorpe, in his ' Individualism/ of a 
' Daniel Lambert view of the salus popuhV 

A suit of Lambert's clothes is preserved 
at Stamford, and in the King's Lynn Museum 
is a waistcoat of his with a girth of 102 
inches. There are several portraits of Lam- 
bert ; the best is a large mezzotint in Lysons's 
1 Collectanea' in the British Museum Library, 
where are also a number of coloured prints, 
bills, and newspaper-cuttings relating to him. 
Lambert's portrait also figures on a large 
number of tavern signs in London and the 
eastern midlands. 

[The Book of Wonderful Characters ; Kirby's 
"Wonderful Museum,, ii. 408 ; Smeeton's Biogra- 
phia Curiosa; Granger's New Wonderful Mu- 
seum; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. viii. 346; 
Eccentric Mag. ii. 241-8; Miss Bankes's Col- 
lection of Broadsides, Brit. Mus. ; Morning Post, 
5 Sept. 1812.] T. S. 

LAMBERT, GEORGE (1710-1765), 
landscape- and scene-painter, a native of 
Kent, was born in 1710. He studied under 
"Warner Hassells [q. v.] and John Wootton 
[q. v.], and soon attracted attention by his 
power of landscape-painting. He painted 
many large and fine landscapes in the manner 
of Gaspar Poussin, and it is stated that Lam- 
bert's paintings have since been frequently 
sold as the work of Poussin. At other times 
he imitated the style of Salvator Rosa. Many 
of his landscapes were finely engraved by 
F. Vivares, J. Mason, and others, including 
a set of views of Plymouth and Mount 
Edgcumbe (painted conjointly with Samuel 
Scott), a view of Saltwood Castle in Kent, 
another of Dover, and a landscape presented 
by Lambert to the Foundling Hospital, Lon- 
don. Lambert also obtained a great reputa- 
tion as a scene-painter, working at first for the 
Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre under John Rich 

v.] When Rich removed to Co vent Garden 

Leatre, Lambert secured the assistance of 
Amiconi, and together they produced scenery 
of far higher quality than any previously 
executed. Lambert was a man of jovial 



& 



temperament and shrewd wit, and frequently 
spent his evenings at work in his painting- 
loft at Covent Garden Theatre, to which 
men of note in the fashionable or theatrical 
world resorted to share his supper of a beef- 
steak, freshly cooked on the spot. Out of 
these meetings arose the well-known ' Beef- 
steak Club,' which long maintained a high 
social reputation. Most of Lambert's scene- 
paintings unfortunately perished when Covent 
Garden Theatre was destroyed by fire in 
1808. Lambert was a friend of Hogarth, 
and a member of the jovial society that met 
at « Old Slaughter's ' Tavern in St. Martin's 
Lane. In 1755 he was one of the committee 
of artists who projected a royal academy of 
arts in London. He was a member of the- 
Society of Artists of Great Britain, exhibited 
with them in 1761 and the three following' 
years, and during the same period contributed 
to the Academy exhibitions. In 1765 he and 
other members seceded and formed the Incor- 
porated Society of Artists of Great Britain, 
of which he was elected the first president. 
He died, however, on 30 Nov. 1765, before 
its constitution had been completed. 

In conjunction with Samuel Scott, Lam- 
bert painted a series of Indian views for the 
old East India House in Leadenhall Street. 
He also etched two prints after Salvator 
Rosa. Lambert was associated in 1735 with 
G. Vertue, Hogarth, and Pine in obtaining 
a bill from parliament securing to artists a 
copyright in their works. Lambert's por- 
trait by Thomas Hudson is in the rooms 
occupied by the Beefsteak Club; another by 
John Vanderbank was engraved in mezzotint 
by John Faber the younger in 1727, and in 
line by H. Robinson and others. Another 
portrait of Lambert by Hogarth was in the 
possession of Samuel Ireland [q. v.] in 1782. 

[Edwards's Anecdotes of Painters; Walpole's- 
Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wornum ; Red- 
grave's Diet, of Artists ; Arnold's Library of the 
Fine Arts, i. 323 ; Pye's Patronage of British 
Art ; Austin Dobson's William Hogarth ; Dodd's 
manuscript History of English Engravers (Brit. 
Mus. Addit MS. 33402).] L. C. 

LAMBERT, GEORGE JACKSON 
(1794-1880), organist and composer, son of 
George Lambert, organist of Beverley Min- 
ster, was born at Beverley, 16 Nov. 1794. He 
had his first lessons from his father ; after- 
wards he studied in London under Samuel 
T. Lyon and Dr. Crotch. In 1818 he suc- 
ceeded his father as organist at Beverley, and 
held the post until 18/5, when ill health and 
deafness compelled him to retire. He died at 
Beverley 24 Jan. 1880, and was interred in 
the private burial-ground in North-Bar Street 
Within. His wife and two sons predeceased 



Lambert 



Lambert 



him. His father, who died 15 July 1818, was 
organist forty-one years, according to the 
epitaph on his tombstone in the graveyard, 
so that the office of organist at Beverley was 
held by father and son for the almost unpre- 
cedented period of ninety-eight years. The 
younger Lambert was not only an excellent 
organist, but a fine violoncello and violin 
player. His published compositions include 
overtures, instrumental chamber music, organ 
fugues, pianoforte pieces, &c. Some quartets 
and a septet were played at the meetings of 
the Society of British Musicians; but, al- 
though they were warmly praised by good 
judges, he could never be induced to publish 
any of them. 

[Musical Times, 1880, p. 133; Grove's Diet. 
Mus. ii. 86, iv. 696 ; Beverley Guardian, 31 Jan. 
1880.] J. C.H. 

LAMBERT, HENRY (d. 1813), naval 
captain, younger son of Captain Robert Lam- 
bert (d. 1810), entered the navy in 1795 on 
board the Cumberland in the Mediterranean, 
and in her was present in the action off Tou- 
lon, 18 July 1795, when the Alcide struck to 
the Cumberland. He afterwards served in 
the Virginie and Suffolk on the East India 
station, and having passed his examination on 
15 April 1801 was promoted the same day 
to be lieutenant of tne Suffolk, from which 
he was moved in October to the Victorious, 
and in October 1802 to the Centurion. Con- 
tinuing on the East India station, he was 
promoted, 24 March 1803, to be commander 
of the Wilhelmina, and on 9 Dec. 1804 to 
be captain of the San Fiorenzo, in which he 
was confirmed with seniority 10 April 1805. 
In June 1806 he returned to England ; and 
in May 1808 was appointed to the Iphigenia, 
which he took out, in the first instance to 
Quebec, and afterwards to India. In 1810 
the Iphigenia was employed in the blockade 
of Mauritius ; and was one of the squadron 
under Captain Samuel Pym [q. v. ; see also 
Willoughby, Sik Nisbbt Josiah] in the 
disastrous attack on the French squadron in 
Grand Port on 22 Aug. and subsequent days, 
resulting in the loss or destruction of three 
out of tne four frigates. On the afternoon 
of the 27th, the fourth, the Iphigenia, with 
the men of two of the others on board, and 
with little or no ammunition remaining, was 
attempting to warp out of the bay, against 
a contrary wind, when three other French 
frigates appeared off the entrance. Disabled 
and unarmed as she was, and crowded with 
men, resistance was impossible; and after 
twenty-four hours' negotiation Lambert sur- 
rendered, on an agreement that he, the officers 
and crew should be sent on parole to the 
Cape of Good Hope or to England within 



a month (Jambs, v. 167 ; Chbvalibb, -ffw- 
t&ire de la Marine franqaise, iii. 878-9). 
Notwithstanding this capitulation, which 
does not seem to have been reduced to writ- 
ing, the prisoners were detained in Mauritius, 
and were released onlv when the island was 
captured by the English on 8 Dec., and the 
Iphigenia, which had been taken into the 
French service [see Corbet, Robebt], was 
recovered. Lambert was then tried by court- 
martial for the loss of his ship, and was 
honourably acquitted. 

In August 1812 he commissioned the Java, 
a fine 3§-gun frigate, formerly the French 
Renommee, captured off Tamataveon 21 May 
1811. She was, however, very indifferently 
manned ; and being crowded with passengers 
and lumbered up with stores, her men were 
still absolutely untrained when, on the voy- 
age out to the East Indies, she fell in with 
the United States frigate Constitution, off 
the coast of Brazil, on 29 Dec., and was 
brought to action. Labouring under almost 
every possible disadvantage, the ship was 
gallantly fought. After about an hour Lam- 
bert fell mortally wounded by a musket-shot 
in the breast, and the defence was continued 
by Chads, the first lieutenant, till the Java, 
in a sinking condition, was forced to haul 
down her colours [see Chads, Sik Henry 
Ducib]. On the second day she was cleared 
out and set on fire. On 3 Jan. 1818 the Con- 
stitution anchored at San Salvador, where 
the prisoners were landed, and where, on the 
4th, Lambert died. On the 5th he was buried 
with military honours, rendered by the Por- 
tuguese governor, the American commodore 
and officers taking, it is said^ no part in the 
ceremony (Jambs, v. 421). 

[Commission lists in the Public Record Office ; 
Roosevelt's Naval War of 1812; James's Naval 
History, edit. I860.] J. K. L. 

LAMBERT, JAMES (1726-1788), mu- 
sician and painter, was born of very humble 
parents at Jevington in Sussex in 1725, and 
received little education. He early showed 
a talent for art by roughly drawing sketches 
of animals, landscapes, &c, with such poor 
materials as he could obtain at Jevington ; 
but when quite voung he settled at Lewes 
in order to practise as a painter. At Lewes 
he was known as a ' herald painter,' and 
painted many inn signs. Lambert is pro- 
bably best known by a series of several 
hundred water-colour drawings, which he 
executed for Sir William Burrell, in illus- 
tration of the antiquities of Sussex. Some 
of these sketches are in the British Museum. 
Other drawings by Lambert are to be found 
in Watson's * History of the Earls of Warren ' 



Lambert 



IO 



Lambert 



and in Horstield's works. Seven of his 
pictures appeared at the Royal Academy, 
and he exnibited frequently at the Society 
of Artists and elsewhere from 1761 until the 
year of his death. Lambert excelled as a 
draughtsman, but his work suffered from un- 
pleasing mannerisms. His colour is said to 
have been excellent, but his extant paintings 
have lost much of their brilliancy, probably 
from long exposure to very strong lights. 

Lambert was for many years organist of 
the church of St. Thomas-at-Cliffe, Lewes. 
Dunvan, in his * History of Lewes/ p. 324, 
says that Lambert was a better painter than 
musician, though excellent in both arts. As 
a musician he was comparatively little known. 
He died at Lewes on 7 Dec. 1788, aged 63, 
and was buried in the churchyard of St. 
John's, near that town. The Society of Arts 
and Sciences accepted a presentation picture 
of a landscape by Lambert about 1770. 

[Lower's Worthies of Sussex, 1865, p. 39; 
Dunvan's Hist, of Lewes, p. 324 ; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, p. 138.] R. H. L. 

LAMBERT, JAMES (1741 -1823), Greek 
professor at Cambridge, was born on 7 March 
1741, the son of Thomas Lambert, vicar of 
Thorp, near Harwich, and afterwards rector 
of Melton, Suffolk. His father was a member 
of Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A. 1723), 
and the son, after being educated at the 
grammar school of Woodoridge, was entered 
of Trinity College on 23 April 1760. He 
graduated B.A. as tenth wrangler and senior 
medallist in 1764, and proceeded M.A. in 
1767, having obtained a fellowship in 1765. 
For a short time he served the curacy of Al- 
derton and Bawdrey near Woodbridge. He 
was assistant tutor of Trinity College for 
some years, and on 7 March 1771 was elected 
regius professor of Greek, after delivering a 
prelection ' De Euripide aliisque qui Phflo- 
sophiam Socraticam scriptis suis illustravisse 
videntur.' There was no other candidate. In 
1773, through Mr. Carthew of Woodbridge, 
Porson was sent to him at Cambridge to De 
tested as to his fitness to receive the education 
which Mr. Norris was proposing to give him; 
and it was through Lambert's means that he 
was examined by the Trinity tutors, and was 
in consequence sent to Eton (Porson, Cor- 
respondence, pp. 126-32). Lambert gave up 
his assistant tutorship in 1775, and for some 
years superintended the education of Sir John 
Fleming Leicester [q. v.l returning to college 
with his pupil in 1782. He resigned the Greek 
professorship on 24 June 1780. He was a 
strong supporter of Mr. Jebb of Peterhouse in 
his proposal for annual examinations at Cam- 
bridge, and was a member of the syndicate 



appointed in 1774 to consider schemes for 
this and other improvements in the univer- 
sity course of education ; their proposals, how- 
ever, were all thrown out by narrow majori- 
ties in the senate. In 1789 he was appointed 
bursar of his college, and held the office for 
ten years ; a road near Cambridge, connecting 
the Tnunpington and Hill's roads, is still 
known by the name of the ' Via Lambertina.' 
He latterly adopted Arian opinions, and 
never accepted any preferment in the church, 
but he kept his fellowship till his death* 
This occurred on 8 April 1823 at Fersfield, 
Norfolk, where he is buried. His portrait is 
in the smaller combination room at Trinity 
College. 

[Documents in the Cambridge University Re- 
gistry; Gentleman's Magazine for July 1823, 
p. 84; Porson's Correspondence (Camb. Antiq. 
Soc), pp. 126-32; Jebb's Remarks upon the 
present mode of education in the University of 
Cambridge, 1774, p. 52.] H. R. L. 

LAMBERT, JOHN (d. 1538), martyr, 
whose real name was Nicholbon, was born at 
Norwich and educated at Cambridge, where 
in 1521, at the request of Queen Catherine, 
he was admitted fellow of Queens' College, 
being then B. A. Bilney and Arthur are said 
to have converted him soon afterwards to 
protestantism. He was ordained priest and 
lived for some time, according to Bale, at 
Norwich, where he suffered some persecution, 
probably for reading prohibited oooks. He 
round it convenient to take the name of 
Lambert, and passed over to Antwerp, be- 
coming chaplain to the English factory, and 
a friend of Tindal and Frith. One John 
Nicholson was examined on a charge of heresy 
before convocation 27 March 1631 and fol- 
lowing days (Letters and Papers, Henry VI1I 9 
v. 928) ; but it is stated that Sir Thomas More 
caused Lambert to be brought to London 
about 1532 to answer an accusation made 
against him by one Barlow. Lambert seems to 
have been asked bv the king's printer whether 
he was responsible for the translation of the 
articles of Geneva ; and although he denied 
the charge was imprisoned in the counter. 
Thence he was taken to the manor of Ottford 
and afterwards to Lambeth, where he was 
examined by Warham on forty-five articles. 
To each of these he gave a separate answer, 
showing considerable learning. The articles 
and the answers are printed by Foxe. He 
obtained his discharge on the death of the 
archbishop (25 Aug. 1532), and for some time 
taught children Latin and Greek near the 
Stocks Market in London. He resigned his 
priesthood, contemplated matrimony, and 
seems to have entered the Grocers 1 Company. 
About March 1536, on the accusation of tne 



Lambert 



ti 



Lambert 



Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of Essex, and the 
Countess of Oxford, he was summoned before 
Cranmer, Shaxton, and Latimer on a charge 
of saying that it was sinful to pray to saints. 
Latimer on this occasion was ' very extreme ' 
against him (Latimeb, Works, Parker Soc., 
vol. i. pp. xvii, xxxii), but he was very quickly 
discharged. In 1538 Lambert heard a sermon 
by Dr. Taylor, afterwards bishop of Lincoln, 
at St. Peter's, Cornhill, and, disagreeing with 
the doctrine put forth, had some discussion 
on transubstantiation with the preacher, who 
by the advice of Barnes carried the matter 
before the archbishop. Lambert appealed from 
the archbishop's court to the king, who re- 
solved to hear the case in person. The matter 
excited the more attention as Lambert was 
branded as a ' sacramentary,' and the king 
desired to disavow any connection with the 
foreign drift of opinion on the subject. Ac- 
cordingly Lambert was examined on 16 Nov. 
1538 in Westminster Hall before the peers. 
The unfortunate man disputed for five hours 
with ten bishops and the king, and at last, 
being tired out with standing and conse- 
quently saying little, was condemned to death 
by Cromwell for denying" the real presence. 
He suffered a few days Liter at Smithfield, 
having first breakfasted at Cromwell's house. 
The legend that Cromwell asked his forgive- 
ness is probably unauthentic, but Cranmer 
afterwards acknowledged, in his examination 
before Brookes, that when he condemned 
Lambert he maintained the Roman doctrine. 
While in prison at Lambeth before his trial 
Lambert was helped by one Collins, a crazy 
man who was afterwards burnt, and at this 
time he is said to have written ' A Treatyse 
made by Johan Lambert vnto Kynge Henry 
the VIII concerning hys onynyon in the 
sacramet of the aultre as they call it, or 
Supper of the Lorde as the Scripture nameth 
it. Anno do. 1538/ Bale printed the work 
at Marburg about 1547. Lambert is also 
credited with various translations of the 
works of Erasmus into English. 

[Fronde's Hist, of Engl. iii. 152, &c; Strype's 
Cranmer, pp. 92, 93, 664; Foxe's Acts and 
Mon. v. 181 ; Cooper's Athense Cantabr. i. 67 
(▼here he is called Nichols); Wright's Three 
Chapters of Suppr. Letters (Camden Soc.), pp. 36, 
87, 38; Tyndale's Works, Answer to More's Dia- 
logue, p. 187, Oranmer's Works, ii. 218, Bale's 
8elect Works, p. 394, Zurich Letters, 3rd ser. 
p. 201, all in the Parker Society; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit.] W. A. J. A. 

LAMBERT, JOHN (1619-1683), soldier, 
was baptised on 7 Nov. 1619 at Calton, near 
Malham Tarn, in Yorkshire, where his father 
resided (Whitakeb, History of Craven, ed. 
Morant, p. 258). According to Whitelocke 



he studied law in one of the inns of court, 
but his name does not appear in any printed 
admission-lists (Memorial, ed. 1863, ii. 168). 
On 10 Sept. 1639 he married Frances, daugh- 
ter of Sir William Lister, knight, of Thornton 
in Craven, Yorkshire (pedigree of Lambert 
of Calton, Whitakbb. p. 266}. When the 
civil war began, Lambert took up arms for 
the parliament in the army under the com-' 
mand of Lord Fairfax. Colonel Lambert is 
said to have ' carried himself very bravely' 
in the sally from Hull on 11 Oct. 1643, and 
he is praised by Sir Thomas Fairfax for his 
services with the parliamentary horse at the 
battle of Nantwich on 25 Jan. 1644. In 
March 1644 Lambert and his regiment were 
I quartered at Bradford. On 5 March he beat 
i up the royalists* quarters, and took two hun- 
dred prisoners. A few days later he repulsed 
the attempt of Colonel John BeUasis, the 
king's governor of York, to recapture Brad- 
ford (Rxtshwobth, v. 803,617; Vicabs, QooVs 
Ark, op. 40, 168, 199 ; Fairfax Correspond- 
j ence, in. 94; Diary of Sir Henry Slingsby, ed. 
, Parsons, p. 103). At the battle of Marston 
i Moor Lambert's regiment was part of the 
cavalry of the right wing which was routed by 
: Goring, but Lambert himself , with Sir Thomas 
I Fairfax and five or six troops, cut their way 
l through the enemy, and joined the victorious 
1 left wmg under Cromwell (Vicars, God s Ark, 
\ p. 274; A full Relation of the late Victory . . . 
i on Marston Moor, sent by Captain Stewart, 
■ 1644, p. 7). When parliament sent for Fair- 
\ fax to command the new model army, Lam- 
bert, then commissary-general of Fairfax's 
, army, was ordered to take charge of the forces 
i in the north during his absence (Commons 9 
j Journals, iv. 27 ; "Whitelocke, i. 369). But 
I this appointment was only temporary, as 
! Colonel Poyntz was ultimately made com- 
mander of the northern army. In March 
I 1646, when Langdale raised the siege of Pon- 
tefract, Lambert was wounded in attempt- 
ing to cover the siege (ib. p. 403). As the 
war in Yorkshire was ended he sought em- 
ployment in the new model, and succeeded 
m January 1646 to the command of the foot 
regiment which had been Colonel Montagu's. 
He was one of the negotiators of the treaty 
of Truro (14 March 1646), and of the capitu- 
lations of Exeter and Oxford (Sprigge, Anglia 
Bediviva, ed. 1864, pp. 236, 244, 268). ft is 
evident that he was from the first regarded 
as an officer of exceptional capacity, and spe- 
cially selected for semi-political employments. 
The dispute between the army and the 
parliament in 1647 brought Lambert into 
still greater prominence. In the meetings 
between the officers and parliamentary com- 
missioners during April and May 1647 he 



Lambert 



12 



Lambert 



acted as spokesman of the discontented offi- 
cers, and was entrusted by them with the 
task of digesting the particular complaints 
of each regiment into a general summary of 
the army's grievances {Vindication of Sir 
William Waller, pp. 83, 116 ; Clarke Papers, 
1 36, 43, 82) . Having « a subtle and working 
brain,' as well as a legal education, he assisted 
Ireton in drawing up the ' Heads of the Pro- 
posals of Army ' (ib. pp. 197 , 2 12, 21 7 ; Whitb- 
lockb, ii. 163). In July 1647 the soldiers 
of the northern army threw in their lot with 
the soldiers of the new model, seized General 
Poyntz, and sent him a prisoner to Fairfax. 
Lambert was despatched to replace Poyntz 
and restore order. He took over the com- 
mand at a general rendezvous on Peckfield 
Moor on 8 Aug< 1647, and made a speech to 
his troops, in which he engaged himself to 
command nothing but what should be for 
the good of the kingdom, and desired them 
to signify their acceptance of himself as their 
general. In a few weeks he disbanded the 
supernumerary soldiers, reduced the insub- 
ordinate to obedience, and succeeded in esta- 
blishing a good understanding between the 
soldiers and the country people. The news- 
papers praised his * fairness, civility, and 
moderation/ and his endeavours to reconcile 
quarrels and differences of all kinds. 'A 
man so completely composed for such an em- 
ployment could not have been pitched upon 
besides' (Rijshwobth, vii. 777, 808, 824, 
832). 

In May 1648 the northern royalists took 
up arms again, and at the beginning of July 
the Scottish army under Hamilton invaded 
England. Against the former Lambert more 
than held his own, driving Sir Marmaduke 
Langdale, with the bulk of his forces, into 
Carlisle, and recapturing Appleby and four 
other castles (ib. vii. 1148, 1167, 1185). But 
the advance of Hamilton, which was preceded 
by the surprise of Pontefract (1 June), and 
followed by the defection of Scarborough 
(28 July), obliged Lambert to fall back. In 
a letter to which Lambert naturally returned 
a somewhat sharp answer Hamilton sum- 
moned him not to oppose the Scots in their 
1 pious, loyal, and necessary undertaking' (jb. 
pp. 1189, 1194). Lambert retreated on Bowes 
and Barnard Castle, hoping to be able to hold 
the Stainmore pass against Hamilton, but 
was obliged in August to retire first to Rich- 
mond and then to ifnaresborough (ib. pp. 1 200, 
1211 ; Gardiner, Great Civil War, lii. 416, 
484). Cromwelljoined him on 13 Aug., and the 
two fell on the Scots at Preston and routed 
them in a three days' battle (17-19 Aug.) 
Lambert was charged with the pursuit of 
Hamilton, who surrendered at Uttozeter on 



25 Aug. (ib. p. 447). On Hamilton's trial in 
1649 it was disputed whether he had sur- 
rendered to Lambert or been captured by 
Lord Gray, but the evidence leaves no doubt 
that Gray seized him after the signature of 
the articles with Lambert's officers (BuRirar, 
Lives of the Hamiltons, ed. 1862, pp. 461, 
491). In October Cromwell sent Lambert 
to Edinburgh, in advance of the rest of the 
army, with seven regiments of horse, to sup- 
port the Argyll party in establishing a govern- 
ment, and left him there with a couple of 
regiments to protect them against the Hamil- 
tonians (Carlylb, Cromwell, Letters lxxv. 
lxxvii.) At the end of November Lambert 
returned to Yorkshire to besiege Pontefract, 
which surrendered on 22 March 1649. On 
the earnest recommendation of Fairfax par- 
liament rewarded Lambert's services by a 
grant of lands worth 300/. per annum from 
the demesnes of Pontefract (Commons' Jour- 
nals, vi. 174, 406 ; Tanner MSS. Bodleian 
Library, lvi. f, 1}. Though Lambert's mili- 
tary duties kept dim at a distance during the 
king's trial, there can be little doubt that he 
approved of it (Rushworth, vii. 1367). 

When Cromwell marched into Scotland in 
July 1650, Lambert accompanied him with 
the rank of major-general and as second in 
command. Cromwell gave him the command 
of the foot regiment, lately Colonel Bright's 
(Memoirs of Captain John Hodgson, p. 41). 
In the fight at Musselburgh on 29 July 
Lambert was twice wounded and was taken 
prisoner, but was rescued almost immediately 
[ib. p. 39; Carlylb, Letter cxxxv.) At Dun- 
bar ne headed the attack on the Scots in person, 
and was, according to one account, the man 
whose advice decided the council of war to 
give battle, and author of the tactics which 
led to the victory (ib. Letter cxl. ; Hodgson, 
p. 43). On 1 Dec. Colonel Ker attacked Lam- 
bert's quarters at Hamilton, near Glasgow, 
but was taken prisoner, and his forces com- 
pletely scattered (Carlyle, Letter cliii.) On 
20 July in the followingyear Lambert defeated 
Sir John Browne at Inverkeithing in Fife, 
taking forty or fifty colours and fifteen hun- 
dred prisoners (ib. Letter clxxv. ; Mercurius 
PoliUcus, 24-31 July, contains Lambert's 
despatch). When Charles II started on his 
march into England, Lambert and the cavalry 
of Cromwell's army were sent ahead to ' trouble 
the enemy in the rear,' and if possible to join 
Harrison in stopping their advance (Cart, 
Memorials of the Civil War, ii. 295). At War- 
rington Lambert and Harrison succeeded in 
checking the Scots for a few hours, but they 
were not strong enough in foot to venture 
a regular engagement (Mercurius PoliUcus, 
14-21 Aug.) On 28 Aug. Lambert captured 



Lambert 



13 



Lambert 



Upton Bridge, seven miles from Worcester, 
securing thereby the passage of the Severn, 
and in the crowning victory of 3 Sept. he 
had his horse shot under him (Cromwelliana, 
pp. Ill, 115). 'The carriage of the major- 
general,' Cromwell had written to the speaker 
after the battle of Inverkeithing, ' as in all 
other things so in this, is worthy of your 
taking notice of* (Cablyle, Letter clxxxv.) 
Parliament at last took the hint, and on 
9 Sept. 1651 voted Lambert lands in Scot- 
land to the value of 1,000/. a year (Commons' 
Journals, vii. 14). 

After Worcester, Lambert returned to 
Scotland, but only for a short time. On 
28 Oct. 1651 parliament appointed him one 
of the eight commissioners to be sent thither 
4 for the managing of the civil government 
and settlement of affairs there/ in reality to 
prepare the wav for the union of the two 
Kingdoms (ib. vii. 20, 30). Lambert's wife 
hadjoined him in Scotland in the summer of 
1651 (Letters of Roundhead Officers from Scot- 
land, Bannatyne Club, pp. 31, 36). But the 
death of Ireton (26 Nov. 1651) rendered it 
necessary to appoint a new lord deputy of 
Ireland. On 30 Jan. 1652 parliament decided 
to appoint Lambert, at. the recommendation 
of the council of state, and required Crom- 
well, the lord-lieutenant, to commission Lam- 
bert as his deputy (Commons 1 Journals, vii. 
77, 79). Lambert came to London and made 
great preparations, ' laying out five thousand 
pounds for his own particular equipage' 
(Memoirs of Colonel Mutchinson, h. 188). 
But on 19 May 1652 parliament, which had 
1 him for only six months, abolished 



the lord-lieutenancy, and the post of deputy 
necessarily ceased with it. Lambert might 
have been reappointed as commander-in- 
chief of the forces and one of the commis- 
sioners for the civil government of Ireland, 
but he refused to accept the diminished 
dignity, and Fleetwood was appointed in his 
place (Commons 1 Journals, vii. 142, 152). 
Mrs. Hutchinson attributes this slight to the 
offence which Lambert gave the parliament 
by l too soon putting on the prince/ and to 
a deep-laid plot of Cromwell to get Fleet- 
wood the place (Hittchinsoit, ii. 189). Lud- 
low regards it as concerted by Cromwell in 
order to create ill-feeling between Lambert 
and the parliament, and make him willing 
to assist in its overthrow (Memoirs, ed. 1698, 
pp. 412-14). Cromwell certainly thought 
Lambert hardly treated, and requested that 
2,000/. out of the arrears of salary due to 
himself as lord-lieutenant should be paid to 
Lambert (Cal State Papers, Dom. 1651-2, 
p. 623). Lambert afterwards persuaded him- 
self that Cromwell had really planned it all, 



and asserted that Cromwell exasperated him 
against the parliament, saying that 'not 
anything troubled him more than to see 
honest John Lambert so ungratefully treated ' 
(Thurloe State Papers, vii. 660). There is 
no doubt that Lambert began to press for 
the dissolution of the parliament and urged 
Cromwell to effect it (Lttdlow, p. 459). On 
the afternoon of 20 April 1653 he was with 
Cromwell when the latter visited the council 
of state and put a stop to their sittings. He 
was the first president of the new council ap- 
pointed by the officers of the army (ib. p. 461 ; 
Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1652-3, p. 301). 

In the discussions which now took place 
on the future form of government Lambert's 
political views became more clearly revealed. 
While Harrison moved that the supreme 
power should be entrusted to a council of 
seventy, Lambert wished to give it to ten or 
twelve persons. The conclusion was its de- 
volution to 139 puritan notables composing 
the ' little parliament,' who immediately in- 
vited Lambert to take his seat among 
them (6 July 1653 ; Commons 1 Journals, vii. 
281; Ludlow, p. 462). He was chosen a 
member of the first council of state which 
they appointed (9 July), but not of the se- 
cond (1 Nov.) When the ' little parliament ' 
surrendered its powers back to Cromwell, 
Lambert was the leading spirit in the council 
of officers who now drew up the instrument 
of government and offered the post of pro- 
tector to Cromwell. He and a few of the 
leaders had prepared the draft of a constitu- 
tion beforehand, cut short all discussion, and 
imposed it on the council at large (Lttdlow, 
p. 476 ; The Protector Unveiled, 1655, 4to, 
p. 12 ; Thubloe, i. 610, 754). Lambert be- 
came a member of the Protector's council of 
state, and it was reported that he would be 
general of the three nations, and was to be 
made a duke (ib. i. 642, 645). 

Observers supposed that Lambert had pro- 
cured the dissolution of the * little parliament ' 
in order to get rid of his rival Harrison, and 
that he supported Cromwell's elevation be- 
cause he hoped to succeed to his power. ' His 
interest/ said a newsletter in April 1658, 
'was more universal than Harrison's both in 
the army and country ; he is a gentleman 
born, learned, well qualified, of courage, con- 
duct, good nature, and discretion' (Cal. Cla- 
rendon Pavers, ii. 206). * This which Lam- 
bert aimea at he hath effected/ says a letter 
written in December following. ' The general 
will be governor and must stay here. He 
will gain the command of the army, and it 
cannot be avoided. Harrison is now out of 
doors, having all along joined with the ana- 
baptists ' (Thukloe, i. 632). 



Lambert 



14 



Lambert 



Up to the summer of 1657 Lambert re- 
mained the strongest supporter of the Pro- 
tector. In October 1664, when the l instru- 
ment of government was under discussion, he 
made a long speech to persuade the parlia- 
ment that it was necessary to make the pro- 
tectorship hereditary, but some believed he 
did so merely to remove all jealousy of his 
own aiming, knowing it would be rejected 
for the other' (ib. ii. 681-6; Cal. Clarendon 
Papers, ii. 438). "When the major-generals 
were appointed he was entrusted with the 
care of tne five northern counties, but acted 
through deputies, Colonels Charles Howard 
and Robert Lilburne (Cal, State Papers, 
Dom. 1666, p. 387). He was undoubtedly 
one of the chief instigators of their establish- 
ment, and in the parliament of 1666 no one 
was more eager for their continuance. ' I 
wish/ he said, * any man could propound an 
expedient to be secure against your common 
enemies by another way than as the militia 
is settled. The quarrel is now between light 
and darkness, not who shall rule, but whether 
we shall live or be preserved or no. Good 
words will not do with the cavaliers ' (Burton, 
Cromwellian Diary, ii. 240,319; Cal. Claren- 
don Papers, iii. 239; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1656, p. 296). On questions of public policy 
his views were much the same as the Pro- 
tector's. He advocated the war with Spain, 
and was anxious to keep the Sound from falling 
into the possession of the Dutch or Danes or 
of any single power (Burton, iii. 400). He 
was in favour of liberty of conscience, spoke 
on behalf of James Nayler, and approved the 
Protector's intervention on his behalf (ib. i. 33, 
218 ; Hobbes, Behemoth, p. 187, ed. Tonnies). 
Like Cromwell, he firmly believed in the ne- 
cessity of limiting the power of parliament by 
constitutional restrictions (Burton, i. 256, 
281). In dealing with republicans who refused 
to own the legitimacy of Cromwell's govern- 
ment no one of the Protector's council was less 
conciliatory (Ludlow, pp. 565, 573). At the 
same time Lambert seemed to outsiders to be 
independent of the Protector and almost equal 
in power. He was 'the army's darling.' As 
fast as recalcitrant officers were cashiered 
he filled their places with his supporters. He 
was major-general of the army,' colonel of two 
regiments, a member of the council, and a 
lord of the Cinque ports, enjoying from these 
offices an income 01 6,500/. a year (* A Nar- 
rative of the Late Parliament,' Harleian 
Miscellany, ed. Park, iii. 462 ; Cal. Claren- 
don Papers, ii. 880). ' It lies in his power,' 
wrote a royalist, * to raise Oliver higher or 
else to set up in his place. One of the council's 
opinion being asked what he thought Lam- 
bert did intend, his answer was that Lambert 



would let this man continue protector, but 
that he would rule him as he pleased' (Caste, 
Original Letters, ii. 89). 

The question of kingship caused an open 
breach oetween Lambert and Cromwell. 
Cromwell plainly asserted that the title of 
king had been originally offered to him in 
the first draft of the instrument of govern- 
ment, and hinted that Lambert was respon- 
sible for the offer (Bubton, i. 382 ; Godwin, 
History of the Commonwealth, iv. 9). But 
now, at all events, Lambert steadfastly op- 
posed it, and people believed he would raise 
a mutiny in the army rather than consent to 
it. In the end Thurloe, who at first shared 
these suspicions, announced to Henry Crom- 
well that Lambert * stood at a distance ' and 
allowed things to take their course, leaving 
Fleetwood and Desborough to lead the oppo- 
sition. But he joined with them in telling 
the Protector that if the title were accepted 
all three would resign (Thurloe, vi. 75,93, 
219, 281 ; Clarendon State Papers, iii. 326, 
333). Cromwell's refusal of the dignity did 
not put an end to Lambert's discontent. On 
24 June 1657 parliament determined to im- 
pose an oath on all councillors and other 
officials (Commons 1 Journals, vii. 572). Lam- 
bert strenuously opposed the oath in parlia- 
ment, refused to take it when it was passed, 
and absented himself from the meetings of 
the council (Burton, ii. 276, 295 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1657-8, pp. 13, 40). Finally 
Cromwell demanded the surrender of his 
commissions (23 July 1657; Thurloe, vi. 
412, 425, 427 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. 
p. 247). 

For the rest of the protectorate Lambert 
lived in retirement at his house at Wimble- 
don, which he had purchased when the 
queen's lands were sold. His regiment of 
loot was given to Fleetwood, his regiment of 
horse to Lord Falconbridge. To soften the 
blow, or ' to keep him from any desperate 
undertaking,' Cromwell allowed him a pen- 
sion of 2,000/. a year (Ludlow, p. 594). 
About six months Defore he died Cromwell 
sought a reconcilation with his old friend. 
When Lambert came to Whitehall ' Cromwell 
fell on his neck, kissed him, inquired of dear 
Johnny for his jewel (so he calls Mrs. Lam- 
bert) and for all his children by name. The 
day following she visited Cromwell's wife, 
who fell immediately into a kind quarrel for 
her long absence, disclaimed policy or state- 
craft, but professed a motherly kindness to 
her and hers, which no change should ever 
alter' (Clarendon State Papers, iii. 829). 
But the breach was too wide to be closed. 
Royalist agents tried to use it to win Lam- 
bert to their cause, but without success. * I 



Lambert 



*5 



Lambert 



wish Lambert were dead/ writes one of these 
agents the day after Cromwell's death, ' for 
I find the army much devoted to him, but I 
cannot perceive that he is in any way to be 
reconciled to the king, so that 'tis no small 
danger that his reputation with the army may 
thrust Dick Cromwell out of the saddle and 
yet not help the king into it ' (ib. iii. 408). 
Kichard Cromwell's advisers were very sen- 
sible of the danger. They sought to con- 
ciliate Lambert, sent him mourning for the 
late Protector's funeral, and received m return 
assurance of his fidelity (Thttblob, vii. 415 j 
Guizot, Richard Cromwell, L 238). 

Lambert took no part in the military in- 
trigues of October and November 1658. He 
was elected to the parliament of 1659 both 
for Aldborough and rontefract, but preferred 
to sit for the latter. When the bill for the 
recognition of the new protector was brought 
in, he gave a general support to it. * We are 
all,' he said, 'tor this honourable person that 
is now in power.' At the same time he urged 
the house to limit the protector's power over 
the military forces, and his negative voice in 
legislation. * The best man is but a man at 
the best. I have had great cause to know it.' 
Therefore, whatever engagement they entered 
into with the protector, 'let the people's 
liberties be on the back of the bond * (Bub- 
ton, iii. 185-91, 231, 823, 334). In asimilar 
spirit he supported the foreign policy of the 
new government, but objected to the admis- 
sion of the Irish and Scottish members to 
parliament (ib. iii. 400, iv. 174). It is evi- 
dent that he endeavoured to ingratiate him- 
self with the republican party, and to apolo- 
gise for his share in turning out the Long 
parliament (Thttblob, vii. 660). But he 
was no longer a member of the army, and 
was not in the councils of the WaUingford 
House party. In spite of rumours and sus- 
picions it is not clear that he took any part 
in concerting the coup cPStat which obliged 
Richard Cromwell to dissolve his parliament 
(22 April 1659). 

Lambert now recovered his old position. 
Fleetwood and Desborough had laboured, 
but he reaped the fruit of their victory. The 
inferior officers obliged them to recall the 
Long parliament and to restore Lambert to 
his commands. He became once more colonel 
of two regiments, and acted as the chief re- 
presentative of the army in the negotiations 
which preceded the restoration of tne parlia- 
ment (GtnzoT, Richard Cromwell, 1. 374, 
379; Baebb, Chronicle, ed. Phillips, 1670, p. 
659; Ludlow, p. 645). He presented to 
Lenthall (7 May) the declaration in which 
the army invited the members of the Long 
parliament to return, and the larger declara- 



tion in which the soldiers summed up their 
political demands (13 May; BAXEB,pp. 691- 
694). Parliament in return elected Lambert 
a member of the committee of safety (9 May), 
and of the council of state (13 May), and one 
of the seven commissioners tor the nomination 
of officers (4 June). He received on 11 June 
the commissions lor his own two regiments 
from the hands of the speaker (Commons 1 
Journals, vii. 680). But this harmony did 
not last lone. The promised act of indemnity 
was delayed, and seemed to him when passed 
to leave those who had acted under Crom- 
well at the mercy of the parliament. 'I 
know not,' said he, * why they should not be 
at our mercy as well as we at theirs ' (Lud- 
low, pp. 661, 677). But Lambert's revela- 
tion of some offers made to him by the 
royalists restored the confidence of the par- 
liament, and on 5 Aug. he was appointed 
to command the forces sent to subdue Sir 
George Booth's rising (ib. p. 691 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1659-60, p. 75). He defeated 
Booth at Winwick Bridge, near Northwich, 
in Cheshire (19 Aug.), and recaptured Chester 
city (21 Aug.) and -Chirk Castle (24 Aug.) 
(The Lord Lambert s Letter to the Speaker, 
&c, 4to, 1659 ; a Second and Third Letter 
from the Lord Lambert, &c; Cabtb, Ori- 
ginal Letters, ii. 195). Parliament voted 
Lambert a jewel worth 1,000/., but rejected 
a proposal of Fleetwood's to appoint him 
major-general (Ludlow, p. 695 ; Commons' 
Journals, vii. 766 ; Guizot, i. 464). Lam- 
bert's officers thereupon agitated for his ap- 
pointment, and assembling at Derby drew 
up an address to the house (The humble 
Petition and Proposals of the Officers under 
the command of the Lord Lambert in the 
late Northern Expedition ; Baker, p. 677). 
Parliament ordered Fleetwood to stop the 
further progress of the petition (23 Sept.), 
and some members even urged that Lambert 
should be sent to the Tower (Ludlow, pp. 705, 
719; Guizot, i. 479, 488). They also passed 
a vote that to have any more general officers 
would be ' needless, chargeable, and dangerous 
to the commonwealth' (Commons' Journals, 
vii. 786). Thegeneralcouncilofthearmynow 
met, vindicated the petition of the northern 
brigade, and added many demands of their 
own (5 Oct. ; Baxeb, p. 679). Some of these 
the parliament granted, but learning that 
the council were seeking subscriptions to 
their petition from the officers throughout 
the three kingdoms, thev suddenly cashiered 
Lambert and other leaders (12 Oct. 1659 ; 
Commons 9 Journals, vii. 796). Lambert had 
disavowed the Derby petition and remained 
a passive spectator of the quarrel. He now 
collected the regiments who adhered to him, 



Lambert 



16 



Lambert 



marched to Westminster, displaced the regi- 
ments of the parliament, and set guards on 
the house. The speaker and the members 
were forcibly debarred from entering ( 18 Oct.) 

Lambert told Ludlow a few days later that 
i he had no intention to interrupt the parlia- 
ment till the time he did it, ana that he was 
necessitated to that extremity for his own 
preservation, saying that Sir Arthur Hasleriff 
was so enraged against him that he would 
be satisfied with nothing but his blood' 
(Ludlow, pp. 720, 730, 739 ; Cabte, Original 
Letters, pp. 246, 267). Vane also stated 
that Lambert * had rather been made use of 
by the Wallingford House party than been 
in any manner the principal contriver of the 
late disorders ' (ib. p. 742\ Milton, how- 
ever, wrote of Lambert as the ' Achan ' whose 
'close ambition* had 'abused the honest 
natures ' of the soldiers (A Letter to a Friend 
concerning the Ruptures of the Common- 
wealth'). 

The council of the army now made Lam- 
bert major-general, and he became a member 
of the committee of safety which succeeded 
the parliament's council of state. Bordeaux 
thought his great position precarious because 
the Fifth-monarchy men distrusted him ' as 
having no religion or show of it' £Guizot, ii. 
275). The royalists expected him to make 
himself protector, and were eager to bribe 
him to restore the king. Lord Mordaunt 
proposed a match between the Duke of York 
and Lambert's daughter, and Lord Hatton 
suggested that the king should marry her 
himself. 'No foreign aid,' wrote Hatton, 
' will be so cheap nor leave our master so 
much at liberty as this way. The race is a 
very good gentleman's family, and kings have 
condescended to gentlewomen and subjects. 
The lady is pretty, of an extraordinary sweet- 
ness of disposition, and very virtuously and 
ingenuously disposed ; the father is a person, 
set aside his unhappy engagement, of very 
great parts and very noble inclinations ' 
{Clarendon State Papers, iii. 592 ; Cabtb, 
Original Letters, ii. 200, 237 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1659-60, Dp. 235, 246). 

When Monck openly declared for the par- 
liament, Lambert was sent north to oppose 
his advance into England (3 Nov.) His 
forces were larger than Monck's, but he was 
reluctant to attack, and negotiated till the 
opportunity was lost. Portsmouth garrison 
declared for the parliament (3 Dec.) ; the 
fleet followed its example (13 Dec.), and the 
authority of the parliament was again ac- 
knowledged by the troops in London (24 Dec.) 
The Irish brigade under Lambert's command 
joined the rising of the Yorkshire gentlemen 
under Lord Fairfax (1 Jan. 1660), and his 



whole army dissolved and left him. People 
expected that Lambert would take some 
desperate resolution, but the parliament 
wisely included him in the general indemnity 
promised to all soldiers who submitted be- 
fore 9 Jan., and Lambert at once accepted 
the offer (Commons 1 Journals, vii. 802 ; Cla- 
rendon State Papers, iii. 659). He was 
simply deprived of his commands and ordered 
to retire to his house in Yorkshire (ib. 661). 
On 26 Jan. he was ordered to repair to 
Holmby in Northamptonshire, and on 13 Feb. 
a proclamation was issued for his arrest on 
the charge that he was lurking privately in 
London, and had provoked the mutiny which 
took place on 2 Feb. (Commons 1 Journals, 
vii. 806, 823; Mercurius Politicus, 9-16 Feb. 
1660). On 5 March Lambert appeared be- 
I fore the council of state and endeavoured to 
vindicate himself. He hoped to be permitted 
to raise a few soldiers ana enter the Swedish 
service. The council ordered him to give 
security to the extent of 20,000/. for his 
peaceable behaviour, and as he professed his 
inability to do so committed him to the 
Tower (Commons 1 Journals, vii. 857, 864; 
Clarendon State Papers, iii. 695). 

The evident approach of the Restoration 
alarmed the republicans, and many were 
ready to reconcile themselves with Lambert 
in order to employ him against Monck (Lud- 
low, p. 865). On 10 April he escaped from 
the Tower, sent his emissaries throughout 
the country, and appointed a rendezvous of 
his followers for Eagehill. He succeeded in 
collecting about six troops of horse and a 
number of officers, when Colonel Ingoldsby 
and Colonel Streeter came upon him near Da- 
ventry (22 April). But for a well-grounded 
distrust of his aims, a larger number of re- 
publicans would have flocked to his standard. 
As it was, his soldiers declined to fight, and 
Lambert himself, after an unsuccessful at- 
tempt at flight, was overtaken by Ingoldsby, 
prayed in vain to be allowed to escape, ana 
was brought a prisoner to London (Kbnnbtt, 
Register, ppi 114-21 ; Baker, p. 721 ; Lud- 
low, pp. 873, 877 ; Gtjizot, u. 411, 415). 
The shouting crowds which received him 
there reminded Lambert of the crowds which 
had cheered himself and Cromwell when 
they set forth against the Scots. * Do not 
trust to that,' Cromwell had said ; ' these very 
persons would shout as much if you and I 
were going to be hanged.' Lambert' told 
Ingoldsby * that he looked on himself as in 
a fair way to that, and began to think Crom- 
well prophesied ' (Bxtenet, Own Time, ed. 
1833, i. 155). 

But though Lambert had been politically 
more harmful than most of his associates, he 



Lambert 



17 



Lambert 



bad taken no part in the king's trial, and so 
escaped with comparatively light punish- 
ment. The commons included him among 
the twenty culprits who were to he excepted 
from the Act of Indemnity for punishment 
not extending to life (16 June 1660). The 
lords voted that he should be wholly ex- 
cepted from the act (1 Aug.) A compromise 
was finally arrived at by which the two 
houses excepted Lambert, but agreed to peti- 
tion that if he was attainted the death penalty 
might be remitted (Old Parliamentary His- 
tory, xxii. 443, 472). Lambert himself peti- 
tioned for pardon, declaring that he was 
satisfied with the present government, and 
resolved to spend the rest of nis days in peace 
(Col. State Papers, Dom. 1660-1, m>. 8, 175). 
In October 1661 he was removed from the 
Tower to Guernsey, where he was allowed 
to take a house for himself and his family 
(id. 1661-2, pp. 118, 276). On 1 July 1661 
the House of Commons, more unforgiving 
than the Convention parliament had been, 
ordered that Lambert, naving been excepted 
from the Act of Indemnity, should be pro- 
ceeded against according to law. In answer 
to their repeated requests the kingreluctantly 
ordered him to be brought back from Guern- 
sey to the Tower (Commons' Journals, viiL 
287, 317, 342, 368 ; Listeb, Life of Claren- 
don, ii. 118 ; Cal State Papers, Dom. 1661-2, 
p. 329). On 2 June 1662 Lambert was 
arraigned in the court of king's bench for 
high treason in levying war against the long. 
His behaviour was discreet and submissive ; 
he endeavoured to extenuate but not to justify 
his offences, and when sentence haa been 
pronounced the lord chief justice announced 
that the king was pleased to respite his exe- 
cution (State Trials, vi. 133, 136; The King- 
dom's InteUyencer,9-l6 June 1662). Lam- 
bert was then sent back to Guernsey, where 
Lord Hatton, the governor, was empowered 
to give him ' such liberty and indulgence 
within the precincts of the island as will 
consist with the liberty of his person ' (Cal* 
State Papers, Dom. 1661-2, p. 665). This 
he attributed in a grateful letter to the inter- 
vention of Clarendon, to whom he praised 
Hatton 's * candid and friendly deportment ' 
(Lister, Life of Clarendon, hi. 310; cf. 
Hatton, Correspondence, i. 35, 38). In 1664 
he was again closely confined for a time, and 
in 1666, a plot for his escape having been 
discovered, Hatton was instructed to shoot 
his prisoner if the French effected a landing 
(Cal State Papers, Dom. 1663-4 pp. 608, 614, 
1666-6 yp. 480, 522 ; Notes and Queries, 
3rd ser. iv. 90). The clandestine marriage 
of Mary Lambert with the governor's son, 
Charles Hatton, further strained Lambert's 
vol. xxxn. 



relations with the governor, and in 1667 he 
was removed to the island of St. Nicholas in 
Plymouth Sound (ib^ There he was visited 
in 1673 by Miles Halhead, a quaker, who 
came to charge him wi£h permitting the per- 
secution of that sect in the time of his power 
(Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vi. 103). Rumour, 
however, had persistently accused Lambert 
of favouring the catholics, and Oates in 1678 
asserted that he was engaged in the popish 
plot, ' but by that time/ adds Burnet, * he 
had lost his memory and sense' (Ovm Time, 
ed. 1833, ii. 169; cf. Cabtb, Original Letters, 
ii. 225). He died a prisoner in the winter of 
1683 (Notes and Queries, 1st ser. iv. 339). 

Among his own party Lambert was known 
as ' honest John Lambert.* To the royalists 
he was a generous opponent, and showed 
much kindness to his prisoners in 1659. 
Mrs. Hutchinson mentions his taste for gar- 
dening ; he is credited with introducing the 
Guernsey lily into England, and Flatman 
describes him in his satirical romance as 'the 
Knight of the Golden Tulip ' (Don Juan Lam- 
berto, or a Comical History of our late Times, 
ed. 1664, p. 2 ; Life of Colonel Hutchinson, 
ii. 205 ; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. vii. 469). 
He was fond of art, too, bought ' divers rare 
pictures ' which had belonged to Charles I, 
and is said himself to have painted flowers, 
and even a portrait of Cromwell (Hist* MSS. 
Comm. 7th Rep. p. 189 ; Notes and Queries, . 
2nd ser. iii. 410). As a soldier he was distin- 
guished by great personal courage, and was 
a better general than his rivals, Harrison and 
Fleetwood. He was a good speaker, but rash, 
unstable, and shortsighted in his political 
action. Contemporaries attributed his ambi- 
tion to the influence of his wife, whose pride is 
often alluded to (Life of Colonel Hutchinson, 
ii. 189). She and her husband are satirised in 
Tatham's play ' The Rump,' and in Mrs. Behn's 
* The Roundheads, or the Good Old Cause.' 

A portrait of Lambert by Robert Walker, 
formerly in the possession of the Earl of 
Hardwicke, is now in the National Portrait 
Gallery, London. Other portraits belong to 
Sir Matthew Wilson and Lord Ribblesdale. 
A list of engraved portraits of Lambert is 
given in the catalogue of the Sutherland col- 
lection (L 678). The best known is that in 
Houbraken's ' Heads of Illustrious Persons 
of Great Britain/ 1743. 

Lambert left ten children. At the Restora- 
tion he lost the lands he had purchased at 
Wimbledon and at Hatfield Chase, but his 
ancestral estates were granted by Charles H 
to Lord Bellasis in trust for Mrs. Lambert 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1661-2 p. 478, 
1663-4 pp. 30, 41, 166). These were in- 
herited by his eldest son, John Lambert of 

c 



Lambert 



18 



Lambert 



Calton, described by hie friend Thoresby as 
a great scholar ana virtuoso, and 'a most 
exact limner' (Diary, i. 131). He died in 
1701, and the Lambert property passed to 
his daughter Frances, the wife of Sir John 
Middleton of Belsay Castle, Northumberland 
rWHiTAXEB, p. 256). Lambert's second 
daughter married Captain John Blackwell, 
who was appointed in 1688 governor of 
Pennsylvania (Massachusetts Historical Col- 
lections, hi. i. 61 ; Winsob, Narrative and 
Critical History of America, v. 207). 

[Authorities are chiefly cited in the text. The 
best life of Lambert is that contained in Whit- 
aker's History of Craven, ed. Morant. See also 
Noble's House of Cromwell, ed. 1787, i. 336. 
Autograph letters of Lambert are among the 
Tanner and Bawlinson MSS. in the Bodleian 
Library.] C. H. F. 

LAMBERT, JOHN (fl. 1811), traveller, 
born about 1775, visited the North American 
continent in 1806, under the sanction of the 
board of trade,with a view to fostering the cul- 
tivation of hemp in Canada, and so rendering 
Great Britain independent of the supply from 
Northern Europe,which had been endanjgered 
by Napoleon's Berlin decree, bailing in his 
immediate object, Lambert determined to re- 
main in America and explore * those parts 
rendered interesting by the glories of a Wolfe 
and a Washington.' After a year in Lower 
Canada he proceeded to the United States to 
1 study the effect of the new government ' 
there. Returning to England in 1809, he 
published in the following year 'Travels 
through Lower Canada and the United States 
of North America, 1806-1808/3 vols. London, 
1810. The book is singularly free from bias, 
and throws much light upon the social con- 
dition of America at the time. It is illus- 
trated by lithographs from drawings by the 
author, and includes biographical notes on 
Jefferson, Adams, and other American states- 
men, in addition to a general statistical view 
of the country since the declaration of inde- 
pendence. This work rapidly passed through 
three editions. In the secona volume of his 
travels Lambert had spoken very apprecia- 
tively of Washington living's ' Salmagundi,' 
and in 1811 he issued an English edition of 
Irving's ' Essays,' ' as a specimen of American 
literature,' with a long introduction, lauda- 
tory of American manners, by himself (2 vols. 
London, 8vo). * The American collector,' says 
Allibone, ' should possess this edition.' Both 
of Lambert's books are specially interestinjg as 
showing the extremely different impressions 
produced upon Englishmen by Americans of 
the second and third generations after the 
revolution respectively. Nothing further is 
known of Lambert's life. 



[Appleton's Amer. Cyclop, iii. 600 ; Biog. Diet- 
of Living Authors, 1816, p. 194 ; Allibone's Diet, 
i. 1062 ; Lambert's Works.] T. S. 

LAMBERT, Sib JOHN (1816-1892), 
civil servant, son of Daniel Lambert, surgeon, 
of Hindon, and afterwards of Milford Hall, 
Salisbury, Wiltshire, by Mary Muriel, daugh- 
ter of Charles Jinks of Oundle, Northampton- 
shire, was born at Bridzor, Wiltshire, on 
4 Feb. 1815. He was a Roman catholic, 
and in 1823 he entered St. Gregory's College, 
Downside, Somerset. In 1831 he was articled 
to a Salisbury solicitor, and practised in Salis- 
bury till 1857. He took a leading part in 
local politics, was a strong advocate of free 
trade, and reformed the sanitary condition of 
the city. In 1854 he was elected mayor of 
Salisbury, and was the first Roman catholic 
who was mayor of a cathedral city since the 
Reformation. In 1857 he was appointed a 
poor-law inspector. In 1863 Lambert went 
to London at the request of Mr. C. P. Villiers, 
then president of the poor-law board, to advise 
on the measures necessary to meet the poverty 
due to the American civil war, and the Union 
Relief Acts and Public WorkB (Manufactur- 
ing Districts) Act of that year were prepared 
in conformity with his recommendations. 
After the passing of the Public Works Act 
Lambert superintended its administration. In 
1866 he was engaged in preparing statistics for 
Earl Russell's Representation of the People 
Acts, which were introduced in 1866, and gave 
similar assistance to Disraeli in connection 
with the Representation of the People Bill 
of 1867. Prior to the resignation of Lord 
Russell's administration, he was offered the 
post of financial minister for the island of 
Jamaica, which he declined. In 1867 he 
drew up the scheme for the Metropolitan 
Poor Act, and under it was appointed re- 
ceiver of the metropolitan common poor fund. 
About this time, too, he elaborated schemes 
for the poor-law dispensary system. 

Lambert was a member of the parlia- 
mentary boundaries commission of 1867, and 
of the sanitary commission which sat for two 
or three years. In 1869 and 1870 he went 
to Ireland at the request of Mr. Gladstone to 
obtain information in connection with the 
Irish Church and Land Bills, and prepared 
special reports for the cabinet. In 1870 he 
was nominated C.B., and in 1871, when the 
local government board was formed, he was 
appointed its first permanent secretary, and 
was entrusted with the organisation of the 
department. As a member of the sanitary 
commission he compiled in 1872 a digest of 
the sanitary laws, and in the same year was 
chairman of the commission which drew up 
the census of landed proprietors in Great 



Lambert 



19 



Lamberton 



Britain. This was issued as a blue book, and 
is now known as 'The Modern Domesday 
Book.' In 1879 Lambert was made K.C.B. In 
the same year he prepared the report for the 
select committee of the House of Lords on the 
•conservancy of rivers, and also reorganised the 
audit staff of the local government board. In 
1882, in consequence of failing health, he re- 
signed the secretaryship of the local govern- 
ment board. He continued, however, to 
advise in parliamentary matters, and was 
chairman of the boundaries commission of 
1884-6 ; which did its work with extraordi- 
nary rapidity. In 1885 he was sworn in of 
the privy council. Lambert was a lifted 
and highly accomplished musician, ana pro- 
foundly versed in the ecclesiastical music of 
the middle ages. He was a member of the 
Academy of St. Cecilia at Rome, and received j 
a gold medal from Pius IX for his services in 
promoting church music. He was very fond 
of flowers, and devoted much attention to 
their cultivation. Lambert died at Milford 
House, Clapham Common, on 27 Jan. 1892, 
and was buried at St. Osmund's Church, Salis- 
bury, of which he was founder. He married in 
1838 Ellen Read (d. 1891), youngest daugh- 
ter of Henry Shorto of Salisbury, and left 
two sons and three daughters. The best por- 
trait of Lambert is a photograph taken by 
Maull & Co. 

Lambert's chief musical publications were: 
'Totum Antiphonarium Vesperale Organis- 
tarum in ecclesiia accommodatum, cujus ope 
cantus Vesperarum per totum annum sono 
Organi comitari potest/ 4to, 1849; 'Hymna- 
rium Vesperale, Hymnos Vesperales totius 
anni complectens, ad usum Organistrarum 
accommodatum/ 8vo ; * Ordinarium MisssB e 
Graduate Romano in usum organistrarum 
adaptatum/8vo, 1861. "With Henry Formby 
he prepared : ' Missa pro Defunctis e Graduale 
Romano, cum discantu pro Organo ' ; ' Officium 
Defunctorum usui Cantorum accommoda- 
tum ' ; ' The Vesper Psalter, &c, &c, with 
musical notation, 18mo, I80O; 'Hymns and 
Songs/ with accompaniment for organ or 

rianoforte, 1853; 'Catholic Sacred Songs/ 
853; and several brief collections of hymns 
and songs for children. His other works in- 
clude: 'The true mode of accompanying the 
Gregorian Chant/ 1848 ; ' Harmonising and 
singing the Ritual song ; ' ' A Grammar of 
Plain Chant ; ' ' Music of the Middle Ages, 
especially in relation to its Rhythm and 
Mode of Execution, with Illustrations/ 1857 ; 
'Modern Legislation as a Chapter in our His- 
tory/ 1865 ; and ' Vagrancy Laws and Va- 
grants/ 1868. He also made various contri- 
butions to periodical literature, including an 
article on 'Parliamentary Franchises past 



and present/ in the 'Nineteenth Century/ De- 
cember 1889, and a series of 'Reminiscences' 
in the ' Downside Review.' 

[Times, 29 Jan. 1892; Downside Review, vol, 
viii. No. 1, xi. No. 1 (on p. 81 is a list of his 
contributions to the Review) ; Burke's Knight- 
age, 1890, p. 1588; Cosmopolitan, vol. iii. No. 8, 
p. 153 ; Men of the Time, 1884, p. 670.1 

W. A. J. A. 

LAMBERT, MARK (1601), Benedictine. 
[See Babkwobth.] 

LAMBERTON, WILLIAM de(£. 1328), 
bishop of St. Andrews, belonged to a family 
that was settled in Berwickshire towards the 
close of the eleventh century which took its 
name from the estate of Lamberton, in the 
parish of Mordington, near Berwick. In 
1292 Lamberton was chancellor of Glasgow 
Cathedral. Lamberton swore fealty to Ed- 
ward I in 1296, but afterwards supported Sir 
William Wallace, and through Wallace's in- 
fluence he was elected bishopof St. Andrew's 
in 1297. A rival candidate, William Comyn, 
whom the Culdees, claiming to exercise an 
ancient right, had nominated to the see at 
the same time, set out in person to Rome to 
secure the confirmation of his own appoint- 
ment, but Pope Boniface VIII confirmed the 
election of Lamberton, and consecrated him 
on 1 June 1298. In August 1299 he was pre- 
sent at a meeting of the Scottish magnates 
at Peebles, and after a violent dispute with 
William Comyn's brother John, third earl of 
Buchan [q. v.], he was elected one of the 
chief guardians of Scotland, and had the for- 
tified castles in that kingdom placed under 
his charge. 

About the same time he went as envoy to 
France to ask the aid of King Philip in re- 
sisting the English invasion, and Edward I 
issued strict orders to have the ship in which 
he returned from Flanders intercepted. In 
November 1299 he wrote to Edward, in con- 
junction with the other guardians, offering to 
stay hostilities, and to submit to the media- 
tion of the king of France, but this offer was 
ignored. The claim of Robert de Bruce, earl 
of Carrick, to the throne of Scotland was 
covertly supported by Lamberton, although 
both were then acting as guardians in the 
name of John de Balhol, another claimant. 
In his official capacity he again visited France, 
returning thence with a letter from King 
Philip, dated 6 April 1302, in which reference 
is made to private verbal messages with 
which the bishop was entrusted. From the 
seal attached to a letter sent from the Scot- 
tish ambassadors at Paris on 25 May 1303, 
it is evident that Lamberton had then re- 
turned to France on an important political 

c2 



Lamberton 



Lamberton 



mission, and that he concurred in encouraging 
Wallace to offer a determined resistance to 
Edward I. On 17 Feb. 1303-4 he obtained 
a safe-conduct to retuwi Deaceably through 
England, and while on this journey he pre- 
sented a splendid palfrey to King Edward — 
repeatedly alluded to in documents of the time 
— as a peace-offering. On 4 May 1304 he again 
swore fealty to Edward, and obtained resti- 
tution of the temporalities belonging to the 
see of St. Andrews, including lands in twelve 
counties, and the castle of St. Andrews, 
which were all to be held from the king of 
England. As one of the Scottish commis- 
sioners sent to the parliament of Westmin- 
ster in 1305, he assented to the ordinance for 
the settlement of Scotland propounded by 
King Edward, and shortly afterwards was 
appointed one of the custodians of Scotland 
to maintain order till John de Bretagne, the 
king's nephew, should arrive there as go- 
vernor. Yet, on 27 March 1306, he assisted at 
the coronation of Robert the Bruce at Scone. 
So greatly did his treachery enrage Ed- 
ward, that on 26 May of that year he issued 
strict orders to Aymer de Valence to take 
the utmost pains to secure the person of the 
bishop, and to send him under a strict guard to 
Westminster. During the succeeding month 
these orders were repeated, and De V alence 
was instructed to seize upon the temporalities 
of the bishopric, and confer them upon Sir 
Henry de Beaumont, husband of Alice Comyn, 
Buchan's niece. Meanwhile the bishop ad- 
dressed a letter from Scotland Well, Kinross- 
shire, on 9 June, to Valence, protesting that 
he was innocent of an v complicity in the death 
of John Comyn 'the feed' [q. v.] or Sir Robert 
Comyn, his uncle. On 22 June three of the 
Scottish magnates, Henry de Sinclair, Robert 
de Keith, and Adam de Gordon, became 
surety for him that he would render himself 
prisoner ; and though the pope, Clement V, 
interceded for him, Lamberton was captured 
in the month of July, and conveyed to New- 
castle, in company with the Bishop of Glas- 
gow (Wishart) and the Abbot of Scone. On 
7 Aug. 1306 orders were given that these 
three prisoners should be conveyed to Not- 
tingham, and on the same day the king gave 
personal instructions that the two bishops 
should be put in irons, Lamberton being sent 
to Winchester Castle, and Wishart to Por- 
chester, the daily allowances for their sus- 
tenance being carefully detailed. The docu- 
ments by which Lamberton's treason was 
made evident are still preserved among the 
Chapter-house papers in the exchequer office, 
and consist of his oath of fealty to Edward, 
his secret compact with Bruce at Cambus- 
kenneth on 11 June 1304, and the answers 



which he gave when under examination at 
Newcastle. He admitted that he commu- 
nicated the mass to Bruce after the murder 
of Comyn ; that he had done homage to Bruce 
and sworn fealty to him, though Bruce was 
then a rebel ; and that he had withheld the 
fruits of the provostry of St. Andrews till the 
provost would ackowledge Bruce as king. 
After his arrival at Winchester on 24 Aug. 
1306, he was placed in close confinement, 
charged with perjury, irregularity, and re- 
bellion. The death of Edward I did not 
release him from prison, and it was not till 
23 May 1308 that Edward H consented to 
liberate him from Winchester Castle, accept- 
ing security that he would remain within 
the bounds of the county of Northampton. 
He was set free on 1 June, and on 11 Aug. 
he swore fealty to Edward H ' on the sacra- 
ments and the cross " Gnayth," ' undertak- 
ing to remain in the bishopric of Durham, 
and giving a bond for six thousand marks 
sterling to be paid within three years. The 
pope had again interceded for Lamberton, but 
the king replied that on no account would 
he permit him to enter Scotland. It was not 
until the following year (1309) that the bishop 
was allowed to return, and then only after 
he had undertaken to pronounce sentence of 
excommunication against Bruce and his ad- 
herents. Almost his first action was to take 
part in a meeting of the clergy at Dundee, in 
February 1309, at which the claims of Bruce 
to the Scottish throne were asserted. He 
played a double part so well that he retained 
the confidence of Edward II, who wrote to 
the pope, in July 1811, desiring that the 
bishop might be excused from attending the 
general council, as his presence in Scofland 
was necessary * to avoid the danger of souls 
that might chance through his absence.' The 
esteem in which the English king held him is 
shown by his sending Lamberton as an envoy 
to Philip, king of France, on 30 Nov. 1313 ; 
and by nis granting him a safe-conduct for 
one year, from 25 Sept. 1314. The bishop 
officiated at the consecration of the cathe- 
dral of St. Andrews on 5 July 1318, in the 
presence of Robert I and the principal eccle- 
siastics and nobles of the realm. In 1323 
he was one of the ambassadors sent from 
Scotland to treat with Edward II for peace; 
and on 15 July 1324 he was again in Eng- 
land on the same errand, his retinue then 
consisting of fifty horsemen. According to 
Wyntoun, he died in St. Andrews, * in the 
prior's chamber of the abbey, in June 1328, 
and was buried on the north half of the 
high kirk/ and this statement has been ac- 
cepted without question by the historians 
who have dealt with the subject. It is cer- 



Lam born 



21 



Larnbton 



tain that the bull of Pope John XXII, ap- 
pointing his successor, is dated ' the Kalends 
of August 1328/ 

Lamberton was a typical priest-politician, 
whose patriotism so far exceeded his piety 
that he violated the most solemn oaths for 
the purpose of aiding in the liberation of 
his country. Besides completing the cathe- 
dral of St. Andrews, he repaired the castle 
there, and built, it is said, no less than ten 
episcopal residences, and reconstructed ten 
churches within his diocese. 

[J. F. 8. Gordon's Scotichronicon, i. 179-89 ; 
Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, 
vols. ii. iii. ; Gough's Scotland in 1298; Lyon's 
History of St. Andrews ; Rymer s Feeders ; Hist. 
MSS. Coram. 4th and 9th Beps. ; Begistrum 
Prior. S. Andree.] A. H. M. 

LAMBORN, PETER SPENDELOWE 
(1722-1774), engraver and miniature-painter, 
born at Cambridge in 1722, was son of John 
Lamborn (d. 1763), a watchmaker, and Eliza- 
beth Susanna Spendelowe, his second wife. 
Lamborn came to London and studied en- 
graving under Isaac Basire [q. v.], but re- 
turned to practise at Cambridge, where he 
obtained some note as an engraver. He also 
showed considerable skill as a miniature- 
painter. Lamborn was a member of the In- 
corporated Society of Artists, and signed their 
declaration roll in 1765 ; he exhibited with 
them first in 1764, sending a miniature of a 
lady and a drawing of the church at St. 
Neotfs, Huntingdonshire. He continued to 
exhibit there annually up to his death. His 
Architectural drawings were much esteemed. 
Lamborn engraved two sets of views of uni- 
versity buildings in Cambridge, a large view 
of the Angel Hill at Bury St. Edmunds (after 
John Kendall), and some landscapes after 
Poelenburg and Jan Both. He also engraved 
the plates to Sandby's edition of ' Juvenal ' 
<1763), Bentham's * History of Ely Cathe- 
dral' (1771), and Martyn and Lettice's 'Anti- 
quities of Herculaneum ' (1773). He etched 
a few portraits, including those of Samuel 
Johnson (drawn from life), Oliver Cromwell 
(from the picture by Samuel Cooper at Sidney 
Sussex College), John Ives, F.K.S., Thomas 
Martin, F.R.S., Br. Richard Walker, vice- 
master of Trinity College (after D. Hems), 
*he Rev. Charles Barnwell, and Richard Pen- 
derell; impressions of all these etchings are 
in the print room at the British Museum. 
Lamborn married, on 6 Jan. 1762, Mary, 
daughter of Hitch Wale, and granddaughter 
of Gregory Wale of Little Shelford, Cam- 
imdgeshire, by whom he had three sons and 
one daughter. The latter married James 
Cock, and was mother of James Lamborn 
Cock, music publisher, of New Bond Street, 



London. Lamborn died at Cambridge on 
5 Nov. 1774. A miniature portrait of him 
is in the possession of Mrs. Lamborn Cock. 

[Dodd's manuscript History of English En- 
gravers (Brit Mus. Addit. M8S. 33402) ; Willis 
and Clark's Architectural Hist, of the University 
of Cambridge; Catalogues of the Society of 
Artists; information kindly supplied by Mrs. 
Lamborn Cock.] L. C. 

LAMBORN, REGINALD, D.D. (ft. 
1363), astronomer, studied under the astro- 
nomers William Rede and John Aschendon, 
at Merton College, where he became B.B. In 
1363 and 1367 he was a monk in the Bene- 
dictine monastery of Eynsham, Oxfordshire; 
in 1376 he appears as D.D. and monk of St. 
Mary, York. Some time after this he entered 
the Franciscan order at Oxford, and died at 
Northampton. Two letters of his on astro- 
nomical subjects are extant in manuscript; 
the first, written in 1363-4, and addressed to 
John London, treats of ' the signification of 
the eclipses of the moon in the months of 
March and September of the present year ; ' 
the second, written in 1367, probably to 
William Rede, deals with * the conjunctions 
of Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars, with a prog- 
nostication of the evils probablv arising tnere- 
from in the years 1368 to 1374/ 

[Bodl. MS. Digby, 1 76, ff. 40, 50 ; Mon. Francisc. 
i. 543 ; Tanner's Bibliotheca.] A. G. L. 

LAMBTON, JOHN (1710-1794), general, 
born 26 July 1710, was fourth son of Ralph 
Larnbton and his wife, Dorothy, daughter of 
John Hedworth of Harraton, Durham. Wil- 
liam Larnbton (d. 1724) was his uncle. His 
elder brothers were Henry Larnbton, M.P. 
for Durham (d. 1761), and Major-general Hed- 
worth Larnbton (d. 1758), who was an officer 
in the Coldstream guards from 1723 to 1753, 
and in 1755 raised the 52nd, originally 54th, 
foot at Coventry (cf. Mooesom, Hist. 62nd 
Light Infantry). John was appointed ensign 
in the Coldstream guards 12 Oct. 1782, became 
lieutenant in 1739, was regimental quarter- 
master from February 1742 to January 1745, 
and became captain and lieutenant-colonel 
24 Jan. 1746. On 28 April 1758 he was ap- 
pointed colonel of the 68th foot (now 1st 
Durham light infantry), then made a separate 
regiment. It had been raised two years pre- 
viously as a second battalion 23rd royal Welsh 
fusiliers, but had been chiefly recruited in 
Durham, a local connection since maintained. 
Larnbton commanded the regiment at the 
attack on St. Malo. When county titles 
were bestowed on line regiments in 1782, it 
was styled the ' Durham ' regiment. Lamb- 
ton, who became a full general, retained the 
colonelcy until his death. He succeeded to 



Lambton 



22 



Lambton 



the Lambton estates after the death of his 
elder brothers. In December 1761 he con- 
tested Durham city on the death of the sitting 
member, his brother Henry, and was duly 
elected. He represented the city in five suc- 
ceeding parliaments, until his acceptance of 
the Chiltern hundreds in February 1787, and 
' was deservedly popular with the citizens for 
the gallant stand he made for their dearest 
rights and privileges ' (Richardson). He died 
22 April 1794. 

Lambton married, 5 Sept. 1763, Lady Susan 
Lyon, daughter of Thomas, earl of Strath- 
more, by whom he had two sons and two 
daughters. His elder son, William Henry 
Lambton. M.P. for Durham city, was father 
of John George Lambton, first earl of Durham 
[q. v.] 

[Debrett's Peerage, ed. 1831, under * Durham;' 
Mackinnon's Origin and Hist. Coldstream Guards, 
London, 1832, 2 vols. ; Official List of Members 
of Parliament ; Pari. Hist, under dates; Richard- 
son's Local Table Book, historical portion* ii. 
365 ; Gent. Mag. 17»4,pt. i. p. 385.] H. M. C. 

LAMBTON, JOHN GEORGE, first Earl 
of Durham (1792-1840), eldest son of Wil- 
liam Henry Lambton, of Lambton, co. Dur- 
ham, M.P. for the city of Durham, by his 
wife, Lady Anne Barbara Frances Timers, 
second daughter of George, fourth earl of 
Jersey, was born in Berkeley Square, London, 
on 12 April 1792. On the death of his father 
at Pisa in November 1797, he inherited the 
family estate, which had been held in unin- 
terrupted male succession from the twelfth 
century. He was educated at Eton, and on 
8 June 1809 was gazetted a cornet in the 
10th dragoons. He became a lieutenant in 
the same regiment on 3 May 1810, but re- 
tired from the army in August 1811. At a 
by-election in September 1813 he was re- 
turned to the House of Commons in the whig 
interest for the county of Durham, and con- 
tinued to represent the constituency until his 
elevation to the peerage in 1828. On 12 May 
1814 Lambton, in a maiden speech, seconded 
C. W. Wynn's motion for an address to the 
crown in favour of mediation on behalf of 
Norway {Pari. Debates, 1st ser. xxvii. 842-3), 
and on 21 Feb. 1815 moved for the production 
of papers relating to the transfer of Genoa, 
which he stigmatised as * a transaction the 
foulness of wnich had never been exceeded 
in the political history of the country 7 (ib. 
xxix. 928-31). In March 1815 he unsuccess- 
fully opposed the second reading of the Corn 
Bill (i^.xxix. 1209, 1242), andin May 1817 his 
resolutions condemning Canning's appoint- 
ment as ambassador extraordinary to Lis- 
bon were defeated by a large majority (ib. 
xxxvi. 100-7, 233-4). In March 1818 he led 



the opposition to the first reading of the 
Indemnity Bill (ib. xxxvii. 891-9), and in. 
May of the same year unsuccessfully opposed 
the second reading of the Alien Bill (ib. 
xxxix. 735-41). At a public meeting held 
at Durham on 21 Oct. 1819, Lambton de- 
nounced the government for their share in 
the Manchester massacre. His speech on this 
occasion was severely criticisea by Henry 
Phillpotts, afterwards bishop of Exeter, and 
at that time a prebendary of Durham, in a 
* Letter to the Freeholders of the County of 
Durham/ &c. (Durham, 1819, 8vo). 

In July 1820 Lambton fought a duel with 
T. W. Beaumont, who had made a personal 
attack upon him in a speech during the North- 
umberland election (Life and Times of Henry t 
Lord Brougham, iii. 505-7). In February 
1821 he seconded the Marquis of Tavi- 
stock's motion censuring the conduct of the 
ministers in their proceedings against the 
queen (Pari Debates, 2nd ser. iv. 368-79), 
and on 17 April 1821 brought forward his 
motion for parliamentary reform, which was 
defeated by a majority of twelve in a small 
house on the following day (ib. v. 359-85). 
Lambton was in favour of electoral districts, 
household suffrage, and triennial parliaments, 
and his proposed bill ' for effecting a reform 
in the representation of the people in parlia- 
ment' is given at length in the appendix to 
2nd ser. vol. v. of ' Parliamentary Debates f 
(pp. ciii-cxxviii). For the next few years 
Lambton took little or no part in the more 
important debates in the house, and in 182ft 
went to Naples for the sake of his health, 
remaining abroad about a year. Though he 
is said to have warmly supported the Can- 
ning and Goderich administrations, his name 
does not appear as a speaker in the 'Par- 
liamentary Debates' of that period. On 
Goderich's resignation Lambton was created 
Baron Durham of the city of Durham and 
of Lambton Castle, by letters patent dated 
29 Jan. 1828, and took his seat m the House 
of Lords on the 31st of the same month (Jour* 
nals of the House of Lords, lx. 10). On the 
formation of the administration of Earl Grev> 
who was father of Durham's second wife, 
Durham was sworn a member of the privy 
council, and appointed lord privy seal (22 Nov. 
1 830). In conjunction with Lord John Russell, 
Sir James Graham, and Lord Duncannon, he 
was entrusted by Lord Grey with the prepara- 
tion of the first Reform Bill. A copy of the 
draft plan, with the alterations which were 
subsequently made in it, is given in Lord John 
Russell's ' English Government and Consti- 
tution,' 1866 (pp. 225-7). When the pro- 
posals were completed Durham wrote a re-» 
port on the plan, which, with the exception 



Lambton 



23 



Lambton 



of Durham's proposition of vote by ballot, 
was unanimously adopted by the cabinet. 
On 28 March 1831 Durham made an elabo- 
rate speech in the House of Lords in defence 
of the ministerial reform scheme {Pari, De- 
bate*, 3rd ser. iii. 1014-34). He was present 
at the interview on 22 April 1831, when the 
king was persuaded to dissolve parliament 
(Mabtinbau, History of the Peace, ii. 430-1). 
Durham was one of those in the cabinet who 
desired to secure the passage of the Reform Bill 
through the House of Lords by an unlimited 
creation of peers. It was Grey's objection 
to this course that probably led to a violent 
scene at the cabinet dinner at Lord Althorp's 
in December 1831, when ' Durham made the 
most brutal attack on Lord Grey* (Sir D. Lb 
March aut, Memoir of John Charles, Viscount 
Althorp, third Earl Spencer, 1876, p. 374; cf. 
Greyille, Memoirs, 1876, pt. i. vol. ii. p. 226). 
Though his colleagues thought that he would 
resign, he merely absented himself for some 
days from the cabinet, and wrote to his father- 
in-law (over whom he exercised considerable 
influence) a formal declaration in favour of 
' a large creation of peers/ which was read 
at the cabinet meeting on 2 Jan. 1832 {Life 
and Times of Henry, Lord Brougham, iii. 158- 
164). On 13 April 1832 he made an ani- 
mated speech in favour of the second reading 
of the third Keform Bill, and violently at- 
tacked his old antagonist, Phillpotts, the 
Bishop of Exeter {Pari. Debates, 3rd ser. 
xii. 351-65). Durham was appointed am- 
bassador extraordinary to St. Petersburg on 
8 July 1832, and to Berlin and Vienna on 
14 Sept. 1832, but returned to England in the 
following month without accomplishing the 
object of his mission. He objected strongly to 
Stanley's Irish Church Temporalities Bill, and 
much of the other policy of the government. 
At length, irritated by the perpetual compro- 
mises of the cabinet, his health gave way, and 
he became anxious to retire. Upon IiOrd Pal- 
merston's refusal to cancel the appointment 
of Stratford Canning as minister to St. Peters- 
burg (an appointment which Durham had pro- 
mised the Emperor of Russia should be re- 
voked), Durham resigned (14 March 1833), 
and was created Viscount Lambton and Earl 
of Durham by letters patent dated 23 March 
l83S{JournalsoftheHouseofLords,hiv.SS9). 
According to Lord Palmerston, Durham in- 
duced Ward to bring forward his appropria- 
tion resolution in May 1834, which led to 
the resignation of Stanley, Graham, Rich- 
mond, and Ripon (Sir H. L. Bulweb, Life 
of Lord Palmerston, 1871, ii. 195, but see 
ante, p. 193). It appears that Lord Grey 
soon afterwards wished to have Durham 
back again in the cabinet, but was overborne j 



by Brougham and Lansdowne (Martineatt, 
History of the Peace, iii. 42). Durham's 
opinions were not, however, in accord with 
those of the cabinet, for during the debate in 
July on the second reading of the bill for the 
suppression of disturbances in Ireland, he ex- 
pressed his strong disapproval of the clause 
authorising interference with public meetings 
{Pari. Debates, 3rd ser. xxiv. 1118-9). At 
the Grey banquet in Edinburgh in September 
1834, Durham replied to Brougham's attack 
upon the radical section of the party, and 
after frankly declaring that he saw 'with 
regret every hour which passes over the ex- 
istence of recognised and unreformed abuses/ 
declared his objection to compromises, and 
to * the clipping, and paring, and mutilating 
which must inevitably follow any attempt to 
conciliate enemies who are not to be con- 
ciliated ' {Ann. Register, 1834, Chron. p. 147). 
This controversy, which led to a lasting enmity 
between them, was renewed by Brougham in 
a subsequent speech at Salisbury, when he 
challenged Durham to a debate in the House 
of Lords, and in the 'Edinburgh Review' 
for October 1834 (lx. 248-51 ), and by Durham 
in a speech delivered at the Glasgow banquet 
given in his honour on 29 Oct. 1834. Durham 
was now the head of the advanced section of 
the whigs, and under his auspices an election 
committee sat to promote the return of can- 
didates who favoured his pretensions to the 
leadership of the party (Tokbens, Life of Vis- 
count Melbourne, ii. 66). Failing in this object 
of his ambition, Durham was appointed am- 
bassador extraordinary and minister pleni- 
potentiary to St. Petersburg on 5 July 1835 ; 
but the Emperor of Russias consent having 
been obtained before Durham was named to 
the king, there was, according to Lord Mel- 
bourne, ' the devil to pay about this appoint- 
ment ' {ib. p. 116). Durham resigned his post 
at St. Petersburg in the spring of 1837, and 
was invested by the new queen with the 
order of G.C.B. at Kensington Palace on 
27 June 1837. Though strongly urged at this 
time to give the government a more radical 
character by the admission of Durham and 
other advanced liberals, Melbourne refused 
to do so, and in a letter to Lord John Russell, 
dated 7 July 1837, significantly remarks that 
' everybody, after the experience we have had, 
must doubt whether there can be peace or 
harmony in a cabinet of which Lord Durham 
is a member ' (Walpolb, Life of Lord John 
Russell, i. 285 n.) In consequence of the in- 
surrection of the French Canadians an act 
of parliament was passed in February 1838 
(1 & 2 Vict. c. 9), by which the legislative 
assembly of Lower Canada was suspended for 
more tfian two years, and temporary pro- 



Lambton 



24 



Lambton 



vision was made for the government of the 
province by the creation of a special council, 
and by letters patent dated 31 March 1838 
Durham was appointed high commissioner 'for 
the adjustment of certain important questions 
depending in the said provinces of Lower and 
Upper Canada, respecting the form and future 
government of the said provinces/ and also 
governor-general of the British provinces in 
North America. Durham landed at Quebec 
on 29 May, and two days afterwards having 
dismissed the executive council which his 
predecessor had appointed, selected a new 
one from among the officers of the govern- 
ment. On 28 June he appointed his chief 
secretary, Charles Buller, and four officers 
attached to his own person, who were en- 
tirely ignorant of Canadian politics, members' 
of the special council, and persuaded them 
on the same day to pass an ordinance autho- 
rising the transportation to Bermuda of Wol- 
fred, Nelson, Bouchette, Gauvin, and five 
others of the leading rebels then in prison 
at Montreal, and threatening the penalty of 
death on Papineau and fifteen others if they re- 
turned to Canada without permission. These 
high-handed proceedings were known in Eng- 
land in July, and were immediately denounced 
by Brougham, whose Canada Government Act 
Declaratory Bill was carried on the second 
reading against the government by a majority 
of eighteen {Pari. Debates, 3rdser. xliv. 1102\ 
On the following day (10 Aug.) Lord Mel- 
bourne declared the intention of the govern- 
ment to disallow Durham's ordinance, and 
to accept the indemnity clause of Brougham's 
bill (ib. pp. 1 1 27-31 ), which was shortly after- 
wards passed into law (1 & 2 Vict. c. 112). 
Having been virtually abandoned by the 
ministers who had appointed him, Durham 
sent in his resignation, and issued a proclama- 
tion, dated 9 Oct. 1838, in which he injudi- 
ciously appealed from the government to the 
Canadians, and declared that from the outset 
the minutest details of his administration had 
been 'exposed to incessant criticism, in a 
spirit which has evinced an entire ignorance 
of the state of this country ' (Ann. Register, 
1838, Chron. pp. 311-7). lie sailed from 
Canada on 1 Nov., leaving Sir John Colborne 
in charge, and reached England on the 26th 
of the same month. Though he was received 
without the usual honours, a number of ad- 
dresses were presented to him on his return, 
and while boasting at Plymouth, in answer 
to one of them, that he had put an end to 
the rebellion, the news arrived that it had 
already broken out again. On 31 Jan. 1839 
Durham sent in his ' Report on the Affairs 
of British North America' to the Colonial 
office (Pari Papers, 1839, xvii. 6-119). The 



whole of this celebrated report, which bears 
Durham's name, and has guided the policy of 
all his successors, was written by Charles 
Buller, ' with the exception of two para- 
graphs on church or crown lands,' which were 
composed by Edward Gibbon Wakefield and 
Richard Davies Hanson [q.v.] (Gbbvtllb, 
Memoirs, pt. ii. vol. i. pp. 162-3 n.) Two un- 
official editions of this report were also pub- 
lished, one with and the other without the 
despatches (London, 1839, 8vo). 

Durham spoke for the last time in the 
House of Lords on 26 July 1839, during the 
debate on the bill for the government of 
Lower Canada. At the conclusion of his 
speech he alluded to ' the personal hostility to 
which he had been exposed,' and to his own 
anxiety that the Canadian question ' should 
not be mixed up with anything like party 
feeling or party disputes,' and asserted that 
it was 'on these grounds that he had ab- 
stained from forcing on any discussion relative 
to Canada' (Pari. Debates, 3rd ser. xlix. 875-' 
882). He died at Cowes on 28 July 1840, 
aged 48, and was buried at Chester-le-Street, 
Durham. 

Durham was an energetic, high-spirited man, 
with great ambition, overwhelming vanity, 
and bad health. ' When he spoke in parlia- 
ment, which he did very rarely,' says Broug- 
ham, ' he distinguished himself much, and 
when he spoke at public meetings more than 
almost anybody' (Life and Times, iii. 500). 
His undoubted abilities were, however, ren- 
dered useless by his complete want of tact, 
while his irritable temper and overbearing 
manner made him a most undesirable col- 
league. Lord Dalling, who with Buller, 
Ward, Grote, Duncombe, and Warburton be- 
longed to the ' Durham party,' had a very 
high opinion of Durham s capacity, while 
Greville never loses an opportunity in his 
Memoirs to disparage him. 

Durham was elected high steward of Hull 
in 1836, and was a knight of the foreign 
orders of St. Andrew, St. Alexander Newaky, 
St. Anne, and the White Eagle of Russia, Leo- 
pold of Belgium, and the Saviour of Greece. 
He married, first, in January 1812, Miss 
Harriet Cholmondeley ( see Journal of Thomas 
JRaikes, 1857, iii. 83, and Letters from and to 
C. K. Sharpe, 1888, i. 526), by whom he had 
three daughters: 1. Frances Charlotte, who 
married on 8 Sept. 1835 the Hon. John 
George Ponsonby, afterwards fifth earl of 
Bessborough, and died on 24 Dec. 1835, aged 
23 ; 2. Georgina Sarah Elizabeth, who died 
unmarried on 3 Dec. 1832 ; and 3. Harriet 
Caroline, who died unmarried on 12 June 
1832. His first wife died on 11 July 1815, 
and on 9 Dec. 1816 Lambton married, 



Lambton 



*5 



Lambton 



«econdly,Lady Louisa Elizabeth Grey, eldest I LAMBTON, WILLIAM (1756-1828), 
daughter of Charles, second earl Grey, by lieutenant-colonel, Indian geodesist, was 
whom he had two sons ; namely, 1. Charles ' born in 1756 at Crosby Grange, near North- 
WiUUm, the 'Master Lambton' of Sir Thomas I allerton, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, 
Lawrence's celebrated picture (Catalogue of , of humble parents, and learnt his letters at 
the Loan Collection of National Portraits at | Borrowby. Some neighbouring gentlemen, 
South Kensington, 1868, No. 242), who died 1 hearing of him as a promising lad, entered 
on 24 Dec 1831, aged 13 ; and 2. George j him at the grammar school at Northallerton, 
Frederick D T Arcy, who succeeded his father " 
as the second earl; and three daughters: 
1. Mary Louisa, who became the second wife 
of James, eighth earl of Elgin, on 7 Nov. 



where there was a foundation for four free 
scholars. He finished his studies under Dr. 
Charles Hutton [q. v.], then mathematical 
master at the high school or grammar school 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne. On 28 March 1781 
Lambton was appointed ensign in Lord Fau- 



1846 ; 2. Emily Augusta, who married, on 
19 Aug. 1843, Colonel William Henry Fre- 
derick Cavendish, and died on 2 Nov. 1886; 1 conberg's foot, one of the scncalled 'nrovin- 
and 3. Alice Anne Caroline, who became ' cial' or home-service regiments then raised on 
the second wife of Sholto, twentieth earl of ' the footing of the later ' fencible ' regiments. 
Morton, on 7 July 1853. Lady Durham, who ' Fauconberg's regiment was disbanded in 
was appointed a lady of the bedchamber on 1783. Meanwhile Lambton had been trans- 
29 Aug. 1837, but resigned the appointment ! ferred to the 38rd (West Riding) regiment, 
immediately after her return from Canada, now the 1st battalion Duke of Wellington's 
died at Genoa on 26 Nov. 1841, aged 44. A I regiment, in which he became lieutenant in 
portrait of Durham by Sir Thomas Lawrence ' 1794. Lambton appears on the muster-rolls 
was exhibited in the Loan Collection of Na- ' of the regiment in 1782-3 as in ' public em- 
tional Portraits at South Kensington in 1868 ploy/ and afterwards as barrack-master at 

'St. John's, New Brunswick, a post which he 
held with his regimental rank until about 
1795. He joined and did duty with the 33rd, 



(Catalogue, No. 326). It has been eiujraved 
by S. W . Reynolds, Turner, and Cousins. A 
collection of his speeches delivered between 
1814 and 1834 will be found in Reid's ' Sketch 
of the Political Career of the Earl of Dur- 
ham ' (Glasgow, 1835, 12mo) ; several of his 
speeches were published separately. 

[Martineau's Hist, of the Thirty Years' Peace, 
1877-8 ; Walpole's Hist, of England, ii. iii. and ! Effects of Machines in Motion,' were com 
v. 1 34 ; Torrens's Memoirs of William, Viscount , municated by Lambton to the Asiatic Society 
Melbourne, 1878 ; Walpole's Life of Lord John 1 about this time (Asiatic Researches, vol. vi), 



when commanded by Wellesley, at the Cape 
in 1796, and accompanied it to Bengal, and 
subsequently to Madras in September 1798. 
Two papers on the 'Theory of Walls ' and on 
the 'Maximum of Mechanical Power and the 



Russell, 1889 ; Sir Denis Le Marchant's Memoir 
of John Charles, Viscount Althorp, third Earl 
Spencer, 1876; The Life and Times of Henry, 
Lord Brougham, 1871, vol. iii. ; The Greville 
Memoirs, pts. i. and ii. ; The Duke of Bucking- 
ham's Courts and Cabinets of William IV and Vic- 
toria, 1861 ; Harris's Hist, of the Radical Party, 
1 886 ; Major Richardson's Eight Years in Canada, 
&c. (Montreal, 1847), pp. 28-57; Macmullen's 
Hist, of Canada, 1868, pp. 423-6 ; Morgan's 
Sketches of Celebrated Canadians, 1862, pp. 364- 
370; Pari. Papers, 1837-8, vol. xxxix. ; Surtees' 
Hist, of Durham. 1820, ii. 170, 174-5; Jerdan's 
Kat. Portrait Gallery, 1833, vol. iv.; Times, 
.29 and 30 July 1 840 ; Morning Chronicle, 30 July 
1840; Gent. Mag. 1792, vol. Ixii. pt. i. p 383, 
1812, vol.lxxxii. pt.i. p. 188, 1816, vol. lxxxvi. 
pt. ii. p. 663, 1840, new ser. xiv. 316-20, 1842, 
new ser. xvii. 209; Ann. Reg. 1840, App. to 
Chron. pp. 173-4; Official Return of Lists of 
Members of Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 260, 274, 287, 
S03; Doyle's Official Baronage, 1886, i. 650-1; 
Burke s Peerage, 1890, p. 462 ; Foster's Peerage, 
1883, p. 247 ; Notes and Queries, 7th ser. x. 69, 
164, 273 ; Stapylton's Eton School Lists, 1864, 
pp.48, 66; Army Lists, 1810, 1811; London 
Gazettes; Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. F. R. B. 



and were printed in the * Philosophical Trans- 
actions/ Lambton served as brigade-major to 
General David Baird [q. v.] in the expeaition 
against Seringapatam. His knowledge of the 
stars saved his Drigade during a night-march 
in the course of the campaign (Hook, Life of 
Baird, vol. i.) After the storm and capture 
of Seringapatam, 4 May 1799, Lambton ac- 
companied his brigade in its march to secure 
the surrender of the hill-forts in Mysore. His 
journal from August to December 1799 is 
among the Mornington Papers (Brit. Mus. 
Add. MS. 13658). When the brigade was 
broken up, Lambton was appointed brigade- 
major of the troops on the Coromandel coast, 
ante-dated from 22 Aug. 1799. 

At this time Lambton presented a memo- 
rial to the governor of Madras in council, 
suggesting a survey connecting the Malabar 
and the Coromandel coasts, and was appointed 
to conduct the work (Asiat. Res. vol. viii. 
1801). Preparations were already in progress 
on New-year's day 1800 (Wellington, Sup- 
plementary Despatches, i. 52-3). Pending the 
arrival of instruments from Bengal, a base* 



Lambton 



26 



Lamont 



line seven and a half English miles in length 
was measured near Bangalore in October to I 
December 1800. The records of the measure- I 
ment are now in the map room at the India 
office. In 1802, the necessary instruments 
having arrived, operations commenced with 
the measurement of a base near St. Thomas' 
Mount, Madras, in connection with the Ban- 
galore base. Lambton was assisted by lieu- 
tenants Henry Kater [q. v.], 12th foot, and 
John Warren, 33rd foot. From this time the 
survey operations, combined with the mea- 
surement of an arc of the meridian, were 
carried on without any important inter- 
mission, in the face of numberless technical 
difficulties which later experience has over- 
come. The reports and maps are preserved 
in the map room of the India office (see Ac- 
count of Trigonometrical Operations, 1802- 
1823). The survey reports include particu- 
lars of several base measurements, the last 
taken at Beder in 1815 ; the latitudes, longi- 
tudes, and altitudes of a great number of 
places in southern and central India; and 
observations on terrestrial refraction and 
pendulum observations. 

Lambton became captain in the 33rd foot, 
without purchase, 25 June 1806, and pur- 
chased his majority in the regiment 1 March 
1808. When the 33rd returned home from 
Madras in 1812, Lambton remained behind 
as superintendent of the Indian survey. He 
became lieutenant-colonel by brevet 4 June 
1814, and was placed on half-pay in conse- 

?uence of the reduction of the army, 25 Dec. 
818. He was a F.R.S. (see Thomson, Hist . 
Boy. Soc), a fellow of the Asiatic Society, 
ana a corresponding member of the French 
Academy. 

Lambton died of lung-disease at Hingan- 

fhat, fifty miles from Nagpore, on 26 Jan. 
823, at the age of sixty-seven. His beau- 
tiful instruments and well-selected library 
were disposed of at a camp auction, and a few 
autobiographical notes, known to be among 
his papers, have not been traced. 

Sir George Everest [a. v.], who was ap- 

Sointed Lambton's chief assistant in 1817, 
escribes him at that period as six feet high, 
erect, well-formed, bony and muscular. He 
was a fair-complexioned man, with blue 
eyes. He seemed * a tranquil and exceedingly 
good-humoured person, very fond of his joke, 
a great admirer of the fair sex, partial to sing- 
ing glees and duets, and everything, in short, 
that promoted harmony and tended to make 
life pass easily/ 

[Ingleden's Hist, of North Allerton ; Clement 
Marknam's Indian Surveys, London ; Memoir in 
the Army and Navy Mag. December 1885, Lon- 
don, 8vo.] H. M. C. 



LAMONT, DAVID (1752-1837), Scottish 
divine, born in 1752, was son of John Lamont, 
minister of Kelton, Kirkcudbrightshire, by 
Margaret, daughter of John Affleck of White- 
park. His grandfather, John Lamont of New- 
ton in Fifeshire, was descended from Allan 
Lamont, second minister of Scoonie, Fife- 
shire, after the Reformation. He was licensed 
by the presbytery of Kirkcudbright in 1772, 
and inducted to the parish of Kirkpatrick- 
Durham in that county in 1774. He was made 
D.D. by the university of Edinburgh in 1780, 
was appointed chaplain to the Prince of Wales 
in 1785, moderator of the general assembly 
in 1822, chaplain-in-ordinary for Scotland in 
1824, and died in 1837 in the eighty-fifth year 
of his age and sixty-third of his ministry. As 
moderator of the general assembly he read 
an address to George IV, and preached before 
him in St. Giles's, Edinburgh, during his 
visit to Scotland. Lamont was a liberal in 
politics and theology, a popular preacher, an 
able debater in church courts, an eloquent 
platform speaker, and held a prominent place 
among the cultivated and dignified clergy 
of the time. A considerable landowner, ne 
divided his property into small holdings, pro- 
moted local manufactories, formed benevolent 
societies among his tenants and parishioners, 
and ' gained the affection and esteem of all 
who witnessed his generous and enlightened 
exert ions.' In 1799 he married Anne, 
daughter of David Anderson, esq., H.M. 
Customs, and had a son John, an advocate, 
afterwards a brewer in London. His works 
are: 1. Two Sermons, Dumfries, 1785-97. 
2. * Sermons on the most prevalent Vices/ 
London, 1780. 3. 'Sermons on Important 
Subjects,' 2 vols. 1780-87. 4. ' Subscription 
to the Confession of Faith consistent with 
Liberty of Conscience/ Edinburgh, 1790. 
5. ' Account of the Parish of Kirkpatrick- 
Durham^Sir John Sinclair's Statistical Ac- 
count of Scotland, vol. ii.). 6. Sermon, in 
Gillan's ' Scottish Pulpit.' 

[Scott's Fasti; Preface to Lamont's Diary; 
Heron's Journey ; Caledonian Mercury, January 
1837.] G. W. S. 

LAMONT, JOHANN von (1805-1879), 
astronomer and magnetician, was born at 
Braemar, Aberdeenshire, on 13 Dec. 1805. 
His father, a custom-house officer, belonged 
to an old but impoverished family, and alter 
his death in 1816 the son was removed to 
the Scottish Benedictine monastery of St. 
James at Ratisbon, where the prior, Father 
Deaeson, devoted himself to his mathematical 
education. Having passed with distinction 
through all his studies, he was admitted in 
1827 an extraordinary member of the Munich 



Lamont 



27 



Lamont 



Academy of Sciences, was appointed inMarch 
1828 assistant astronomer at the observatory 
of Bogenhausen, near Munich, and through 
Schelluur's influence, on 18 July 1886, di- 
rectoro? the same establishment, with a 
yearly salary of elevenhundred florins. With 
a ten and a half inch equatoreal telescope by 
Men, mounted in 1835, Lamont observed 
Halley's comet from 27 Jan. to 17 May 1836, 
Encke's comet in 1838, and the satellites of 
Saturn and Uranus respectively in 1836 and 
1837, deducing the orbits of Enceladus and 
Tethys, besides an improved value for the 
mass of Uranus (Memoirs Royal Astronomical 
Society y xi. 51). In 1836-7 he measured some 
of the principal nebulae and clusters (Annalen 
der kdn. Sternwarte, xvii. 305). His zone- 
observations of 34,674 small stars between 
latitudes + 27° and —33°, in the course of 
which he twice, in 1845-6, unconsciously ob- j 
served the planet Neptune, were his most I 
important astronomical work. The resulting j 
eleven catalogues are contained in six volumes | 
(1866-74) supplementary to the * Annalen* 
of the observatory. Some additional observa- 
tions by Lamont were published by Seeliger 
in 1884 (Suppl. Band xiv.) Lamont ob- 
served the total solar eclipses of 8 July 1842 
and 18 July 1860, the latter at Castellon de 
la Plana in Spain* and discussed theattendant 
phenomena {Phil. Mag. xix.416, 1860 ; Fort- 
schritte der Pht/sik r xvi. 569). He led the 
way in adopting the ehronographic mode of 
registering transits; described in 1839 the 
* ghost-micrometer* (Jahrbuch der Stern- 
tcarte, iii. 187) ; and received the order of 
the Iron Crown from the emperor of Austria 
for connecting the Austrian and Bavarian 
surveys. 9 

His services to terrestrial magnetism began 
in 1836 with the establishment of a system 
of daily observations adopted internationally 
in 1840, when a magnetic observatory was 
built, under his directions, at Bogenhausen. 
A set of instruments designed by him for de- 
termining the magnetic elements came into 
extensive use, and with his ' travelling theo- 
dolite ' he executed magnetic surveys of Ba- 
varia (1849-52), France and Spain (1856-7), 
North Germany and Denmark (1868). The 
results were published at Munich, 1854-6, 
in 'Magnetische Ortsbestimmungen ausge- 
fuhrt an verschiedenen Punkten des K6- 
nigreichs Baiern * (with an Atlas in folio) ; 
followed in 1858 by ' Untersuchungen uber 
dieRichtungundStarkedesErdmagnetismus 
an verschiedenen Punkten des siidwestlichen 
Europa,' and in 1859 by * Untersuchungen 
in Nord-Deutschland.' The discovery of the 
decennial magnetic period was announced 
by Lamont in September 1850 (Annalen der 



PAysik, Ixxxiv. 580) ; that of the ' earth- 
current'in 'Der Erdstrom undderZusam- 
menhang desselben mit dem Magnetismus 
der Erde* (Leipzig, 1862), a work of great 
practical importance in telegraphy ; while his 
studies in atmospheric electricity led him to 
the conclusion of a constant negative charge 
in the earth (ib. lxxxv. 494}. From 1838 
Bogenhausen became, through his exertions, 
a meteorological centre j he founded a me- 
teorological association which spread over 
Germany, but was obliged, for lack of funds, 
to suspend after three years the publication 
of the valuable * Annalen fur Meteorologie 
und Erd-Magnetismus' (1842-4). 

Lamont was associated with the Royal 
Astronomical Society in 1887, with the Royal 
Societies of Edinburgh and London respec- 
tively in 1845 and 1852, and was appointed 
in 1852 professor of astronomy in the uni- 
versity of Munich. He was a member of 
most of the scientific academies of Europe, 
and among the orders with which he was 
decorated were those of Gregory the Great 
(conferred by Pius IX), of the Northern Star 
of Sweden, and of the Crown of Bavaria, the 
last carrying with it a title of nobility. He 
led a tranquil, solitary life, never married, 
and was indifferent to ordinary enjoyments. 
He often, however, took part in the reunions 
of the ' catholic casino ' at Munich. He was 
personally frugal, liberal to charities, and en- 
dowed the university of Munich with a sum 
of forty-two thousand florins for the support 
of mathematical students. He established a 
workshop at the observatory, and was his 
own mechanician. Small in stature, with 
sharply cut features, and large, mild blue 
eyes, he possessed a constitution without flaw, 
except through an injury to the spinal marrow, 
received in a fall from horseback when a boy. 
He died from its effects on 6 Aug. 1879, and 
was buried in the churchyard at Bogenhausen. 

Among his principal works are : 1. * Hand- 
buch des Erdmagnetismus/ Berlin, 1849. 
2. ' Astronomie und Erdmagnetismus/ Stutt- 
gart, 1851. 3. 'Handbucn des Magnetis- 
mus* (Allgemeine Encyclopadie der Vhysik, 
Band xv.), Leipzig, 1867. The titles of 107 
memoirs by him — many of them highly au- 
thoritative — are enumerated in the Royal 
Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers, and 
he published from the observatory ten volumes 
of ' Observationes Astronomic®/ thirty-four 
of 'Annalen der Sternwarte,' and four volumes 
of « Jahrbucher ' (1838-41 ). 

[Allgemeine Deutsche Biographic (Giinther); 
Historisch-PolitischeBlaiter,BandIxxxv.(Schaf- 
hautl) ; Vierteyahrsschrift der Astronomischen 
GesfcHschaft, xv. 60 (C. von Orff) ; Monthly No- 
tices Royal Astronomical 80c. xl. 203 ; Nature, 



Lamont 



28 



La Motte 



xx. 425 ; Observatory, Hi. 155 ; Athenaeum, 1879, 
ii. 214 ; Times, 1 2 Aug. 1879 ; Quarterly Journal 
Meteorological Soc. vi. 72 ; Proceedings Royal 
Soc. of Edinburgh, x. 358 ; PoggendorflFs Biog. 
Lit. Handworrerbuch ; Wolfs Geschichte der 
Astronomic, p. 657, &c. ; Madler's Gesch. der 
Himmekkunde, Bd. ii. ; Sir F. Bonalds's Cat. of 
Books relating to Electricity and Magnetism, 
pp. 281-3 ; Royal Society's Cat. of Scientific 
Papers, vols. iii. vii.] A. M. C. 

LAMONT, JOHN (Jl. 1671), chronicler, 
was probably son of John Lamont, who was 
described in 1642 as * destitute of any means 
for his wife and children, having been chased 
out of Ireland by the rebels/ and died at 
Johnston's Mill in 1652. His grandfather, 
Allan Lamont or Lawmonth (d. 1632), was 
minister of Kennoway,Fifeshire, in 1586, and 
afterwards of Scoonie conjointly. His great- 
grandfather, Allan Lawmonth (d. 1574), 
second son of Lawmonth of that ilk in 
Argyllshire, entered the college of St. An- 
drews in 1536, settled in the city of St. An- 
drews about 1540, and was the first of the 
family to associate himself with Fifeshire. 
The intimate acquaintance shown by Lamont 
in his extant ' Chronicle ' with the affairs of 
the Lundins of that ilk has led to the sug- 
gestion that he was factor to that family, 
and his interest in and knowledge of the 
prices paid for properties purchased in Fife 
support the theory that ne was a landed 
estate agent of some kind. The ' Diary ' by 
which he is known ostensibly begins in 
March 1649 and terminates in April 1671, 
but it is evident that both the beginning 
and end are incomplete as published. It 
supplies dates of the births, marriages, and 
deaths that occurred not only in Fifeshire 
families, but also among the nobility of 
Scotland, and is of great value to the Scot- 
tish genealogist. It also gives accounts of 
Lamont's brother Allan, and of his sisters 
Margaret and Janet, and of their families. 
The absence of any reference to his own 
marriage implies that he died a bachelor, pro- 
bably about 1675. His brother's eldest son, 
John (b. 1661), was his heir, and doubtless 
inherited his uncle's manuscripts, including 
the ' Diary.' This John was at one time a 
skipper 01 Largo, but in 1696 acquired the 
estate of Newton, in the parish of Kennoway . 
The ' Diary ' was first published, under the 
title of the 'Chronicle of Fife,' by Constable 
in 1810, and was ascribed to John Lamont 
4 of Newton,' a confusion of the nephew with 
the uncle, the real author. Another edition 
from early manuscripts, then in the posses- 
sion of General Durham of Largo and James 
Lumisdaine of Lathallan, was issued by the 
Bannatyne Club in 1830. 



[The Rev. Walter Wood of Elie, in his East 
Neuk of Fife, 1888, first distinguished accurately 
between the two John Lamonts, uncle and nephew, 
and identified the former with the author of the 
Chronicle.] A. H. M. 

LAMOTHE, CLAUDE GROSTfiTE db 
£1647-17 18), theologian, was born at Orleans 
in 1647, and was the eon of Jacques Grostete 
de la Buffiere, a member of the Paris bar, 
and an elder of the protestant church at 
Charenton. He assumed, according to cus- 
tom, the name of one of his father's estates. 
He graduated in law at Orleans University 
1664, and in the following year joined the 
Paris bar; but in 1675, having abandoned 
law for theology, he became protestant pastor 
at Lizy, near Melun. In 1682 he accepted 
a call to Rouen, but returned to Lizy on find- 
ing that no successor could be obtained, and 
was secretary of the provincial synod held 
there. On the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes in 1685, he sought refuge in London 
with his wife, Marie Berthe, daughter of a 
Paris banker, was naturalised in 1688, and 
was minister first of the Swallow Street, and 
then, from 1694 till his death, of the Savoy 
Church. In 1712 he was elected a member of 
the Berlin Royal Society ; in 1713he collected 
subscriptions in England for the Huguenots 
released from the French galleys ; and he died 
in London 30 Sept. 1713. La Mothe's father 
abjured protestantism, and his brother, Marin 
des Mahis, an ex-pastor, became a canon of Or- 
leans. La Mothe published * Two Discourses 
relating to the Divinity of our Saviour,' Lon- 
don, 1693,'The Inspiration of the New Testa- 
ment asserted and explained,' London, 1694, 
and several treatises in French, one of them 
in defence of the Camisard prophets. 

[Biography prefixed to his Sermons sur divers 
Textes, Amsterdam, 1715 ; Agnew's Prot. Exiles 
from France, 3rd edit. London, 1886; Haag*s 
La France Protestante, Paris, 1855 ; Encyc. des 
Sciences Eeligieuses, v. 749, Paris, 1878.] 

J. G. A. 

LA MOTTE, JOHN (1570 P-1655), mer- 
chant of London, born about 1570, was the 
son of Francis La Motte of Ypres in Flanders, 
who came over to England about 1562, took 
up his residence at Colchester, and died in 
London. La Motte was sent to a school in 
Ghent under the Dutch protestant church. 
His master, Jacobus Reginus (Jan de Konink), 
in a letter dated 11 July 1583 to Wingius, 
the minister of the Dutch Church at London, 
mentions him as a very promising pupil, ex- 
celling his schoolfellows in talent and dili- 
gence (Ecelesice Londino-Batava Archivum, 
ed. Hessels, ii. 754-5). He appears to have 
finished his education at the university of 
Heidelberg (#. i. 372). 



La Motte 



29 



Lampe 



La Motte was a successful merchant. On 
7 Dec. 1611 lie wrote to the Earl of Salisbury, 
'desiring an audience, to disclose some secrets 
he heard beyond the seas,' and suggested a 
tax upon black and brown thread, that the 
English poor might be employed in its manu- 
facture. At the same time he solicited a 
warrant to seize all thread imported from 
such foreign countries as banished English 
cloth, and the farm of the tax of that manu- 
facture in England (CaL of State Papers, 
Dom. 1611-18, p. 98). In April 1616 La 
Motte, with three others, petitioned the king 
for permission to export and import mer- 
chandise, paying only such customs as Eng- 
lish merchants pay, on the ground that he 
was born in England, though of foreign 
parents, and that he submitted to law, church, 
and government taxes (ib. p. 863). 

La Motte afterwards became a permanent 
member of the Reformed Dutch Church in 
Austinfriars, and his name appears in the 
list of elders for 1626 (Mobns, Registers of \ 
the Dutch Church, p. 209). On 24 March 1636 
the king granted a license to La Motte and five 
others, including Sir William Courten [q. v.] ! 
and Alderman Campbell, to establish a foreign • 
church at Sandtoft for celebrating divine 
service either in the English or Dutch tongues, ' 
according to the rites of the established 
church of England {Huguenot 80c. Proc. ii. 
293-4). He resided within the parish of St. 
Bartholomew by the Exchange, in one of the 
largest houses in that parish, standing due 1 
east of the eastern entrance to the Koyal ' 
Exchange, and in the middle of the broad ! 
pavement which now extends from Thread- 
needle Street to Cornhill. He paid 3/. 9*. 4d. 
to the poor-rate, so that his house must have | 
been assessed at about 104/. a year ( Vestry 
Minute Books of the Parish of St. Bartholo- 
mew, edited by Edwin Freshfield, p. xl). 
His name first occurs in the books of the 
parish in May 1615. He served the chief 
parish offices, viz. constable in 1619, and 
churchwarden in 1621. La Motte died in 
July 1665, and was buried on the 24th of 
that month in the church of St. Bartholo- 
mew by the Exchange (Smyth, Obituary, 
p. 40). 

He married Anne Tivelyn of Canterbury. 
By her he had two daughters, who were 
baptised in the Dutch church in Austinfriars, 
vub. Hester, married to John Manyng and 
(according to La Motte's will) to Sir Thomas 
Honywood, and Elisabeth, who married 
Maurice Abbot, second son of Sir Maurice 
Abbot, lord mayor of London ( Visitation of 
London, Harl. Soc., ii. 42). Only the elder 
survived her father (Moens, Registers of the 
Dutch Church, 1884, p. 43). William King 



(1663-1712) [q. v.] claims La Motte as his 
great-grandfather (Adversaria). His will, 
dated 23 May 1655, was proved in the 
P. 0. C. 8 Aug. 1655 (86, Aylett). One 
half of his estate was bequeathed to his 
grandchild, Maurice Abbot ; the other half 
was distributed in numerous legacies to re- 
latives and friends, and in bequests of a 
charitable nature. Twenty-five pounds were 
left to the parish of St. Bartholomew, the 
interest to be employed in providing a lec- 
ture to be delivered in the church every 
Sunday afternoon. Other bequests were made 
to the poor of Bridewell Hospital (of which 
he was a governor), and of Christ's Hospital; 
endowments towards the ministers' stipend, 
a parsonage-house, and relief of the poor of 
the Dutch church of London. The follow- 
ing also were legatees : the three ministers 
of the Dutch church ; the poor of St. James's, 
Colchester; the poor of Foulmer in Cam- 
bridge ; the Dutch congregations and their 
ministers and poor at Colchester, Sandwich, 
and Canterbury ; the clerk and beadle of the 
Weavers' Company, of which he appears to 
have been a member ; and a very large num- 
ber of apprentices, servants, and other de- 
pendents. He was possessed at the time of 
nis death of various properties in Essex and 
Cambridgeshire, including the manors of 
Kamsey and Brudwell in the former county, 
and an estate at Foulmer in the latter. 
Administration of his will was granted to 
his executors, James Houblon and Maurice 
Abbot. 

A portrait of La Motte by Faithorne is 
prefixed to Fulk Bellers's ' Life ' and funeral 
sermon, 1656. 

[Authorities above cited ; Fulk Bellers's Life of 
La Motte, 1656, 4to ; Granger's Biog. Hist. ii. 276 ; 
Clark's Lives of Eminent Men.] C. W-h. 

LAMPE, JOHN FREDERICK (1703 P- 
1751), musical composer, was a native of 
Saxony, and, according to the epitaph on his 
tombstone, was born in or about 1703. The 
place of his birth is stated to have been 
Helmstadt, but a search of the baptismal 
records there has not revealed the name of 
Lampe (Love). Hawkins says ' he affected 
to style nimself sometime a student of music 
at Helmstadt,' and this may have led to the 
belief that he was born there. Nothing is 
known of his career before he arrived in Lon- 
don about 1725, when he became a bassoon- 
player in the opera band. He is reported to 
have been one of the finest bassoonists of his 
time. About 1780 he was engaged by Rich, 
manager of Covent Garden, to compose music 
for pantomimes and other entertainments 
performed there. In 1732 he wrote the music 



Lampe 



30 



Lamphire 



for Henry Carey's * Amelia ' ( Hawkins states 
that Carey was a pupil of Lampe's), and in 
1737 he set the same writer's burlesque opera, 
the ' Dragon of Wantiey .' The latter work, 
said to have been a favourite with Handel, 
and written in imitation of the ' Beggar's 
Opera/ had an extraordinary success. It 
was followed in 1738 by a sequel entitled 
' Margery, or a Worse Plague than the 
Dragon.' Tn 1741 he wrote music for the 
masque of the ' Sham Conjuror,' and in 1745 
composed ' Pyramus and Thisbe, a mock 
Opera, the words taken from Shakespeare.' ' 
He was the composer of many now-forgotten ( 
songs, several of which appeared in collec- 
tions, like ' Wit Musically Embellish'd : a 
collection of forty-two new English ballads,' 
the ' Ladies' Amusement,' * Lyra Britannica,' , 
the * Vocal Mask,' and the ' Musical Miscel- 
lany,' &c. Hawkins attributes to him an j 
anonymous cantata entitled * In Harmony ' 
would you excel,' with words by Swift, ife 
was the author of two theoretical works : ' A | 
Plain and Compendious Method of Teaching 
Thorough-Bass,' London, 1737, and the ' Art 
of Musick,' London, 1740. * Hymns on the 
Great Festivals and other Occasions ' (Lon- 
don, 1746) contains twenty-four tunes in two ' 
parts, specially composed by him, to words 
by the Rev. Charles Wesley. In 1748 or 1749, 
with his wife and a small company, he went 
to Dublin, where he conducted theatrical 
performances and concerts, and in November 
1750 he moved to Edinburgh to take up a 
similar engagement at the Canongate Theatre. 
He died in Edinburgh on 25 July 1751, and 
was buried in the Canongate churchyard, 
where a monument, now in a dilapidated 
state, was erected to his memory. Tne pre- 
diction of the epitaph that his ' harmonious 
compositions shall outlive monumental regis- 
ters, and, with melodious notes through future 
ages, perpetuate hisfame,' has only been partly 
fulfilled, for, with the exception of the long- 
metre hymn-tune, ' Kent,' none of his com- 
positions are now heard. From contem- 
porary notices we gather that Lampe was an 
excellent musician, and a man of irreproach- 
able character. He was greatly esteemed by 
Charles Wesley, who wrote a hymn on his 
death, beginning ' Tis done ! the soVreign 
will's obeyed ! ' This hymn was afterwards 
set to music by Dr. Samuel Arnold. 

Lampe's wife, Isabella, was daughter of 
Charles Young, organist of All-Hallows, 
Barking, and sister of Mrs. Arne. She was 
noted both as a vocalist and as an actress. 
Lampe's son, Charles John Frederick, some- 
times confounded with his father, was or- 
ganist of AU-Hallow8,in succession to Young, 
from 1758 to 1769. 



[Hawkins's Hist. Music, v. 371 ; Burney's Hist. 
Music, iv. 655; Grove's Diet. Music; Love's Scot- 
tish Church Music, its Composers and Sources, 
p. 188, and article in Scottish Church, June 1890 ; 
Dibdin's Annals of the Edinburgh Stage. The 
epitaph in the Canongate churchyard states that 
Lampe was in his forty-eighth year when he 
died.] J. C. H. 

LAMPHIRE, JOHN, M.D. (1614-1688), 

Principal of Hart Hall, Oxford, son of George 
jamphire, apothecary, was born in 1614 at 
Winchester, and was admitted scholar of 
Winchester College in 1627 (Kibby, Win- 
Chester Scholars, p. 172). He matriculated 
from New College, Oxford, on 19 Aug. 1634, 
aged 20 ; was elected fellow there in 1636 ; 
proceeded B. A. in 1638, and M. A. in January 
1641-2. He is apparently the John Lanfire 
who was appointed prebendary of Bath and 
Wells in 1641. In 1648 he was ejected from 
his fellowship by the parliamentary visitors, 
but during the Commonwealth practised 
physic with some success at Oxford. Wood 
m his t Autobiography ' says he belonged to 
a set of royalists ' who esteemed themselves 
virtuosi or wits/ and was sometimes the 
' natural droll of the company.' He was 
Wood a physician, and tried to cure his deaf- 
ness. Lamphire was restored to his fellow- 
ship in 1660, and on 16 Aug. was elected 
Camden professor of history. On 30 Oct. 
1660 he was created M.D. On 8 Sept. 1662 
he succeeded Dr. Rogers (deprived) as prin- 
cipal of New Inn Hall, and on 30 May 1663 
was translated to the headship of Hart Hall. 
According to Wood he was 'a public-spirited 
man, but not fit to govern ; layd out much on 
the Principal's lodgings, buildings done there ' 
{Life and Times, Oxf. Hist. Soc, i. 475). He 
was also a justice of the peace for the city 
and county of Oxford, and seems to have 
taken some part in civic affairs, particularly 
in the paving of St. Clement's and the drain- 
ing of the town moat. He died on 30 March 
1688, aged 73,and was buried on 2 April in 
the chapel of Hart Hall (Hertford College), 
near the west door. Walker calls him 'a 
good, generous, and fatherly man, of a public 
spirit, and free from the modish hypocrisy of 
the age he lived in/ 

Lamphire had a good collection of books 
and manuscripts, but some of them were 
burnt in April 1659 by a fire in his house. 
He owned thirty-eight manuscripts of the 
works of Thomas Lydiat [q. v.], which he 
had bound in twenty-two volumes, and he 
published one of them, 'Canones Chrono- 
logici' (Oxford, 1675). He also published 
two works by Dr. Hugh Lloyd fq. v.], the 
grammarian, in one vol., entitled 'Phrases 
Elegantiores et Dictata,' Oxford, 1654 (Bod- 



Lamplugh 



31 



Lamplugh 



leian). To the second edition (1681) of his 
friend John Masters's * Monarchia Britannica,' 
an oration ffiven in New College Chapel on 
6 April 1642 (1st edit. 1661), Lamphire added 
an oration by Henry Savile [q. v.] He is also 
said to have published * Qusestiones in Logica, 
Ethica, Physica, et Metaphysica' (Oxford, 
1680) by Robert Pink or Pinck, and he edited 
Henry Wotton's ' Plausus et Vota ad Regem 
e Scotia reducem in Monarchia ' (Oxford, 
1681). He was an executor to Jasper Mayne 
[q. v.], and with South put a stone over his 
grave in Christ Church Cathedral. 

[Wood's Athenas, ed. Bliss, i. 710, ii. 314, 646, 
iii. 85, 188-9, 226, 973, iv. 480; Autobiography 
prefixed, xxv, xxxvi, lxiv, lxix, xcvi, &c. ; 
Wood's Fasti, i. 500, ii. 235 ; Wood's Hist, of 
Oxf. Univ. (Grutch), pp. 233, 647, 681 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti, iii. 525, 583, 589; Kennett's Register, pp. 
153, 332, 592 ; Burrow's Register of Visitors to 
the Univ. of Oxford, Camden Soc.] E. T. B. 

LAMPLUGH, THOMAS (1615-1691), 
successively bishop of Exeter and archbishop 
of York, the son of Thomas Lamplugh, a 
member of an old Cumberland family seated 
at Dovenby in the parish of Bridekirk, was 
born in 1615 at Octon in the parish of Thwing 
in the East Riding of Yorkshire. He was 
educated at St. Bees School, whence he passed 
in 1634 to Queen's College, Oxford, where 
he was first servitor, then tabarder, and ulti- 
mately fellow. He graduated B.A. 4 July 
1639, M.A. 1 Nov. 1642, B.D. 23 July 1657, 
D.D., by royal mandate, 9 Nov. 1660. In 1648, 
when the parliamentary visitors reorganised 
the university, he took the covenant and re- 
tained his fellowship. But Hearne speaks of 
him as ' a man of good character for his 
loyalty and integrity in those bad times;' 
his sermons at Carfax, at which he was ap- 
pointed lecturer, were attended by * all the 
honest loyal men in Oxford* {Collections, Oxf. 
Hist. Soc., ii. 48). Fell also records to his 
praise that he was ' the only parochial minister 
of Oxford who discountenanced schismatical 
and rebel teaching, and had the courage and 
loyalty to own the doctrines of the church 
of England in the worst of times ' {Life of 
AUestree, p. 14). He assisted Skinner, bishop 
of Oxford, at the numerous ordinations held 
by him privately during the protectorate, and 
is said to have made not less than three hun- 
dred journeys for that purpose from Oxford to 
Launton, where the bishop resided (Pltjmp- 
tbe, Life of Km, i. 54 n.) On the Kestora- 
tion he was able to throw off all disguise and 
declare himself an ardent loyalist. He was 
appointed on the royal commission of 1660 
for reinstating the members of the university 
who had been ejected by the parliamentary 
visitors, in which he exhibited a rather immo- 



derate zeal. Wood says that as he had been 
' a great cringer to Presbyterians and Inde- 
pendents/ he now followed the same course 
to * the prelates and those in authority/ and 
' that he might prove himself a true royalist 
got himself made royal commissioner, and 
showed himself more zealous than any of 
them, until by flatteries and rewards (bribes) 
he shuffled himself into considerable note' 
(Life and Times, Oxf. Hist. Soc., i. 365). 
Wood adds that he was ' a northern man, and 
therefore not without great dissimulation, 
a forward man, always sneaking ' (ib.) The 
rewards for this well-timed zeal were not 
slow in coming. He received the livings of 
Binfield, Berkshire, and Charlton-on-Otmoor 
(which latter he held in commendam after his 
elevation to the episcopate), and was elected 
proctor in convocation for the clergy of Ox- 
fordshire in 1661 (Kennett, Register,\>.4BY). 
In 1663 he was appointed by the kine- (sede 
vacante) tothe archdeaconry of Oxford, but his 
title to the office was successfully disputed 
by Dr. Thomas Barlow [q. v.], afterwards 
bishop of Lincoln, at the assizes of that year 
(Wood, Athena, iv. 334). His disappoint- 
ment was not of long duration. On 27 May 
1664 he was appointed to succeed Dr. Dolben 
as archdeacon of London ; in August of the 
same year he received the principalship of 
St. Alban Hall. Wood says that ne ' had a 
wife; looked after preferment; neglected the 
hall' (Life and Times, ii. 19). In May 1669 
he was made prebendary of Worcester, and 
in July 1670 was collated to the vicarage of 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. In March 1672-3 
he was promoted to the deanery of Rochester, 
and in 1676, on the translation of Sparrow 
from Exeter to Norwich, he was appointed, 
by the influence of Sir Joseph Williamson, to 
the vacant see. 

As bishop of Exeter, Lamplugh's conduct 
was exemplary. He promoted the repair of 
the parish churches in his diocese, which had 
suffered much during the puritan sway, and 
in his own cathedral caused the monuments 
of his predecessors to be restored to their 
original places. He regularly attended the 
cathedral services thrice daily, and was pre- 
sent at a fourth service in his own private 
chapel. He showed great moderation to- 
wards the nonconformist clergy of his diocese, 
stopping proceedings against them when it 
was in his power to do so, and dismissing 
them free of costs. Seeking to win them over 
by argument, he urged them to study Hooker 
(Caiamt, Account, pp. 29, 216 ; Continuation, 
pp. 128, 394, 452; Kbnnbtt, Register, pp. 
814, 819, 917). He liberally entertained his 
clergy, to whom he showed a fatherly kind- 
ness. The statement that he and two other 



Lamplugh 



32 



Lampson 



bishops — Pearson being said to be one — voted 
for the Exclusion Bill in 1680 has been satis- 
factorily disproved (Burnet, Life and Times, \ 
ii. 246 n.) But the revolution of 1688 made 
his weakness of moral fibre conspicuous. On 
the issue of * the declaration for liberty of con- 
science/ when urged by Ken and Trelawney 
to resist the royal mandate, he replied, * I 
will be safe/ and though affixing his name 
with ' approbo ' to the rough draft of the 
petition of the seven bishops, he withheld his 
signature to the document and caused the 
declaration to be read through his diocese 
( Tanner MSS. ; Pebby, English Church His- 
tory, ii. 533 n. ; Plumptke, Life of Ken, ii. 
8 n. ; Echabd, Hist iii. 9, 11). He en- 
couraged the clergy and laity of his diocese 
to remain firm in their allegiance to James II, 
and on receiving the intelligence of the land- 
ing of the Prince of Orange and of his march 
towards Exeter, posted off to London to ap- 
prise the king of the event and to declare his 
unshaken loyalty. James received him most 
graciously, 16 Nov., terming him ' a genuine 
old cavalier;' took him into his royal closet, 
and, in spite of his reluctance and protests 
that ' he had simply done his duty without 
thought of reward/ at once conferred on 
him the archbishopric of York. The see had 
been kept vacant for more than two years 
and a half, with the view, it was believed, of 
its being occupied by a prelate of the king's 
own creed. He was elected by the chapter 
of York 28 Nov., and his official translation 
took place at Lambeth on 8 Dec., two days 
before James's flight (Lttttbell, Hist Relat 
i. 484). He joined with Archbishop San- 
croft and his brother bishops, Turner of Ely 
and Spratt of Rochester, in an address to 
James, 17 Nov., earnestly requesting him to 
call a free parliament as the best means of 
preventing bloodshed, which received a sharp 
answer (Bohtjn, Hist of the Desertion, p. 62 ; 
D'Oylet. Life of Sancroft, L 385). He 
voted with the minority in the Convention 
parliament, 22 Jan., for a regency, but was 
one of the first to swear allegiance to Wil- 
liam in the beginning of March, and received 
the temporalities of nis see from his hands 
and assisted at the coronation 11 April 1689. 
The following year he was appointed a 
member of the royal commission to consider 
the ' Comprehension Bill ' (Calamy, Abridge- 
ment, p. 447 ; Hunt, Religious Thought in 
England, ii. 283). His tenure of the northern 
primacy was short and uneventful. He died 
at Bishopthorpe, 6 May 1691, aged 76, and 
was buried in the south aisle of the choir of 
the minster. A monument was erected by 
his son. His epitaph confirms the statement 
of his reluctance to accept the primacy, 



' dignitatem multum deprecatus.' Lamplugh 
seems to have printed nothing except a single 
sermon preached before the House of Lords 
5 Nov. 1678. The communion plate of his 
native parish of Thwing was his gift. 

He married Catherine (d. 1671), daughter 
of Edward Davenant, the brother of John 
Davenant, bishop of Salisbury. Of five child- 
ren his son John Lamplugh, D.D., was the sole 
survivor at his death. The son is stigmatised 
by Hearne as 'a little, sneaking, stingy, self- 
interested fellow, who, 'tis said, hindered his 
father from many good works which he was 
naturally inclined to do' (Collections, ii. 48, 
Oxf. Hist. Soc.) 

[Hearne's Collections (Oxf. Hist. Soc.), ii. 48 ; 
Wood's Life and Times (Oxf. Hist. Soc.), i. 365, 
ii. passim; Athene, iv. 334, 869, 878 ; Fasti, i. 
507, ii. 28, 201, 242 ; Kennett's Register, passim ; 
Caiamy's Account, pp. 29, 216; Continuation, 
pp. 128, 394, 452; Allestree's Life of Fell, p. 14; 
Biogr. Brit. vol. vi. pt. i. p. 3737, n. 2 ; Newcourt's 
Repertorium, i. 64, 692 ; Lansdowne MS. 987, ff. 
133, 149 ; Macaulay's Hist, of Engl. ii. 489, 503 ; 
Bohun's Hist, of the Desertion, pp. 59, 62 ; Borer's 
William IH, i. 240 ; D'Oyley's Life of Sancroft, 
i. 385, 428 ; Plumptre's Life of Ken, i. 54, ii. 8 ; 
Echard's History, iii. 9, 1 1 ; Oliver's Lives of the 
Bishops of Exeter, pp. 155, 158.] E. V. 

LAMPSON, Sib CURTIS MIRANDA 
(1806-1885), advocate of the Atlantic cable, 
fourth son of William Lampson of New- 
haven, Vermont, by Rachel, daughter of 
George Powell of Louisborough, Massa- 
chusetts, was born in Vermont on 21 Sept. 
1806. He came to England in 1830, and set 
up in business as a merchant, and was after- 
wards seniorpartner in the firm of C. M. Lamp- 
son & Co. at 9 Queen Street Place, Upper 
Thames Street, London. On 14 May 1849 he 
was naturalised and became a British subject. 
On the formation of the company for laying 
the Atlantic telegraph in 1856 he was ap- 
| pointed one of the directors, and soon after 
I vice-chairman. For ten years he devoted 
much time to its organisation. The great 
, aid he rendered was acknowledged in a letter 
, from Lord Derby to Sir Stafford Northcote, 
I who presided at a banquet given at Li verpool, 
1 on 1 Oct. 1866, in honour of those who had 
, been active in laying the cable, and on 
16 Nov. Lampson was created a baronet of 
the United Kingdom. He was deputy-go- 
vernor of the Hudson Bay Company, and one 
of the trustees of the fund that was given 
by his friend George Peabody for the benefit 
of the poor of London. 

He died at 80 Eaton Square, London, on 

12 March 1885 ; the value of his personalty 

in England was sworn at 401,000/. He mar- 

I ried on 30 Nov. 1827, in New York, Jane 



Lancaster 



33 



Lancaster 



Walter, youngest daughter of Gibbs Sibley 
of Sutton, Massachusetts. His only daugh- 
ter, Hannah Jane, married, in 1874, Frederick 
Locker, poet and Shakespearean collector, 
who assumed the additional name of Lamp- 
son. His son, George Curtis, born in London 
on 12 June 1883, succeeded to the baronetcy. 
[Illustrated London News, 1866, xlix. 545, 
558, with portrait ; Appleton's American Biog. 
1 887, iii- 602 ; Foster's Baronetage, 1888, p. 375 ; 
Times, 13 March 1885, p. 10.] G. C. B. 

LANCASTER, Dukes of. [See Hbnby 
of Lancastbb, 1299 P-l 861 ; John of Gaunt, 
1340-1399.] 

LANCASTER, EDMUND, Eabl of 
(1246-1296), called Cbotjchbacx, second son 
of Henry III [q. v.] and his queen Eleanor 
of Provence, was born on 16 Jan. 1245, and 
in May 1254 was taken by his mother into 
France, where he remained until December. 
Early in that year Henry accepted on his 
behalf the offer of Pone Innocent IV to in- 
vest him with the kingdom of Sicily and 
Apulia, and in May he was styled lung of 
Sicily. Alexander IV confirmed the grant 
in April 1255 on certain burdensome condi- 
tions, Edmund declaring himself a vassal of 
the holy see, and Henry promising to pay 
the pope 135,540 marks expended on the 
war with the Hohenstaufen house. Cardinal 
Ubaldini was sent to England by the pope 
with a ring with which on 18 Oct. he in- 
vested Edmund with the kingdom. The 
scheme was unpopular in England, and the 
demands of the king and the pope for money 
to carry it out were the chief cause of the 
king's future troubles with the barons. In 

Site of the large sums sent over to Italy by 
enry, and the strenuous efforts of the pope, 
the attempt to drive Manfred out of southern 
Italy was completely unsuccessful. Probably 
to stimulate English zeal, a letter was sent 
from Rome in 1257 warning the king that 
assassins had been commissioned by Manfred 
to slay him and his sons Edward and Ed- 
mund. In the Lent parliament, at which 
Henry made fresh demands for money, he 
exhibited Edmund in Apulian dress. It was 
evident that the pope's scheme was doomed 
to failure, and Henry instructed ambassa- 
dors to propose to Innocent that the quarrel 
should be arranged by means of a marriage 
between Edmund and the daughter of Man- 
fred. In the summer of 1258, when the 
government appointed in accordance with 
the provisions of Oxford was in power, the 
barons wrote to the pope repudiating the 
Sicilian scheme. However, in January 1 260, 
Henry, who had taken Edmund with him to 
Paris in the preceding November, informed 

VOL. 



the Archbishop of Messina that he was about 
to prosecute the scheme with greater vigour 
than ever, and entered into negotiations with 
the pope on the subject. During the latter 
halfof 1 262 Edmund, who was in Paris with 
his brother, was known in England to be 
doing his best to overthrow the provisions 
of Oxford. He expressed great displeasure 
on hearing in 1263 that Urban IV was likely 
to annul the grant of the Sicilian kingdom, 
and on 29 July the pope wrote to him and 
his father pointing out that the conditions of 
the grant had not been fulfilled, and declar- 
ing that the matter was at an end. During 
his virtual captivity Henry sent on behalf of 
himself and his son an explicit renunciation 
of all claim to the kingdom. Edmund ap- 
pears to have been in Paris during the civil 
war, and was engaged in 1264 in assisting his 
mother to raise an army for the invasion of 
England. After the battle of Evesham he re- 
turned home with his mother, and was among 
the number of the magnates who urged the 
king to adopt the sweeping measure of con- 
fiscation determined on in the parliament of 
Winchester, being moved, it was believed, by 
the desire of enriching himself. He had a 
large share of the spoils, being created Earl 
of Leicester, and receiving the stewardship of 
the kingdom in October, and in November 
the castles of Carmarthen and Cardigan, 
The next year he had grants of all the goods 
of Robert Ferrers, earl of Derby, and of the 
honour of Derby, and on 30 July 1267 was 
created Earl of Lancaster, and received the 
honour of Monmouth. In June 1266 he 
commanded a division of the royal army at 
the siege of Kenilworth, and when the castle 
surrendered the king gave it to him. In 
1267 he was appointed to treat with Llewelyn 
of Wales, ana during the latter part of the 
year joined his brother in holding a number 
of tournaments [see under Edwabd I]. 

In common with his brother and other 
magnates, Lancaster took the cross at the 
parliament held at Northampton in June 
1268. On 13 Oct. 1269 he assisted at the 
translation of Edward the Confessor at West- 
minster. His marriage in April 1270 with 
Aveline de Fortibus, daughter and heiress of 
William, earl of Albemarle (d. 1260), brought 
him great wealth, and the expectation of 
much more, for his bride's mother was Isabel, 
sister and heiress of Baldwin de Redvers, 
earl of Devon (d. 1262), but Aveline did not 
live to succeed to her mother's inheritance. 
In the spring of 1271 Lancaster went to 
Palestine with a body of crusaders ; he joined 
his brother, and was with him at Acre. Re- 
turning home before Edward, he reached 
England in December 1272, shortly after his 



Lancaster 



34 



Lancaster 



fathers death, was received with rejoicing 
by the Londoners, and went to his mother 
at Windsor. His crusade, during which he 
is said to have accomplished little or nothing 
(Annates Winton. ii. 110), seems to have 
gained him the nickname of Crouchback (or 
crossed back). It is said, however, to have 
been asserted by John of Gaunt in 1385 that 
the name implied deformity, that Edmund 
was really the elder son of Henry III, but 
had been passed over by his father as unfit 
to reign (jEulogium, ill. 361, 370), and a de- 
sire of spreading this fable appears to have 
been entertained by Henry of Lancaster, 
Henry IV, and was perhaps implied in his 
challenge of the crown (Constitutional His- 
tory, iii. 11, with references). For the ex- 
penses of his crusade the pope demanded a 
tenth from the clergy. In November 1278 
Lancaster's wife died childless, and in 1275 
he married Blanche, daughter of Robert I, 
count of Artois (d. 1270), a younger son of 
Louis VIII of France, and widow of Henry, 
count of Champagne and king of Navarre 
(d. 1274), a beautiful woman, who brought 
him the county of Champagne, her dower 
on her former marriage, to be held until 
her daughter Jeanne, afterwards queen of 
Philip IV, married or attained her majority. 
He was accordingly styled Count of Cham- 
pagne and Brie, and resided much at Provins 
(dept. Seine-et-Marne), whence he is said to 
have brought the roses, incorrectly called Pro- 
vence roses, into England. When in London 
he lived in the Savoy Palace. His marriage 
displeased his wife's brother, Count Robert of 
Artois, who believed that he was unfriendly 
to France, and feared that he would endea- 
vour to hinder the king's designs with regard 
to Jeanne's inheritance. In 1276 he brought 
his new wife to England. 

During the Welsh war of 1277 Lancaster 
commanded the king's forces in South Wales, 
and the following year acted as ambassador 
at the French court. Provins being at this 
time pledged to Philip III, the king laid an 
unwonted impost on the town, and the towns- 
people having risen and slain their mayor, 
Lancaster was sent to quell the insurrection. 
He disarmed the burghers, quashed the privi- 
leges of the town, and broke the common bell. 
A letter sent by him to King Edward in 1283, 
and described in the ' Foedera ' (i.631) as ' de 
negotio Provinci®,' refers to his rights over 
Provins. He meditated undertaking another 
crusade, for in 1280 Archbishop Peckham 
wrote to Nicolas HI, and in 1281 to Mar- 
tin IV, recommending that the money raised 
in England for the expected crusade should 
be handed to Lancaster, as he was popular 
with soldiers, devout, and eager in the cause 



of the cross. Martin, however, refused to 
accept him as a substitute for the king. In 
1282, in company with Roger Mortimer, he 
defeated Llewelyn and sent his head to Lon- 
don, and in that year, and again in 1292, he 
received grants of castles and lordships in 
the Welsn marches. In 1291 Lancaster was 
appointed lieutenant of Ponthieu during the 
minority of Edward, prince of Wales, and 
in this year and the next held commands at 
Jedburgh and Norham. He was sent as am- 
bassador to France early in 1294, assisted in 
arranging terms of peace, and in accordance 
with Edward's commands put the officers of 
Philip IV in possession of the strong places 
and towns of Gascony. When the war oroke 
out between England and France he received 
the French king s leave to go to England, 
and, as he took back his allegiance, lost 
Champagne. An English army having been 
sent into Gascony, Lancaster sailed with the 
Earl of Lincoln and reinforcements to take 
the command in January 1296. He sent 
messengers asking to be allowed to pass 
through Brittany in order to rest his forces 
and gather provisions. His messengers were 
hanged by the Bretons, and in revenge he 
plundered the country. On landing in Gas- 
cony he stayed for a while at Bourg and 
Blaye, where he was joined by many Gascons, 
so that his forces amounted to more than two 
thousand men-at-arms ; he gained one or two 
small places, and being then appointed lieu- 
tenant of Gascony, advanced on 28 March 
to the neighbourhood of Bordeaux, and made 
an unsuccessful attempt on the town. Langon 
was surrendered to him, and the town of 
St. Machaire, and he was besieging the castle 
when five citizens of Bordeaux came to him 
offering to let him into their city. On their 
return their conspiracy was found out, and 
when Lancaster and his forces appeared be- 
fore Bordeaux they found the gates shut. 
A French army under Robert of Artois was 
approaching, and Lancaster found that his 
money was exhausted, and that he no longer 
had the means to retain the army which he 
had gathered. Deeply mortified at his in- 
ability to make heaa against the French he 
retired to Bayonne, and died there on or 
about 6 June. By his second wife, who sur- 
vived him until 1302, he had three sons, 
Thomas [q. v.], who succeeded him, Henry 
[q. v.], who succeeded Thomas, and John, 
and one daughter. He was religious, gay, 
and pleasant in disposition, opem-handed, and 
a popular commander. He founded the Grey 
Friars priory at Preston, Lancashire, and a 
house of minoresses of the order of St. Clare 
outside Aldgate. When he was dying he 
ordered that his body was not to be buried 



Lancaster 



35 



Lancaster 



until his debts were paid. He was obeyed ; 
bis body was carried over to England in 1297 
and honourably buried by the king in West- 
minster Abbey, where his tomb remains on 
the north side of the chapel of the kings, 
next to the tomb of Edward I. 

[Matt. Paris, vols. iv. v. vi. passim (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Annals of Tewk., Burton, Winton, Dunstable, 
Wore, T. Wykes ap. Ann. Monast. vols. i-v. 
passim (Rolls Ser.) ; Royal Letters, Hen. Ill, ii. 
197 (Rolls Ser.) ; Reg. Epp. Jo. Peckham, i. 141, 
191 (Rolls SerO; Annates Londin. ap. Ohron. 
Edw. I, i. 63, 80, 83, 90 (Rolls Ser.); Rvmer's 
Fcedera, vol. i. pts. i. ii. passim (Record ed.) ; 
Euloginm, iii. 119, 361 , 370 (Rolls Ser.) ; Cat. of 
Docs., Scotland, i. 2542, ii. 64 ; Chron. de Laner- 
cost, p. 170 (Bannatyne Club); G. de Collon, 
La Branehe des royaus linages, Chron. de 
Flandre ap. Recueil des Histor. xxii. 10, 211, 
355, 356; G. de Nangis, i. 286, 291 (Societe de 
THist.) ; Bourquelet's Hist, de Provins, i. 235, ii. 
427, 430 ; Trivet, pp. 328, 340, 341, 358 (Engl. 
Hist. Soc.) ; "Walter of Hemingburgh, ii. 72-4 
(Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Doyle's Official Baronage, ii. 
309 ; Dugdale's Baronage, p. 773 ; Monasticon, 
vi 1513, 1553; Stubbs's Const. Hist. iii. 11; 
Stanley's Memorials of Westminster, p. 117.] 

W. BL 

LANCASTER, Eabus of. [See Hbwbt, 
1281 ?-l 345; Thomas, 1278 P-1322.] 

LANCASTER, HENRY op. [See 
Hbnby IV.] 

LANCASTER, JOHN or. [See John, 
Duke op Bedfobd.] 

LANCASTER, CHARLES WILLIAM 
(1820-1878), improver of rifles and cannon, 
eldest son of Charles Lancaster, gunmaker, 
of 151 New Bond Street, London, was born 
at 5 York Street, Portman Square, London, 
on 24 June 1820. On leaving school he en- 
tered his father's factory, where he practi- 
cally learnt the business of a gunmaker, 
and soon became a clever designer of models, 
a thoroughly skilled workman, and a mecha- 
nician of high order. The study of rifled 
projectiles and the construction of rifles was 
his chief pleasure, and he soon attained the 
highest skiU as a rifle shot. In 1846 he con- 
structed a model rifle, with which he experi- 
mented at Woolwich with marvellous success 
at a thousand and twelve hundred yards' dis- 
tance, and the Duke of Wellington then or- 
dered some similar rifles for the rifle brigade 
at the Cape of Good Hope. The years 1844 
and 1845 he devoted to solving the problem 
of rifled cannon. In July 1846 he submitted 
to the board of ordnance a plan for using from 
rifled cannon smooth-sided conical projectiles, 
and imparting the necessary rotatory motion 
by driving a sabot on to the base of the pro- 
jectile, the base having a V cross-piece cast in 



it. Further experiments, however, did not 
encourage him to go on with this scheme. 
In 1850 he conceived the idea of the oval 
bore as the proper form for all rifled arms 
and cannon, and with this system his name 
will always be associated, in order to make 
his invention known, he constructed full- 
size working models of the 68-pounder, the 
largest jpn then in the service, for the Great 
Exhibition of 1851. At the request of the 
government these models were not exhibited, 
but a 68-pounder oval-bore gun, made and 
rifled at Birmingham, with accurately turned 
shells, was sent to Shoeburyness for trial. 
The shooting of this gun directed attention 
to the oval-bore system, and in the succeed- 
ing experiments made at Woolwich Lan- 
caster assisted the war department, and for 
some time superintended the production of 
the guns in the Royal Arsenal. In 1852 he 
experimented upon the *577 pattern Enfield 
rifled musket, and sent to the school of mus- 
ketry at Hythe some specimens of carbines 
bored on his peculiar system. The device 
was considered satisfactory. In January 1855 
the Lancaster carbine was adopted as the arm 
for the royal engineers, and was used by that 
corps until it was superseded by the Martini- 
Henry rifle in 1869. During the Crimean cam- 
paign oval-bored rifle cannon were used and 
did good service, and were, it is said, the first 
rifled guns used in active service by the army 
and navy. Shortly after the war heavier 
guns were required for armour-piercing, and 
the experiments carried out at Shoeburyness, 
in which Lancaster assisted, led to a com- 
plete revolution in rifled artillery. For the 
oval-bore system of rifling he received sub- 
stantial reward from the government. His 
transactions with the war office, however, led 
to disputes, and he scheduled his claims in 
a pamphlet, but was unsuccessful in obtaining 
that recognition of his services to which he 
considered himself entitled. Between 1850 
and 1872 he took out upwards of twenty 

? stents, chiefly in connection with firearms. 
[is last invention was a gas-check, appli- 
cable to large rifled projectiles. He travelled 
much in Russia, where the czar had a special 

gld medal of large size struck in his honour, 
e was elected an associate of the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers on 6 April 1852, and 
wrote a paper, in their * Minutes of Proceed- 
ings ' (xt 115), ' On the Erosion of the Bore 
inlleavy Guns.' While making arrangements 
for retiring from business he was seized with 
paralysis, and died at 151 New Bond -Street, 
London, on 24 April 1878. He married in 
1868 Ellen, daughter of George Edward and 
Ann Thorne of Old Stratford, Northampton- 
shire, by whom he had two daughters. 

d2 



Lancaster 



36 



Lancaster 



[Minutes of Proceedings of Institution of 
Civil Engineers, 1878, liii. 289-92; Sporting 
Mirror, 1882, iii. 21-2 ; Globe Encyclopaedia, 
1879, v. 379 ; Lancaster Shot Manufactory /Wool- 
wich, in Parliamentary Papers, 1854-6, (396), 
xxxii. 683 ; information from Mrs. Lancaster.] 

a. C. B. 

LANCASTER, HENRY HILL (1829- 
1876), essayist, born on 10 Jan. 1829 at 
Glasgow, was son of Thomas Lancaster, a 
Glasgow merchant, and of Jane Kelly. He 
was educated first at the high school, Glas- 
gow, and afterwards at the university. A 
distinguished student, he proceeded in 1849 
as a Snell exhibitioner to Balliol College, 
Oxford. In 1858 he obtained a first class 
in Uteris humanioribus as well as third class 
honours in the school of law and modern 
history, and in the following year he was 
awarded the Arnold prize for an essay on 
'The Benefits arising from the Union of 
England and Scotland in the reign of Queen 
Anne/ He graduated B.A. 1853 and M.A. 
1872. Settling, on leaving Oxford, in Edin- 
burgh, he passed as an advocate there in 
1858, and proved himself an able and in- 
dustrious lawyer. He defended the univer- 
sity in Jex Blake v. the University of Edin- 
burgh, and the 'Athenaeum' in the action 
brought against that journal by Keith John- 
ston. Under Mr. Gladstone's ministry (1868 
to 1874) he held the office of advocate-depute. 
He tooK an active interest in the cause of 
education. In 1868 he served as secretary 
to a commission of inquiry into the state 
of King's and Marischal Colleges, Aberdeen ; 
and in 1872 was a member of a royal com- 
mission on Scottish educational establish- 
ments. 

In his leisure Lancaster contributed to the 
daily Edinburgh press, and in November 1860 
he began a connection with the ' North 
British Review' with an article on 'Lord 
Macaulay's Place in English Literature.' He 
took a strong interest in Scottish political his- 
tory, and wrote for the ' Edinburgh Review ' 
articles on Burton's 'History ot Scotland' 
(July 1867), and on the two Lords Stair 
under the title of ' The Scottish Statesmen 
of the Revolution ' (January 1876). All his 
essays are clearly written and display much 
care and knowledge. He died suddenly from 
apoplexy, on 24 Dec. 1875, aged 46. In the 
following year his more important essays 
were reprinted privately in two volumes, 
with a prefatory notice by Professor Jowett. 
Most of them were afterwards published in 
a single volume entitled 'Essays and Re- 
views,' Edinburgh, 1876. 

Lancaster married in 1862 a daughter of 
Mr. Graham of Skelmorlie, Ayrshire. 



[Private information ; Scotsman, 25 Dec. 1875; 
Edinburgh Journal of Jurisprudence, February 
1876; Athenaeum, 1 Jan. 1876; Oxford Uni- 
versity Calendar.] T. B. S. 

LANCASTER, HUME (rf.1850), painter, 
showed great promise at one time as a painter 
of the sea, of scenes on the French and Dutch 
coasts, and of views on the Scheldt. From 
1836 to 1849 he was an exhibitor at the 
Royal Academy, the Society of British Ar- 
tists, of which he was elected a fellow in 
1841, and at the British Institution. He 
lived in retirement and poverty, and died at 
Erith in Kent on 8 July 1850. Some of his 
pictures were engraved in the London 'Prize 
Annual of the Art Union ' for 1848. 

[Art Journal, 1850, p. 240 ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880.] L. C. 

LANCASTER, Sib JAMES (d. 1618), 
merchant and sea-captain, pioneer of the 
English trade with the East Indies, wa» 
' brought up among the Portuguese; lived 
among them as a gentleman/ a soldier, and 
a merchant (Markham, p. 47). As he after* 
wards spoke of them very bitterly, as a people 
without 'faith or truth/ it would seem that 
he considered himself as having sustained 
some injury or unfair treatment at their 
hands. 

Lancaster returned to England before the 
war with Spain broke out ; and in 1588 com- 
manded the Edward Bonaventure, a mer- 
chant ship of 800 tons, serving under Sir 
Francis Drake in the fleet against the ' Invin- 
cible ' Armada. In 1591, again in command 
of the Edward Bonaventure, he sailed on the 
first English voyage to the East Indies, in 
company with George Raymond, general of 
the expedition, in the Penelope, and Samuel 
Foxcroft in the Merchant Royal. They sailed 
from Plymouth on 10 April, and ran south to 
latitude 8° N. with a fair wind, which then 
died away, leaving them becalmed in the 
' doldrums.' For nearly a month they lay 
there, losing many men from scurvy, and did 
not anchor in Table Bay till 1 Aug. The suf- 
fering had been very great, and though the 
sickness rapidly abated, there were still many 
bad cases which were sent home in the Mer- 
chant Royal. The other two, with 198 men, 
sailed on 8 Sept.; but four days later, in a 
tremendous storm off Cape Corrientes, the 
Penelope went down with all hands. In 
another violent storm on the 16th the Ed- 
ward was struck by lightning, when many 
men were killed or hurt. At the Comoro 
islands, in an affray with the natives, they 
lost the master and some thirty men, to- 
gether with their only boat. At Zanzibar 
they rested and refitted ; and sailing thence 



Lancaster 



37 



Lancaster 



in the middle of February, after a circuitous 
navigation and a season of unfavourable 
winds, doubled Cape Comorin towards the 
•end of May, and in June anchored at Pulo 
Penang, with the ' men very sick and many 
fallen. Many too had died, and after land- 
ing the sick they were left with ' but thirty- 
three men and one boy, of which not past 
twenty-two were found for labour and help, 
and of them not past a third part sailors/ 
Thus reduced, the Edward put to sea about 
the middle of August, and cruising on the 
Martaban coast captured a small Portuguese 
vessel laden with pepper, another of 260 tons 
burden, and a third of 760, with a rich cargo 
and three hundred men, women, and children. 
She then crossed over to Ceylon, and anchor- 
ing at Point de Galle, where ' the captain 
lying very sick, more like to die than to live/ 
the crew mutinied and insisted on taking 
the direct course for England. On 8 Dec. 
1692 they sailed for the Uape of Good Hope, 
which they doubled on 31 March 1693, and 
after touching at St. Helena and at Trinidad 
in the West Indies, in the vain hope ' there 
to find refreshing/ they steered for Porto 
Rico, and at the little island of Mona met a 
French ship, from which they obtained some 
bread and other provisions. The ships then 
separated, but met again off Cape Tiburon, 
just as a squall off the land had carried away 
all the Edward's sails. The Frenchman sup- 
plied her with canvas, and after she had got 
some provisions from the shore she sailed for 
Newfoundland ; but falling into a hurricane 
about the middle of September, and being 
driven far to the southward and partially 
dismasted, she again came to Mona about 
20 Nov. Shortly after, while Lancaster, with 
the lieutenant and the greater part of the 
crew, was on shore, the Edward Bona venture, 
with only five men and a boy on board, was 
blown out to sea, and being unable to return 
to the anchorage went for England, where 
she arrived safely. Lancaster and those 
with him were, some time afterwards, taken 
by another French ship to Dieppe, and finally 
landed at Rye on 24 May 1694. 

Terrible as the loss of life had been — barely 
twenty-five returning to England out of the 
198 who had doubled the Cape of Good 
Hope — a very rich booty had been brought 
home ; the Portuguese monopoly of the East 
India trade had been rudely broken, and it 
had been proved that, so far as England was 
concerned, it might be broken again at plea- 
sure. The formation of the East India Com- 
pany was the natural consequence. But 
pending that, there were some — aldermen 
and merchants of London — who thought 
that the Portuguese might be profitably, as 



well as patriotically, plundered nearer home, 
and who, in the summer of 1694, fitted out 
three ships for this purpose and placed them 
under Lancaster's command. They sailed 
in October, and, after capturing many Spanish 
and Portuguese vessels on the way, arrived 
in the following spring at Pernambuco, where 
there happened to be a large accumulation 
of East Indian and Brazilian produce — spices, 
dye-woods, sugar, and calico. The town was 
taken with little loss, and the merchandise 
became the spoil of the victors. They had 
been joined at the Cape Verd Islands by one 
Venner, who had been admitted as a partner 
in the adventure. Three large Dutch ships 
in the harbour of Pernambuco, with four 
French ships, were chartered by Lancaster 
for the homeward voyage. All these he 
loaded with the plunder, and, after thirty 
days, prepared to sail for England. On the 
last day tne Portuguese were observed con- 
structing a battery to command the entrance 
of the harbour, and Lancaster, who was sick 
at the time, yielded to the persuasion of the 
vice-admiral and allowed him to take a 
strong party of men to destroy their work. 
This destruction was done without difficulty ; 
but advancing further, beyond the cover of 
the ships' broadsides, they were met by a 
large body of Portuguese and repulsed with 
great loss, almost all the officers of the party, 
and others, to the number of thirty-five, being 
killed. The loss was occasioned by gross 
disobedience of Lancaster's orders. His men 
' were much daunted/ but he put to sea that 
night with fifteen vessels, ' all laden with 
merchandizes, and that of good worth/ In 
a ' stiff gale of wind ' outside the fleet was 
scattered, and most of the ships, being igno- 
rant of the coast, * went directly for England.' 
Lancaster, and four ships witn him, filled up 
with water and fresh provisions in a neigh- 
bouring port, and arrived in the Downs in 
July. 

The wealth thus brought home was a fur- 
ther incentive to the formation of the East 
India Company. In 1600 Lancaster was 
appointed to command their first fleet, the 
queen granting him a ' commission of martial 
law ' and letters to the eastern kings with 
whom he might have to negotiate. In the 
Red Dragon of 600 tons burden, and with 
three other ships, Hector, Ascension, and 
Susan, Lancaster sailed from Woolwich on 
13 Feb. 1600-1 ; he was, however, delayed 
in the Downs 'for want of wind/ and Anally 
sailed from Torbay on 20 April 1601. Again 
keeping too near the coast of Africa, the 
fleet was more than a month in crossing the 
4 doldrums ; ' and being further delayed by 
contrary winds, it did not get into Table Bay 



Lancaster 



33 



Lancaster 



till 9 Sept., by which time the three other 
ships had suffered so terribly from scurvy, 
haying buried 106 out of 278 men, that they 
were not able to come to anchor till the 
Dragon sent men on board to their assist- 
ance. ' And the reason why the general's men 
stood better in health than the men of other 
ships was this : he brought to sea with him 
certain bottles of the juice of lemons, which 
he gave to each one as long as it would last, 
three spoonfuls every morning ' (Mabkhax, 
p. 62). The virtue of this specific was after- 
wards wholly forgotten, ana seamen were al- 
lowed to go on suffering and dying wholesale 
for nearly two hundred years. 

On 29 Oct. they sailed from Table Bay ; 
doubled the Cape of Good Hope on 1 Nov. ; 
on 17 Dec. touched at St. Mary's Island, 
where they obtained some oranges and 
lemons; but finding the anchorage unsafe, 
went on to Antongil Bay, where they an- 
chored on Christmas day 1601. They stayed 
there recruiting their health and refitting 
their ships till 6 March ; on 9 April they 
touched at the Nicobar islands, where they 
watered and refitted ; and on 5 June 1602 
anchored at Acheen. Here Lancaster found 
that ' the queen of England was very famous 
in those parts, by reason of the wars and 
great victories which she had gotten against 
the king of Spain ; ' and as the bearer of a 
letter from her, and as the known enemy of 
Portugal, of whose encroachments in the 
east the king of Acheen was jealous, he was 
most honourably received and was readily 
granted permission to trade. When in Sep- 
tember Lancaster put to sea to cruise in the 
straits of Malacca m quest of passing Portu- 
guese, the kinjj willingly undertooK to pre- 
vent any warning being sent from Acheen. 
The English had thus the opportunity, on 
4 Oct., of capturing a ship of 900 tons, richly 
laden. 

On 24 Oct. he again anchored at Acheen ; 
again met with a most friendly reception 
from the kin^, to whom he made liberal pre- 
sents ; and with a most favourable letter from 
the king to the queen of England, he put to 
sea on 9 Nov. The Susan had been sent to 
Priaman for a cargo of pepper ; the Ascen- 
sion had filled up with pepper and cinnamon 
at Acheen, and was now ordered to make the 
best of her way to England. Lancaster, in 
the Dragon, with the Hector, went to Ban- 
tam, where also he had a very friendly re- 
ception. A free and lucrative trade was 
opened, as the result of which both ships 
were fully laden with pepper by the middle 
of February; and after establishing a fac- 
tory at Bantam, and sending some of the 
merchants to establish another at the Mo- 



luccas, Lancaster, with the two ships, sailed 
on 20 Feb., and after a dangerous voyage, 
touching only at St. Helena, arrived in the 
Downs on 11 Sept. 1603. 

On his return to London Lancaster was 
knighted in October 1603. Being now a 
wealthy man, he settled down on shore, and 
as a director assisted in organising the young 
company. It was under his direction that 
all the early voyages to both the east and 
north-west were undertaken ; and William 
Baffin [q. v.] assigned Lancaster's name to 
one of the principal portals of the unknown 
north-west region. 

Lancaster died, probably in May, in 1618 ; 
his will, in Somerset House, dated 18 April, 
was proved 9 June. From it, it appears that 
he had no children, and that, if married, his 
wife had predeceased him; none is men- 
tioned in the will. A brother, Peter, is 
named ; several children of a brother John ; 
the daughters of a brother-in-law, Hopgood; 
and many cousins. Small legacies were left 
to these, but the bulk of his property was 
bequeathed to various charities, especially in 
connection with the Skinners' Company, or 
to Mistress Thomasyne Owfeild, widow, for 
distribution among the poor at her discretion* 

[The story of Lancaster's memorable voyages 
is told in Hakluyt's Principal Navigations, vol. 
ii. pt. ii. p. 102, iii. 708 ; and Purchas his Pil- 
grimes, vol. i. pt. ii. p. 147. These are reprinted 
in the Voyages of Sir James Lancaster, edited 
for the Hakluyt Society by Mr. Clements R. 
Markham; see also the Calendars of State Papers, 
East Indies.] J. K. L. 

LANCASTER, JOHN (tf.1619), bishop 
of Waterford and Lismore, possibly a mem- 
ber of the Somerset family of Lancaster, was 
chaplain to James I. In June 1607 he went 
over to Ireland with a letter from the king 
to the lord deputy giving Lancaster the 
bishopric of Ossory should it be vacant (CaL 
State Papers,Dom. Irish Ser. 1606-8, p. 197). 
A later letter gave him any see that should 
become vacant before Ossory (ib. p. 249). 
He was consecrated bishop of Waterford and 
Lismore in 1608. In consequence of the 
small revenues of the bishopric, he had 
license in 1610 to hold no less than twelve 
prebends in commendam, as well as the trea- 
surership of Lismore. He was considered to 
be well mclined to the Romanists, and gave 
offence to the citizens in June 1609, because 
he would not allow the mayor to hold up 
his sword in the cathedral precincts (#» 
1608-10, p. 214). In July 1611 he was re- 
ported to the Archbishop of Canterbury as 
being ' of no credit ' in his diocese (ib. 1611- 
1614, p. 81). In 1618 he received a thou- 
sand acres in the Wexford plantation (ib* 



Lancaster 



39 



Lancaster 



1615-25, p. 187). Lancaster died at Water- 
ford in 1619, and was buried in the cathedral. 
He was married, and had several children, 
one of whom, John Lancaster, was a clergy- 
man in Ireland. 

[Cotton's Fasti, vol. i. passim, ii. and v.; 
Ware's Bishops, ed. Harris.] W. A. J. A. 

LANCASTER, JOSEPH (1778-1888), 
founder of the Lancasterian system of edu- 
cation, was born in Southwark, London, in 
1778. His father had served as a common sol- 
dier in the American war, and afterwards 
added to his small pension by keeping a 
humble shop. Very early in life Joseph re- 
ceived powerful religious impressions, and 
was intended by his parents for the noncon- 
formist ministry. At the age of fourteen he 
was impelled by a strong enthusiasm to leave 
home secretly, intending to go to Jamaica 
' to teach the poor blacks the word of God.' 
Finding himself penniless when he reached 
Bristol, he enlisted as a naval volunteer, but 
after one voyage was, through the interposi- 
tion of friends, released from his engagement. 
Soon after he joined the Society of Friends. 
Before he was twenty he obtained his father's 
leave to bring a few poor children home and 
teach them to read. He became conscious of 
a strong liking and aptitude for teaching and 
for winning the confidence of children. In 
1801 he took a large room in the Borough 
Road, and inscribed over it, ' All who will 
may send their children and have them edu- 
cated freely, and those who do not wish to 
have education for nothing may pay for it if 
they please/ His inability to pay assistants 
forced him to devise the plan of employing 
the elder scholars to teach the younger. His 
remarkable genius for organising made his 
experiment unexpectedly successful. The 
number of pupils grew rapidly. His school 
was divided into small classes, each under the 
care of a monitor ; a group of these classes 
was superintended by a head monitor ; and 
the quasi-military system of discipline, and 
of gradation of ranks, caused the whole esta- 
blishment to assume an orderly, animated, 
and very striking appearance. The attention 
of the Duke of Bedford and of Lord Somerville 
was directed to his efforts, and soon after- 
wards the Duke of Sussex and other members 
of the royal family visited his institution and 
encouraged him with support. Such time as 
he could spare from the supervision of his 
large school of a thousand boys he devoted 
to lecturing in the country, and raising sub- 
scriptions for the foundation of new local 
schools. 

He published in 1803 his first pamphlet, 
entitled 'Improvements in Education/ which 



set forth in detail the results of his experi- 
ence. He described how his staff of moni- 
tors co-operated with him in the maintenance 
of discipline, and how they taught reading, 
writing, and the elements of arithmetic by 
a method of drill and simultaneous exercise. 
The material equipment of his school was of 
the most meagre kind. Flat desks covered 
with a thin layer of sand were used for the 
early exercises in writing. Sheets taken 
from a spelling-book and pasted on boards 
were placed before each ' draft ' or class, and 
pointed to until every word was recognised 
and spelled. Passages extracted from the 
Bible and printed on large sheets furnished 
the reading and scripture lessons. Beyond 
these rudiments the instruction did not ex- 
tend. He devised a very elaborate system 
of punishments, shackles, cages in which 
offenders were slung up to the roof, tying 
bad boys to a pillar in the manner suggested 
by mediaeval pictures of St. Sebastian, divers 
marks of disgrace, and other appeals to the 
scholars' sense, of shame ; but his quaker 
principles revolted from the infliction of ac- 
tual pain, and prevented him from perceiving 
the tortures inflicted by his own system on 
sensitive children. He instituted degrees of 
rank, badges, offices and orders of merit,which, 
while they undoubtedly made his school at- 
tractive to lads of ambition, tended to en- 
courage vanity and self-consciousness. It was 
an essential part of his plan to enlist the 
most promising of the scholars in his service, 
and to prepare them to become schoolmasters. 
In this way he is fairly entitled to be recog- 
nised as the first pioneer in the work of 
training teachers for their profession in Eng- 
land. Some of the principles he advocated, 
and his favourite sayings, have passed into 
pedagogical maxims, e.g. * The order of this 
school is " A place for everything and every- 
thing in its place." ' Of the day's work he 
was wont to say, ' Let every child have, for 
every minute of his school-time, something 
to do, and a motive for doing it.' 

In 1797 Andrew Bell (1753-1832) [q. v.] 
had published accounts of his educational ex- 
periments in the Madras Asylum. Lancaster 
m his first pamphlet cordially acknowledged 
his obligation to Bell for many useful hints. 
He afterwards visited Bell at Swanage, and 
established very friendly relations witn him. 
During the eight years of Bell's residence at 
Swanage, little or nothing was done for the 
establishment of schools on his method ; but 
Lancaster within that period was carrying 
on an active propaganda in all parts of the 
kingdom, and securing the adhesion of many 
powerful friends. His fortunes reached their 
zenith in 1805, when George HI sent for him 



Lancaster 



40 



Lancaster 



to Weymouth, promised his patronage and 
support, and added, besides his own name, 
that of the queen and the princesses to the 
list of annual subscribers. The king con- 
cluded the interview by saying, in words 
which became in one sense the charter of the 
Lancasterian institution, 'It is my wish that 
every poor child in my dominions should be 
taught to read the Bible.' The fame which 
followed this interview intoxicated Lancaster, 
who was thriftless, impulsive, extravagant, 
and sadly deficient in ordinary self-control. 
He had at the same time to encounter much 
opposition from members of the established 
church. Mrs. Trimmer, one of his opponents, 
published in 1806 l A Comparative View of 
the new Plan of Education, promulgated by 
Mr. Joseph Lancaster, and of the System 
of Christian Instruction founded by our 
Forefathers for the initiation of the Young 
Members of the Established Church in the 
Principles of the Reformed Religion.' Her 
main objection to Lancaster, whom she de- 
nounced as the ' Goliath of schismatics/ was 
that his system was not to be controlled by the 
clergy, and was therefore calculated seriously 
to weaken the authority of the established 
church. The ' Edinburgh Review ' in 1806 
vindicated Lancaster in answer to this at- 
tack, and in October 1807 published a second 
article, reviewing Lancaster's first pamphlet 
with great favour. 

Meanwhile Lancaster's money affairs be- 
came grievously embarrassed, and in 1808 
two quakers, Joseph Fox and William Allen 
(1770-1843) [q. v/], with the co-operation of 
Whitbread and others, undertook to extri- 
cate him from his difficulties. They paid his 
debts, took over the responsibility of main- 
taining the model school, and constituted 
themselves a board of trustees for the ad- 
ministration of such funds as might be given 
to the institution, which they were permitted 
to designate the Royal Lancasterian Society. 
The public interest thus excited in Lancaster's 
system, the patronage of the royal family, and 
the announcement of a long list of influential 
supporters, combined to induce the friends of 
church education to show increased hostility. 
It was resolved to adopt Bell's name and 
system, and to establish a number of elemen- 
tary schools, which should be taught by 
monitors, but in which the management and 
the instruction should be distinctly identified 
with the established church. The National 
Society was founded in 1811 to carry out 
these principles. Controversies soon arose, 
embittered rather by the zeal of the friends of 
the two men than by their personal rival- 
ries. On the one side were ranged Brougham 
and the group of statesmen and writers who 



afterwards founded the Society for the Diffu- 
sion of Useful Knowledge and whose mouth- 
piece was the * Edinburgh Review,' besides the 
I Society of Friends, many liberal churchmen! 
' and the great body of nonconformists. On the 
other were ranged nearly the whole of the 
clergy, the 'Quarterly Review,' and the tory 
party generally. The first article on the sub- 
ject which appeared in the ' Quarterly Re- 
view' (October 1811) is generally attributed 
to Southey. He vindicated Bell's claims to 
originality, and ridiculed Lancaster's elabo- 
rate devices for maintaining discipline ; and 
laid much stress on the importance of reli- 
gious teaching. Between the two methods 
of procedure there were several important 
differences. Lancaster taught larger numbers, 
and had a more elaborate system for enlist- 
ing the agency of the pupils themselves in 
I the maintenance of discipline. Moreover, 
I his educational aims, though modest enough, 
j were far higher than those of his rival. Bell 
had expressly declared his unwillingness to 
educate the poor too highly. Lancaster, on 
the other hand, not only taught the elements 
of writing and arithmetic, but avowed that he 
was precluded from offering a more generous 
education to his pupils by considerations of 
expense only. Lancaster certainly adopted, 
long before Bell, the practice of selecting 
and training the future teachers. But the 
substantial difference between the parties, 
which used for their own purposes the names 
I of the two combatants, rested on religious 
grounds. The friends of Bell avowedly 
wished to bring the schools for the poor 
under the control of the church of England. 
Lancaster, on the other hand, always preached 
the doctrine that it was not the business of 
the public school to serve the denominational 
interests of any particular section of the 
Christian church, and that the true national 
education of the future should be Christian 
but not sectarian. His friends of the Royal 
Lancasterian Society were able to claim 
that this impartiality was not theoretical 
only, and to assert in their report of 1811 
that, while more than seven thousand chil- 
dren had been brought up under his personal 
influence, not one of tbem had been induced 
to become, or had actually become, a quaker 
like himself. 

In 1810 Lancaster had published his second 
pamphlet, ' Report of Joseph Lancaster's Pro- 
gress from 1798.' In this report he speaks 
gratefully of the assistance of his friends and 
of the pecuniary sacrifices they had made on 
behalf of his system ; and, summarising his 
own work for the past year, he records that 
he had travelled 3,775 miles, delivered sixty- 
seven lectures in the presence of 28,480 



Lancaster 



4* 



Lancaster 



hearers, promoted the establishment of fifty 
new schools for 14,200 scholars, and had 
raised 3,860/. in aid of the society's work. 
To the report is appended a statement in 
which the trustees commend Lancaster's 
zesL They record the rapid growth of the 
system, the establishment of Lancasterian 
schools in New York, Philadelphia, and 
Boston, and, inter alia, the facts that a depu- 
tation from Caracas had come to England 
expressly to see the working of the schools, 
and that the government of that country had 
since sent two young men to the Borough 
Road to learn the system. 

Lancaster at first acquiesced, though re- 
luctantly, in the exercise of control over his 
institution by the committee appointed in 
1808 ; but he soon chafed against the busi- 
ness-like restraint imposed by the committee, 
quarrelled with his friends, seceded from the 
society, and set up a private school at Tooting, 
which soon failed and left him bankrupt. In 
1816 he printed at Bristol ' Oppression and 
Persecution, being a Narrative oi a variety of 
Singular Facts that have occurred in the Rise, 
Progress, and Promulgation of the Royal 
Lancasterian System of Education.' Here 
he complains bitterly of the conduct of his 
' pretended friends,' the trustees, who had, four 
years before, changed the name of the insti- 
tution to that of the 'British and Foreign 
School Society,' and had, he said, thwarted 
him and injured him, and determined to carry 
on the work without him. The pamphlet is 
a petulant attack on all his former friends, 
whom he describes as having ' choused him 
out of the management of his own institu- 
tion.' He had suffered severely from disap- 
pointment, ill-health, and poverty. He had 
more than once been imprisoned for debt, 
his troubles were aggravated by the mental 
affliction which befell his wife, and in 1818 
he determined to shake the dust from his feet 
and try the New World. 

In New York and Philadelphia Lancaster 
was received kindly, his lectures were well at- 
tended, and the way seemed openingfor a new 
career of honour and success. At Baltimore 
he established a school, obtained a few private 
pupils, and published in 1821 a small book en- 
titled ' The Lancasterian System of Educa- 
tion, with Improvements, by its Founder.' It 
is mainly a reprint of his first tract, but it is pre- 
faced by a curious chapter of autobiography, 
repeating with increased acrimony his former 
charges. He concludes with an advertise- 
ment of his new boarding establishment, in 
which he promises to treat the inmates as 
'plants of his hand and children of his care.' 
But a grievous illness prevented the success 
of the enterprise, and on his partial recovery 



he determined to go to the milder climate of 
Venezuela, and to settle for a time in Caracas, 
to which place he had been invited several 
years before. Bolivar, the first president, who 
had visited the Borough Road in 1810, now 
received Lancaster with much consideration, 
was present at his second marriage to the 
widow of John Robinson of Philadelphia, and 
made large promises of pecuniary support, 
which, however, were not fulfilled. To the 
last it remained one of Lancaster's many 
grievances that Bolivar, after taking posses- 
sion of all the little property Lancaster had 
left in Caracas, suffered nim to depart with 
a bill for #20,000, which, when it came to 
maturity, was dishonoured. 

After staying a short time at St. Thomas 
and Santa Cruz, he returned to New York, 
where the corporation voted him a grant of 
five hundred dollars. His next attempt to 
establish himself was at Montreal, where, 
as in other Canadian towns, he met at first 
with a favourable reception, although his 
school did not flourish there. His last pub- 
lication appeared in 1833, and was printed 
at Newhaven, Connecticut. It is entitled 
1 Epitome of some of the chief Events and 
Transactions in the Life of J. Lancaster, con- 
taining an Account of the Rise and Progress 
of the Lancasterian System of Education, and 
the Author's future Prospects of Usefulness 
to Mankind; Published to Promote the Edu- 
cation of His Family.' By his * family ' he 
meant his step-children, to whom he was very 
tenderly attached, his only child, a daughter, 
who had married and settled in Mexico, 
having recently died. The pamphlet, like 
its predecessors, was ill- written and almost 
incoherent, was plentifully garnished with 
italics, with large capitals, and with irrelevant 
quotations from the Bible. But it was less 
vehement than his former publications in the 
denunciation of his adversaries, and amounted 
to little more than a piteous appeal for pecu- 
niary help, and for subscriptions to his pro- 
mised larger book, which was to embody all 
the latest additions to the ' Improvements in 
Education.' That larger work never ap- 
peared. A few gentlemen in England issued 
an appeal and obtained a sufficient sum to 
purchase for him a small annuity. His spirits 
revived a little, and he contemplated a jour- 
ney to England. His last letter to a friend, 
who had been his constant supporter at the 
Borough Road, is full of exultation : ' With 
properly trained monitors I should not scruple 
to undertake to teach ten thousand pupils 
all to read fluently in three weeks to three 
months, idiots and truants only excepted. 
Be assured that the fire which kindled Elijah's 
sacrifice has kindled mine, and when all true 



Lancaster 



42 



Lancaster 



Israelites see it they will fall on their knees 
and exclaim, " The Lord, he is the God." ' 
This was written in September 1838. In the 
following month he met with an accident in 
the streets of New York, and receiTed injuries 
which proved fatal on 24 Oct. 1838. 

It would not be justifiable to claim for 
either Lancaster or Bell personally a high 
rank among the founders of popular educa- 
tion in England. Lancaster's character was 
unstable; he led an irregular, undisciplined, 
and heavily burdened life, and died in poverty 
and obscurity. But he had a finer and more 
unselfish enthusiasm than Bell, a more intense 
.love for children, more religious earnestness, 
and a stronger faith in the blessings which 
education might confer on the poor. It is 
very touching to see in his latest diaries and 
letters the picture of a broken-hearted and 
disappointed man, welcoming, nevertheless, 
such faint rays of hope as came occasionally 
to relieve the gloom of his solitude, and never 
wholly losing confidence in the mission with 
which he believed himself to have been di- 
vinely entrusted. After being disowned by 
the Friends on account of his financial irre- 
gularities, he yet continued to hold, instead 
of a meeting, his Sunday-morning silent ser- 
vices, and to sit alone, waiting for the visita- 
tion of the Divine Spirit. 

The great expectations in which, at the 
beginning of the present century, both edu- 
cational parties indulged with regard to the 
future of the * mutual ' or ' monitorial sys- 
tem ' of public instruction have not been, and 
are not likely to be, realised. It was merely 
a system of drill and mechanism by which 
large bodies of children could be made or- 
derly and obedient, and by which the scholars 
who knew a little were made to help those 
who knew less. Neither the writings nor 
the practice of Bell and Lancaster threw any 
light on the principles of teaching, or were 
of any value as permanent contributions to 
the literature of education. But relatively 
to the special needs and circumstances of the 
age, and to the wretched provision which then 
existed for the education of the poor, the work 
of these two men was of enormous value. 
They aroused public interest in the subject. 
They brought, at a very small cost (about 7*. 
per head per annum), thousands of children 
into admirable discipline, and gave them the 
rudiments of education, and some ambition 
to learn more. What is of still greater im- 
portance, they treated the school from the 
first as a place of * mutual ' instruction, as 
an organised community in which all the 
members were to be in helpful relations to 
each other ; and all were brought to take a 
pride in the success and fame of the school 



to which they belonged. There can be little 
doubt that the sense of comradeship and cor- 
porate life was unusually strong m the old 
monitorial schools, and that it was scarcely 
inferior to that of the best public schools of 
our own time. But the inherent intellectual 
defects of an educational system dependent 
wholly on ignorant and immature agents, 
though not visible at first, revealed them- 
selves before many years ; and in 1846 the 
newly constituted education department took 
the important step of superseding monitors 
by pupil-teachers, all of whom were required 
before apprenticeship to pass through the. 
elementary course, and afterwards to receive 
regular instruction and to be trained for the 
office of teacher. The pupil-teacher system 
itself is now being largely displaced, wher- 
ever funds will allow, by the employment of 
adult teachers. 

A portrait of Joseph Lancaster by John 
Hazlitt is in the National Portrait Gfallery, 
London. 

[Life of Joseph Lancaster, by William Cor- 
ston, 1840; Sketches, by Henry Dunn, 1848; 
The Museum, 1863; Leitch's Practical Educa- 
tionists, 1876; Edinburgh Review, vols. ix. 
xi. xvii. xix. xxi. ; Quarterly Review, vol. vi. ; 
Joseph Fox's Comparative Review of the Pub- 
lications of Bell and Lancaster, 1809 ; The New 
School, by Sir T. Bernard, 1810 ; Donaldson's 
Lectures on Education ; Southey's Life of Bell ; 
Professor Meiklejohn's Life of Bell ; American 
Journal of Education, 1861 ; Reports of the 
Royal Commissioners on Popular Education, 
that of the Duke of Newcastle, 1856, and of 
Lord Cross, 1886 ; Reports passim of the British 
and Foreign School Society.] J. Gr. F-h. 

LANCASTER, NATHANIEL (1701- 
1776), author, born in 1701 in Cheshire, was 
in early life a protege" of the Earl of Chol- 
mondeley, who introduced him to polite so- 
ciety. He was appointed rector of St. Mar- 
tin's, Chester, on 12 June 1 725, and in January 
1733 was made a chaplain to the Prince of 
Wales. In the following February he was 
created D.D. by the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury (Gent Mag. 1864, i. (537). On 
17 Feb. 1733 he married the widow of Cap- 
tain Brown, ' a lady with a fortune of 20,000/.' 
In September 1737 he obtained the rectory 
of Stanford Rivers, near Ongar, Essex. He 
died there on 20 June 1775. In his later 
years he acted as justice of the peace (see 
two letters of his describing his administra- 
tion of justice, Gent. Mag. liv. 345). He was 
considered a brilliant conversationalist, but 
earned a reputation for extravagance and 
impecuniosity, ' which urged him to indecent 
applications for the supply of his necessities.' 

Lancaster wrote : 1. ' Public Virtue, or the 



Lancaster 



43 



Lancaster 



Love of our Country/ London, 1746. 2. ' The 
Pretty Gentleman, or Softness of Manners 
vindicated from the false ridicule exhibited 
under the character of William Frible, Esq./ 
a pretended reply to Garrick's ' Miss in her 
Teens/ but in reality a veiled and caustic 
satire on the softness of manners which Gar- 
rick was ridiculing ; reprinted in * Fugitive 
Pieces/ London, 1761, 1765, 1771 ; Dublin, 
1762. The identification of it as Lancaster's 
is due to a letter of Dodsley's to Shenstone 
(see Fugitive Pieces, 1771). 3. 'The Plan 
of an Essav upon Delicacy, with a Specimen 
of the Work in two Dialogues/ London, 1748. 
4. ' Methodism Triumphant, or the Decisive 
Battle between the Old Serpent and the 
Modern Saint/ London, 1767, 4to, a long 
rhapsodical poem. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ii. 379, repeated ver- 
batim in Chalmers, and taken verbatim from 
Hall's Select Letters, i. 70, ii. 132; Gent. Mag. 
vols. ill. v. vii. xlv. liv.; Ormerod's Cheshire; 
Watt's BibL Brit.] W. A. S. 

LANCASTER, THOMAS (d. 1583), 
archbishop of Armagh, perhaps a native of 
Cumberland, was probably educated at Ox- 
ford. In July 1549 he was consecrated bishop 
of Kildare by George Browne, archbishop of 
Dublin. An enthusiastic protestant, he in 
June 1551 attended the conference which the 
lord deputy, Sir James Croft, held at Dublin 
with George Dowdall [q. v.], the primate, 
whose Roman catholic leanings were well 
known. In 1552 Lancaster was installed in 
the deanery of Ossory, which he held in com- 
mendam with his bishopric. On 2 Feb. 1553 
he assisted in the consecration of John Bale 
{q.v.] as bishop of Ossory, and about the 
same time published an important statement 
of his doctrinal position in * The Ryght and 
Trew Understandynge of the Supper of the 
Lord and the use thereof faythfully gathered 
out of y* Holy Scriptures/ London, by Johan 
Turke, n.d. 8vo. It is dedicated to Edward VI. 
A copy is in the British Museum. Lancas- 
ter's style of argument resembles Bale's. 

Lancaster was married, and on that ground 
he was deprived of both his preferments by 
Queen Mary in 1554, and spent the remainder 
of Queen Mary's reign in retirement. In 1559 
he was presented by the crown to the trea- 
surership of Salisbury Cathedral, in succes- 
sion to Thomas Harding (1516-1572) [q.v.], 
Bishop Jewel's antagonist ; and he also be- 
came one of the royal chaplains. He was a 
member of the lower house of convocation, and 
on 5 Feb. 1562-3 was in the minority of fifty- 
eight who approved of the proposed six for- 
mulas committing the English church to ultra- 
protestant doctrine and practices, as against 



fifty-nine who opposed the change. In the 
same year he signed the petition of the lower 
house of convocation for reform of church 
discipline. He acted as suffragan bishop of 
Marlborough under Bishop Jewel, but the 
date is not Known. In that capacity he held 
ordinations at Salisbury on 13 April 1560 
and 26 April 1568. Writing to Archbishop 
Parker (8 May 1568) Jewel complained of 
Lancaster's want of discretion. When Sir 
Henry Sydney went to Ireland as lord deputy 
in October 1565, Lancaster had a royal license 
to attend upon him and absent himself from 
his spiritual offices (cf. license, 25 Oct. 1565, 
in Record Office, London). He accompanied 
Sydney in his progress through various parts 
of Ireland. Sir William Cecil was friendly 
with him, and wrote to the lord deputy on 
22 July 1667 (Cal. State Papers, Ireland, 
No. 70, p. 343, 22 July 1567) of his delight 
' that the lusty good priest, Lancaster,' was 
to be made archbishop of Armagh, in suc- 
cession to Adam Loftus [q. v.], who had been 
translated to Dublin. Some months passed 
before the choice was officially announced, 
but on 28 March 1567-8 Elizabeth informed 
the Irish lords justices (ib. Eliz. vol. xxiii. 
No. 86) that she had ' made choice of Mr. 
Thomas Lancaster, one of our ordinary chap- 
leyns, heretofore bishop of Kildare in our 
said realme, and therein for his tyme served 
very laudably, and since that tyme hath 
been very well acquainted in the said part 
of Ulster, having been also lately in company 
with our said deputy in all his journeys 
within our said realm, and has preached 
ryght faithfully.' The queen, besides di- 
recting (12 March 1568) his 'nomination, 
election, and consecration,' granted him 200/. 
(ib. p. 368, Nos. 72-6, 19 March 1568). 
His consecration took place, at the hands of 
Archbishop Loftus of Dublin, Bishop Brady 
of Meath, and Bishop Daly of Kildare, on 
13 June 1568, in Christ Church Cathedral, 
Dublin, in accordance with the Irish act of 
parliament, 2 Eliz. chap. 3. This act, ' for 
conferring and consecrating of archbishops 
and bishops within this realme/ aimed at 
planting the church of Ireland on a strong 
legal basis. It makes no mention of trans- 
lation, but enjoins * that the Person collated 
to any Archbishoprick or Bishoprick should 
be invested and consecrated thereto with all 
speed/ No reference was therefore made to 
Lancaster's previous tenure of the see of Kil- 
dare. He preached his own consecration 
sermon on the subject of 'Regeneration/ 
The archbishop had license to hold sundry 
preferments, both in England and in Ire- 
land, on account of the poverty of his see, 
which had been wasted Dy rebellion. He 



Lancaster 



44 



Lancaster 



died in Drogheda in December 1583, and 
was buried in St. Peter's Church in that 
town, in the vault of one of his predecessors, 
Octavian de Palatio (d. 1513). He left a 
son and two daughters. 

His will, which is in the Public Record 
Office at Dublin, gave rise to protracted liti- 
gation (Cal. of Hants, Eliz., P. R. 0., 1883, 
4452). According to the evidence in the 
lawsuit, which is preserved in the library of 
Trinity College, Dublin (MS. E. 4. 4. Lib. 
T. C. D.), Lancaster dictated the will when 
* crazed and sycke after his truble/ and sur- 
feited 'with red herring and drinking of 
mutch sack ' on the evening which preceded 
his death. He designed without result the 
foundation of a public grammar school at 
Drogheda, to be endowed at his cost ; eight 
scholarships tenable at St. Edmund Hall, 
Oxford, were to be attached to it. 

[Cotton's Fasti Eccl. Hib. i. ii. passim, iii. 19 ; 
Ware's Bishops, ed. Harris; Monck Mason's 
Hist. St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, pp. 1 70 sq. ; 
Bagwell's Ireland under the Tudors ; Mant's 
Church in Ireland, i. 262 ; Jewel's MS. Reg. at 
Salisbury, ff. 4852.] W. IUl. 

LANCASTER, THOMAS WILLIAM 
(1787-1869), Bampton lecturer, born at Ful- 
ham, Middlesex, on 24 Aug. 1787, was son of 
the Rev. Thomas Lancaster of Wimbledon, 
Surrey. He was matriculated at Oriel Col- 
lege, Oxford, 26 Jan. 1804, and graduated B. A. 
(with a second class in lit hum.) in 1807, 
and M.A. in 1810. In 1808 he was elected 
to a Michel scholarship at Queen's College, 
and in the following year to a fellowship on 
the same foundation. After being ordained 
deacon in 1810 and priest in 1812, he became 
in the latter year curate of Banbury in Ox- 
fordshire, and vicar of Banbury in 1815. He 
resigned his fellowship at Queen's on his 
marriage in 1816. His relations with his 
parishioners were not happy, and although 
ne retained the living of Banbury for up- 
wards of thirty-three years, he resided in 
Oxford about half that time. In 1849 the 
new bishop of Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, 
induced him to exchange Banbury for the 
rectory of Over Worton, a small village near 
Woodstock. He did not find the new living 
more congenial than the old, and continued 
to reside in Oxford, where he frequented the 
Bodleian Library, and was respected for his 
learning. In 1831 he preached the Bampton 
lectures, taking for his subject ' The Popular 
Evidence of Christianity/ He was appointed 
a select preacher to the university in 1832, 
and a public examiner in 1832-3. From 1840 
to 1849 he acted, with little success, as under- 
master (ostiarius, or usher) of Magdalen Col- 
lege school, and was for a time chaplain to 



the Dowager Countess of Guilford. He was 
found dead in his bed at his lodgings in High 
Street, 12 Dec. 1859, and was Duried in the 
Holywell cemetery. His wife, Miss Anne 
Walford of Banbury, died 8 Feb. 1860, at 
the age of eighty-four. He had no family. 

Lancaster was one of the old-fashioned 
' high and dry ' school, preaching in the uni- 
versity pulpit against Arnold of Rugby, and 
holding Roman catholics to be out of the 
pale of salvation. He took no active part in 
regard to the Oxford movement, but had no 
sympathy with the tractarians. 

Besides his * Bampton Lectures ' Lancas- 
ter was the author of: 1. ' The Harmony of 
the Law and the Gospel with regard to the 
Doctrine of aFuture State/ 8vo, Oxford, 1826. 
2. ' The Alliance of Education and Civil Go- 
vernment, with Strictures on the University 
of London/ 4to, Lond. 1828. 3. ' A Treatise 
on Confirmation, with Pastoral Discourses ap- 
plicable to Confirmed Persons/ 12mo, Lond. 
1830. 4. « The Nicomachean Ethics of Aris- 
totle/ edited and illustrated, 8vo, Oxford, 
1834; a popular and useful edition at the 
time, but not of permanent value. J 5. i Chris- 
tian and Civil Liberty, an Assize Sermon/ 
8vo, Oxford, 1835. 6. ' Strictures on a late 
Publication ' (of Dr. Hampden), 8vo, Lond. 
1836 ; 2nd edit. 1838. 7. ' An Earnest and 
Resolute Protestation against a certain in- 
ductive Method of Theologising, which has 
been recently propounded by the King's 
Professor of Divinity in Oxford/ 8vo, Lond. 
1839. 8. ' Vindici» Symbolic®, or a Treatise 
on Creeds, Articles of Faith, and Articles 
of Doctrine/ 8vo, Lond. 1848. 9. ' Sermons 
preached on Various Occasions/ 8vo, Oxford, 
1860 ; partly prepared for the press by him- 
self and published by subscription after his 
death. 

[Bloxam's Magdalen College Register, iii. 270 ; 
Oxford Journal, 17 Dec. 1869; Gent. Mag. I860, 
i. 188 ; personal acquaintance and recollections ; 
private inquiries.] W. A. G. 

LANCASTER, WILLIAM (1650- 
1717), divine, son of William Lancaster of 
Sockoridge in Barton parish, Westmoreland, 
is said to have been born at that place in 1650. 
He kept for some time the parish school of 
Barton, and at his death he added an aug- 
mentation to the master's salary. The school 
is near Lowther Castle, and when Sir John 
Lowther's son, afterwards Lord Lonsdale, 
went to Queen's College, Oxford, he was at- 
tended by Lancaster, who entered as batler 
on 23 June 1670, and matriculated 1 July, 
aged20. HeffraduatedB.A.on6Feb.l674-5, 
MA. 1 July 1678 (after the degree had been 
stopped for some words against John Clerke, 



Lancaster 



45 



Lance 



of All Souls, the proctor, but was carried in 
' ), B.D. 12 April 1690, and D.D. 



8 July 1692. On 20 Dec. 1674 he was elected 
tabarder of his college, and on 15 March 
1678-9 was both elected and admitted fellow. 
About 1676 he was sent to Paris with a state 
grant on the recommendation of Sir Joseph 
Williamson (who thought that the most pro- 
mising young men of the university might 
be trained for public life in this way), and 
after a stay of some duration resumed his 
career at Oxford. Although he acted when 
junior fellow as chaplain to the Earl of Den- 
bigh, and was collated on 1 Sept. 1682 to the 
vicarage of Oakley in Buckinghamshire, which 
he hela until 1690, most of his time was passed 
in college, where he became famous as tutor. 
From the beginning of 1686 till 1 Aug. he was 
junior bursar, for the next four years he held 
the post of senior bursar, and he retained his 
fellowship until his marriage, very early in 
1696. Lancaster became domestic chaplain to 
Henry Compton [q. v.], bishop of London, on 
whose nomination he was instituted (22 July 
1692) to the vicarage of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, London, but the presentation for this 
time was claimed by the queen, and when 
judgment was given m her favour in the law 
courts, she presented Dr. Nicholas Gouge. 
Lancaster was a popular preacher, and Evelyn 
records a visit to hear him on 20 Nov. 1692 
(Memoirs, ed. 1827, iii. 320). At Gouge's 
aeath he was again instituted (31 Oct. 1694), 
and from a case cited in Burn's ' Ecclesiastical 
Law ' (ed. 1842, i. 116), in which he claimed 
fees from a French protestant called Bur- 
deaux for the baptism of his child at the 
French church in the Savoy, it would seem 
that he zealously guarded his dues. On 1 5 Oct. 
1704 he was elected provost of Queen's Col- 
lege, but the election was disputed as against 
the statutes ; the question, which was whe- ' drunken sot.' 
of election extended to past 



The see of St. Davids was offered to him, 
but it was declined through a preference for 
college life and a desire to carry out further 
building works at the college. Through his 
courteous acts to the corporation of Oxford 
a plot of land in the High Street was leased 
to the college for a thousand years ' gratis 
and without fine,' and the first stone of the 
new court towards the High Street was laid 
by him on Queen Anne's birthday (6 Feb. 
1710). His arms are conspicuous in many 
places in the college, especially over the pro- 
vost's seat in the hall; and his portrait, 
painted by T. Murray, and engraved by 
George Vertue, hangs m the hall. Another 
portrait of him, described as ' very bad,' was 
' placed in the vestry-room of St. Martin's-in- 
the-Fields. He died at Oxford, 4 Feb. 1716-17, 
J of gout in the stomach, and was buried in the 
I old church of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. His 
I wife, a kinswoman of Bishop Compton, was a 
daughter of Mr. Wilmer of Syweu in North- 
amptonshire. 

Lancaster was author of: 1. A Latin 

speech on the presentation of William Jane 

as prolocutor of the lower house of con- 

vocation, 1689. 2. A sermon before the 

House of Commons, 30 Jan. 1696-7. 3. A 

recommendatory preface to the ' Door of the 

J Tabernacle,' 1703. Many of his letters are 

I in the Ballard collection at the Bodleian 

' Library. One of them is printed in ' Letters 

1 from the Bodleian,' i. 294-5, and in the same 

volume (pp. 200-1) is a peremptory letter 

| from Sacneverell demanding a testimonial 

from the university. Lancaster is said to 

| have been the original of ' Slyboots ' in the 

letter from ' Abraham Froth,' which is printed 

I in the ' Spectator,' No. 43, and by Hearne he 

is frequently called ' Smoothboots,' ' Northern 

I bear, ana ' old hypocritical, ambitious, 



therthe right 

as well as present fellows, being arguecL in 
an anonymous pamphlet entitled 'A True 
State of the Case concerning the Election of 
a Provost of Queen's College, Oxford, 1704,' 
written by Francis Thompson, senior fellow 
at the time. An appeal was made to the 
Archbishop of York, as visitor, but the elec- 
tion was confirmed, on a hearing of the case 
by Dr. Thomas Bouchier the commissary. 
Tnrough Compton's favour Lancaster held 
the archdeaconry of Middlesex from 1705 
until his death, and for four years (1706-10) 
he was vice-chancellor of Oxford, ruling the 
university in the interests of the whigs. In 
religion he favoured the views of the high 
church party, and he was one of the bail for 
Br. Sacneverell, but his enemies accused him 
of trimming and of scheming for a bishopric. 



[Luttrell's Hist. Relation, ii. 520, 582, iii. 
394, vi. 534 ; Wood's Colleges, ed. Gutch, i. 149, 
151-69, and App. pp. 159-61; Clark's Colleges 
of Oxford, p. 133; Hearne's Collections, ed. 
Doble, i. 216, 293-4, ii. and iii. passim ; Nicol- 
son and Burn's "Westmorland and Cumberland, 
i. 407, 411; Lipscomb's Buckinghamshire, i. 
360 ; Newcourt's Repertorium Lond. i. 692 ; Le 
Neve's Fasti, ii. 331, iii. 478, 553; Biog. Brit. 
1763, vol. vi. pt. i. p|>. 3724, 3734-5 ; Hist. Re- 
gister, 1717, p. 9; information from Dr. Ma- 
g-rath, provost of Queen's College.] W. P. C. 

LANCE, GEORGE (1802-1864), painter, 
was born at the old manor-house of Little 
Easton, near Dunmow, Essex, on 24 March 
1802. His father, who had previously served 
in a regiment of light horse, was at the time 
of young Lance's birth an adjutant in the 
Essex yeomanry, and became afterwards the 



Lance 



4 6 



Land 



inspector of the Bow Street horse-patrol. 
His mother, with whom his father had eloped 
from boarding-school, was the daughter of 
Colonel Constable of Beverley, Yorkshire. 
Although Lance at a very earlv age showed 
a predilection for art, his friends placed him, 
when under fourteen, in a manufactory at 
Leeds; but the uncongenial work injured his 
health and he returned to London. Wan- 
dering one day into the British Museum, he 
casually opened a conversation with Charles 
Landseer, who happened to be drawing there. 
On learning that Landseer was a pupil of 
Haydon, he went early next morning to that 
painter's residence, and asked the terms on 
which he could become a pupil. Haydon 
replied that if his drawings promised future 
success he would instruct him for nothing. 
Not many days later Lance, still under four- 
teen, entered Haydon's studio, and remained 
there seven years, at the same time study- 
ing .in the schools of the Royal Academy. 
When designing a picture from Homer's 
' Iliad/ he was set, before putting on the 
colours, to paint some fruit and vegetables, 
in order to improve his execution. His work 
attracted the notice of Sir George Beaumont, 
who purchased it, and this success led him 
to paint another fruit-piece, which he sold 
to the Earl of Shaftesbury. He then painted 
for the Duke of Bedford two fruit-pieces as 
decorations for a summer-house at Woburn 
Abbey, and his work proved so profitable that 
he decided to devote himself to the painting 
of still-life. He began to exhibit m 1824, 
when he sent to the British Institution ' A 
Fruit Boy/ and to the Society of British 
Artists ' Tlie Mischievous Boy ' and two fruit- 
pieces. In 1828 appeared his first contribu- 
tion to the exhibitions of the Royal Academy, 
* Still Life/ with the quotation from Butler's 
< Hudibras : '— 

Goose, rabbit, pheasant, pigeons, all 
"With good brown jug for beer — not small ! 

Although it was chiefly as a painter of fruit 
and flowers that Lance gained his reputation, 
he sometimes produced historical and genre 
works, and his picture of ' Melanchthon's 
First Misgivings of the Church of Rome ' won 
the prize at the Liverpool Academy in 1886. 
His works appeared most frequently at the 
exhibitions 01 the British Institution, to 
which he contributed in all 135 pictures, 
but he sent also forty-eight works to the So- 
ciety of British Artists, and thirty-eight to 
the Roval Academy. Among these were 
'The *\v*ine Cooler/ 1831; 'The Brothers/ 
1837 ; ' Captain Rolando showing to Gil Bias 
the Treasures of the Cave/ 1839; 'May I 
have this?' 1840; 'The Ballad' and 'Nar- 



cissus/ 1841 ; ' The Microscope/ 1842; ' The 
Village Coquette/ 1843 ; « The Grandmother's 
Blessing/ 1844; 'The Biron Conspiracy/ 
1846 ; ' Preparations for a Banquet/ 1846 ; 
' From the Garden, just gathered/ ' From the 
Lake, just shot/ and ' Red Cap/ a monkey 
with a red cap on his head, 1847; ' Modern 
Fruit— Mediwval Art/ 1850; 'The Blonde' 
and 'The Brunette/ 1851; 'The Seneschal/ 
painted for Sir Morton Peto, 1852; 'Harold/ 
1855 ; ' Fair and Fruitful Italy ' and ' Beau- 
tiful in Death/ a peacock, 1857; ' The Pea- 
cock at Home/ 1858; 'The Golden Age/ 
1859; 'A Sunny Bank/ 1861 ; and 'A Gleam 
of Sunshine ' and ' The Burgomaster's Dessert/ 
1862. Besides these he exhibited many fruit- 
pieces and pictures of dead game, painted 
with great richness of colour and truthful- 
ness to nature. The National Gallery pos- 
sesses ' A Basket of Fruit, Pineapple, and 
Bird's Nest/ ' Red Cap/ a replica of the pic- 
ture painted in 1847, ' Fruit : Pineapple, 
Grapes, and Melon, &c./ and ' A Fruit Piece/ 
the three first of which belong to the Vernon 
collection. Two fruit-pieces and a portrait 
of himself, painted about 1830, are in the 
South Kensington Museum. 

Lance died at the residence of his son, 
Sunnyside, near Birkenhead, on 18 June 1864. 
His most distinguished pupils were Sir John 
Gilbert and William Duffield, the latter an 
artist of great promise, who died young in 
1863. 

[Art Journal, 1857 Dp. 305-7 (from informa- 
tion supplied by the painter), 1864 p. 242 ; Red- 
graves' Century of Painters of the English 
School, 1890, p. 418 ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters 
and Engravers, ed. Graves, 1886-9, ii. 9 ; De- 
scriptive and Historical Cat. of Pictures in the 
National Gallery, British and Modern Schools, 
1889; Royal Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 
1828-62; British Institution Exhibition Cata- 
logues (Living Artiste), 1824-62.] K E. G. 

LANCET. [See De Lancet.] 

LANCRINCK, PROSPER HENRI 

(1 628-1892), painter. [See Lajtkrink.] 

LAND, EDWARD (1816-1876), vocalist 
and composer, was born in London in 1815. 
He began his career as one of the children of 
the Chapel Royal, and was afterwards brought 
into prominent notice as accompanist to John 
Wilson, the celebrated Scotch singer. After 
Wilson's death he acted in a similar capacity 
to David Kennedy [<j. v.] On the formation 
of the Glee and Madrigal Union he was chosen 
accompanist, and he also occasionally offi- 
ciated as second tenor vocalist. He was for 
several years secretary of the Noblemen and 
Gentlemen's Catch Club. He composed a 
number of songs, which were popular in their 



Landel 



47 



Landells 



day, such as < Bird of Beauty ' (1852), < The 
Angel's Watch ' (1863), < Birds of the Sea ' 
(1858), and harmonised or arranged a good 



again abroad. In 1370 he crowned Robert II 
at Scone. In 1378 a great part of the cathe- 
dral of St. Andrews was burned down. Since 



deal of miscellaneous vocal music. He wrote , the time of Bishop Gameline [q. v.] a dispute 



had existed in Scotland between the kings and 
the bishops regarding the hitter's testamen- 
tary rights ; the kings claimed that whether 
the bishops died testate or not their estates 
at their death in all cases reverted to the 
crown. King David having, in return, it 
has been alleged, for the aid towards his 
ransom afforded by the clergy, renounced this 
LANDEL, WILLIAM (d. 1385), bishop l claim with the consent of parliament, two 



many original pieces for the pianoforte, 
and made arrangements of various Scottish 
melodies and other compositions for the same 
instrument. He died in London on 29 Nov. 
1876. 

[Musical Times, January 1877 ; Life of David 
Kennedy, Paisley, 1877.] J. C. H. 



of St. Andrews, was second son of the Baron 
or Laird of Landel (or Lauderdale) in Ber- 
wickshire. He was laird of Laverdale, and 
succeeded to large family estates in Rox- 
burghshire on the death of his elder brother, 
Sir John. While rector or provost of the 
church of Kinkell in Aberdeenshire he was 
named bishop of St. Andrews by Benedict XH 3 



successive bulls were obtained from the pope 
confirming the renunciation. A third bull 
for the same purpose was issued in the time 
of Robert n, and while it continued in force 
Landel died on 15 Oct. 1385, so that he is 
said to have been the first bishop who was 
able to dispose of his estate by testament. 
He died in the abbey of St. Andrews, and was 



on the recommendation of the kings of Scot- I buried in the cathedral. 



land and of France, and was consecrated by 
Benedict XII at Avignon on 17 March 1342. 
Fordun, in relating his preferment, draws 
attention to the terms of the papal bull, in 
which it is stated that the selection was 
made specially on the recommendation of 
the prior and chapter of St. Andrews. He 
was taken prisoner with King David at the 
battle of Durham in 1346. After his release 
he was very active in procuring that of the 
king. Edward III granted him, with several 
other Scottish nobles, a safe-conduct, dated 



[Wyntoun's Chron.; Fordun's Scotichronicon; 
Spotiswood ; Gordon's Scotichronicon, i. 1 95 sq.l 

J. a. F. 
LANDELLS, EBENEZER (1808-1860), 
wood-engraver and projector of 'Punch/ 
born at Newcastle-on-Tyne on 13 April 1808, 
was third son of Ebenezer Landells, mer- 
chant of that town, and a native of Berwick- 
on-Tweed, and was descended from William 
Graham (1737-1801) [a. v.], minister of the 
Close meeting-house at Newcastle. Landells 
was educated at Mr. Brace's academy in New- 
4 Sept. 1352, to visit King David, then a pri- castle, and at the age of fourteen was appren- 
soner in England, to arrange as to his ransom. I ticed by his father for seven years to Thomas 
For this purpose he obtained from the clergy, | Bewick [j. v.] the wood-engraver. He was 
with the consent of Innocent VI, a grant of a favourite pupil of Bewick. After his 
the tenth part of all church livings in Scot- j master's death Landells accepted an engage- 
land during three years. He was one of the j ment to work in London with John Jackson 
commissioners appointed to receive the king ' " 
at Berwick on nis release in 1367. The 
bishop was fond of travelling, and was able, 



from nis great wealth, to command a large 
retinue. The Scottish rolls mention twenty- 
one safe-conducts which were granted to him 
either while travelling singly or in company 
with others. In 1361 he visited the shrine 
of St. James at Compostella, and the year 
following that of Thomas a Becket, accom- 
panied by William de Douglas. To avoid a 
pestilence prevalent in the south of Scotland 
he passed the Christmas of 1362 at Elgin, 
the King being at the same time resident at 
Kinloss in the same county. Part of the 
following year he spent with the king at his 
palace or tnchmurtach, when on 14 May the 
nigh steward of the kingdom and several of 



&v.] the wood-engraver, and is stated to 
ve resided with him for some time, from 
November 1829, in Clarendon Street, Claren- 
don Square. He was also employed by 
William Harvey [q. v.] on the second series 
of Northcote's 'Fables/ for which he en- 
graved most of the initial letters, and he 
engraved some of the drawings by H. K, 
Browne and Cattermole for Dickens's ' Mas- 
ter Humphrey's Clock.' This and other 
work was done in partnership with his 
fellow-townsman Charles Gray. For a 
time he superintended the fine-art engraving 
department of the firm of Branston & Vize- 
telly. Landells was soon known among the 
artists of his time in London, both as an 
industrious and deserving artist and as an 
agreeable companion. He always retained a 



the nobles assembled to renew their oath of I great love for Newcastle, and when a large 
fealty to the king. Towards the end of that i staff of assistants was working under him on 
year he went to Rome, and in 1365 he was wood-engraving, they nicknamed him 'Tooch- 



Landells 



4 8 



Landen 



it-oop,' from his strong Northumbrian accent, 
whicn never deserted him. His chief work 
was contributed to illustrated periodical lite- 
rature. 

Landells started about 1840 an illustrated 
journal of fashion, called ' The Cosmorama,' 
which had a short life. Shortly afterwards 
he conceived the idea of ' Punch, or the Lon- 
don Charivari/ of which he was the original 
projector. He communicated the idea to 
Henry Mayhew, who was one of the first edi- 
tors, Landells undertaking to find the draw- 
ings and engravings. At first there were 
three shareholders in the venture, Landells 
holding one, Mayhew, Mark Lemon, and Stir- 
ling Coyne, the editors, a second, and Joseph 
Last, the printer, a third. The first number 
appeared on 17 July 1841. After a few weeks 
Landells purchased Last's share, and on 
24 Dec. 1842 sold his two shares to Messrs. 
Bradbury & Evans for 350/., on condition of 
being employed for a fixed time as engraver 
for the paper. Messrs. Bradbury & Evans 
also acquired the editors' share, and thus be- 
came the sole proprietors. When Herbert 
Ingram [q. v.] started the ' Illustrated Lon- 
don News ' in 1842, Landells was consulted. 
He engraved much for the early numbers, 
and was employed to make sketches of the 
queen's first journey to Scotland for repro- 
duction in the paper. He played a similar 
part in the royal visits to the Khine and to 
other places, and was the first special artist- 
correspondent. His Scottish sketches were 
noticed by the queen, who thenceforth showed 
him much favour. In 1843 he was asso- 
ciated with Ingram and others in starting 
the ' Hluminated Magazine/ a periodical of 
which Douglas Jerrold [q. v.] was editor, and 
for which Landells supplied all the woodcut 
illustrations. A more successful venture for 
Landells was the ' Lady's Newspaper/ of 
which the first number appeared on 2 Jan. 
1847, with a title-page engraved by him. 
This was the earliest paper devoted to female 
interests, and after a successful career was 
ultimately incorporated with the still exist- 
ing weekly paper ' The Queen.' Landells was 
connected, either as artist or proprietor, with 
other journalistic experiments, such as ' The 
Great Gun' (started 1 in 1844), * Diogenes' 
(1853), the ' Illustrated Inventor/ &c, but 
his pecuniary profits were never large. His 
later engravings lack any special excellence, 
but he was a good instructor and much re- 
spected by his pupils and assistants, among 
whom were Edmund Evans, Birket Foster, 
J. Greenaway, T. Armstrong, the Dalziels, and 
other well-known wood-engravers. Landells, 
according to the custom of his profession, 
usually put his own name to the blocks which 



were engraved under his direction. He illus- 
trated some books for children, such as the 
' Boy's Own Toy Maker' (1858; 10th edit. 
1881), the ' Illustrated Paper Model Maker' 
(I860), &c. He died on 1 Oct. 1860 at Vic- 
1 toria Grove, West Brompton, and his widow, 
, with two sons and four daughters, survived 
him. He was married, on 9 Jan. 1832, at New 
St. Pancras Church, London, to Anne, eldest 
1 daughter of Robert McLagan of London. 

J LANDELLS, ROBERT THOMAS (1833-1877), 

artist and special war correspondent, born 
in London on 1 Aug. 1833, was eldest son 
of the above. He was educated principally 
in France, and afterwards studied drawing 
and painting in London. In 1856 Landells 
was sent by the ' Illustrated London News ' as 
special artist to the Crimea, and contributed 
some illustrations of the close of the cam- 
paign. After the peace he went to Moscow 
for the coronation of the czar, Alexander n, 
and contributed illustrations of the cere- 
mony. He was present as artist through- 
out the war between Germany and Denmark 
in 1863, receiving decorations from both sides, 
and again in the war between Austria and 
Prussia in 1866; on the latter occasion he 
was attached to the staff of the Crown Prince 
of Prussia, afterwards Emperor Frederick HI. 
On the outbreak of the Franco-German war 
in 1870 he was again attached to the staff 
of the crown prince, and during the siege of 
Paris resided at the prince's headquarters in 
Versailles. He received the Prussian cross 
not only for his labours as an artist, but for 
his assistance to the ambulances, and also the 
Bavarian cross for valour. His war sketches 
were always much admired. As a painter 
he also had some success. He was employed 
by the queen to paint memorial pictures of 
various ceremonials which she attended. He 
died on 6 Jan. 1877 at Winchester Terrace, 
Chelsea. He married, on 19 March 1857, at 
New St. Pancras Church, London, Elizabeth 
Ann, youngest daughter of George Herbert 
Rodwell [q. v.], musical composer, and grand- 
daughter of Liston the actor. By her he had 
two sons and two daughters. 

[Information from Mrs. J. H. Chaplin, Mr. 
Mason Jackson, and Mr. M. H. Spielmann.] 

L. C. 

LANDEN, JOHN (1719-1790), mathe- 
matician, was born at Peakirk, near Peter- 
borough in Northamptonshire, on 23 Jan. 
1719. He was brought up to the business of 
a surveyor, and acted as land agent to Wil- 
liam Wentworth, earl Fitzwifliam [q. v.], 
from 1762 to 1788. Cultivating mathematics 
during his leisure hours, he became a con- 
tributor to the 'Ladies' Diary' in 1744, pub- 



Lander 



49 



Lander 



lished l Mathematical Lucubrations' in 1755, 
and from 1754 onwards communicated to the 
Royal Society valuable investigations on 
points connected with the fluxionary cal- 
culus. His attempt to substitute for it a 
purely algebraical method, expounded in 
book i. of 'Residual Analysis' (London, 
1764), was further prosecuted by Lagrange. 
Book ii. never appeared. The remarkable 
theorem known by Landen's name, for ex- 
pressing a hyperbolic arc in terms of two 
elliptic arcs, was inserted in the 'Philoso- 
phical Transactions' for 1775, and specimens 
of its use were given in the first volume 
of his ' Mathematical Memoirs ' ( 1780). In 
a paper on rotatory motion laia before the 
Royal Society on 17 March 1785 he obtained 
results differing from those of Euler and 
D'Alembert, and defended them in the second 
volume of ' Mathematical Memoirs,' prepared 
for the press during the intervals of a painful 
disease, and placed in his hands, printed, the 
day before his death at Milton, near Peter- 
borough, the seat of the Earl Fitzwilliam, 
on 15Jan. 1790. In the same work he solved 
the problem of the spinning of a top, and 
explained Newton's error in calculating the 
effects of precession. 

Landen was elected a fellow of the Roval 
Society on 16 Jan. 1766, and was a member 
of the Spalding Society. Though foreigners 

Save him a high rank among English analysts, 
e failed to develope and combine his dis- 
coveries. He led a retired life, chiefly at Wal- 
ton in Northamptonshire. Though humane 
and honourable, he was too dogmatic in so- 
ciety. Besides the works above mentioned, 
he wrote : ' A Discourse concerning the Re- 
sidual Analysis' (1758), and ' Animadver- 
sions on Dr. Stewart's Computation of the 
Sun's Distance from the Earth' (1771). Papers 
by him are included in ' Philosophical Trans- 
actions,' vols, xlviii. Ii. lvii. lx. lxi. lxvii. lxxv. 

[Gent. Mag. vol lx. pt. i. pp. 90, 191 ; Phil. 
Trans. Abridged, x. 469 (Hutton) ; Hutton's 
Mathematical Diet. 1815 ; Montucla's Hist, des 
Mathematiques, iii. 240 ; Montferrier's Diet, des 
Mathematiques ; PoggendorfTs Biographisch- 
Literarisches Handworterbuch ; Maseres' Scrip- 
tores Logarithmici, ii. 172 ; Richelot's Die Lan- 
densche Transformation in ihrer Anwendung anf 
die Entwickelung der elliptischen Fnnctionen, 
1868 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] A. M. C. 

LANDER, JOHN (1807-1839), African 
traveller, born in Cornwall in 1807, was 
younger brother of Richard Lemon Lander 
[q. v. j, and was by trade a printer. He accom- 
panied his brother Richard (without promise 
of any reward) in his expedition which left 
England under government auspices in Janu- 
ary 1830 to explore the course and termina- 

vol. xxxn. 



tion of the river Niger, and, after discovering 
the outlet of the river in the Bight of Biafra, 
returned home in July 1831. His African 

i'ournal was incorporated with that of his 
>rother in the narrative of the expedition 
published in 1832. Viscount Godench, the 
president of the Royal Geographical Society, 
procured for Lander a tide-waiter's place in 
the custom house. Lander died on 16 Nov. 
1839 in Wyndham Street, Bryanston Square, 
at the age of thirty-three, of a malady origi- 
nally contracted in Africa. He left a widow 
and three children. 

[Tregellas's Cornish Worthies, London, 1884, 
ii. 202-3 ; Brit. Mus. Cat. Printed Books ; Gent. 
Mag. new ser. xii. 662.] H. M. C. 

LANDER, RICHARD LEMON (1804- 
1834), African traveller, was born 8 Feb. 
1804, at Truro, Cornwall, where his father 
kept the Fighting Cocks Inn, afterwards 
known as the Dolpnin. His grandfather was 
a noted wrestler. A contested election for the 
borough was won on the day of his birth by 
Colonel Lemon, and suggested his second 
name. He was the fourth of six children, and 
is described as a bright little fellow, whose 
roving propensities gave his friends constant 
anxiety. He was educated at ' old Pascoe's ' 
in Coombs Lane of his native town, and was a 
great favourite with the master. At thirteen he 
went out with a merchant to the West Indies, 
had an attack of yellow fever at San Domingo, 
returned home in 1818, and afterwards lived 
as servant in several wealthy families in Lon- 
don, with whom he travelled on the conti- 
nent. In 1823 he went to the Cape Colony 
as private servant to Major Colebrooke, royal 
artillery, afterwards General Sir W. M. G. 
Colebrooke, C.B. (cf. Colonial IAst, 1869), 
then one of the commissioners of colonial 
inquiry. After traversing the colony with 
his master, Lander returned home with him 
in 1824. The discoveries of Lieutenant Hugh 
Clapperton [q. v.] and Major Dixon Denham 
[q. v.] were at the time attracting much at- 
tention, and Lander offered his services to 
Clapperton, refusing better-paid employment 
in South America. With Clapperton Lander 
went to Western Africa, and was his devoted 
attendant during his second and last expedi- 
tion into the interior until his death in 1827. 
Lander then made his way to the coast, re- 
porting Clapperton's death to Denham, who 
was on a visit to Fernando Po, and by whom 
the news was sent to England. Lander fol- 
lowed with Clapperton's papers, arriving at 
Portsmouth in April 1828. To Clapperton's 
published * Journal ' was added the 'Journal 
of Richard Lander from Kano to the Coast/ 
London, 1829, 4to. Lander afterwards pub- 
lished ' Records of Captain Clapperton's last 



Lander 



So 



Lander 



Expedition to Africa, and the subsequent 
Adventures of the Author [R. Lander]/ Lon- 
don, 1830, 2 vols. 12mo. 

At the instance of Lord Bathurst (1762- 
1834) [q. v.] Lander undertook a fresh expe- 
dition to explore the course and termination 
of the Niger. His wife was to receive 100/. 
a year from government during his absence, 
and Lander himself was promised a gratuity 
of one hundred guineas on his return. Accom- 
panied by his younger brother, John Lander 
(1807-1839) rq.v.1, he left Portsmouth 9 Jan. 
1 830, and reached Cape Coast Castle on 22 Feb. 
Proceeding thence to Accra and Bogadry, the 
travellers on 17 June reached Boussa (Bussa), 
a place on the left bank of the Niger, where 
Mungo Park met his fate. Thence they 
ascended the stream about one hundred miles 
to Yaoorie, the extreme point reached by 
their expedition. Returning to Boussa on 
2 Aug. 1830, the travellers commenced the 
descent of the tortuous stream in canoes, in 
utter ignorance whither it would carry them. 
At a place called Kerrie they were plundered 
and cruelly maltreated by the natives. At 
Eboe (Ibo) the king made them prisoners, and 
demanded a heavy ransom, which was only 
obtained after long delay. Eventually they 
penetrated the forest-clad delta to the mouth 
of the Nun branch in the Bight of Biafra, 
thus setting at rest the question of the course 
and outlet of the great river Quorra (the 
Arabic name of the Niger river), ' the Nile of 
the Negros' (cf. Johnston, Diet, of Oeogr. 
under 'Niger'). On 1 Dec. 1830 the bro- 
thers were put ashore at Fernando Po, and, 
after visiting Rio Janeiro on their way, ar- 
rived home in July 1831. They were greeted 
with much enthusiasm. Richard Lander re- 
ceived the royal award of a gold medal, or an 
equivalent in money, placed at the disposal 
of the newly formed Royal Geographical 
Society of London, of which he thus became 
the first gold medallist. John Murray, the 
publisher, offered the brothers one thousand 
guineas for their journals, which, edited by 
Lieutenant (afterwards Commander) Alex. 
Bridport Becher, R.N., editor of the ' Nautical 
Magazine/ were published under the title of 
'Journal of an Expedition to explore the 
Course and Termination of the Niger,' Lon- 
don, 1882, 3 vols. 12mo. The work was in- 
cluded, as part xxviii., in the ' Family Library/ 
Translations have appeared in Dutch, French, 
German, Italian, and Swedish. 

Early in 1832 some merchants at Liverpool 
formed themselves into an association with 
the object of sending out an expedition, under 
the guidance of Richard Lander, to ascend the 
Niger and open up trade with the countries of 
Central Africa. The expedition was furnished 



with two steamers, one named the Quorra, of 
146 tons burden and 50 horse-power; the 
other Alburka (signifying in Arabic 'The 
Blessing*), built of iron, of 55 tons burden. 
They were to be accompanied to the west coast 
by a brig carrying coal and goods for barter. 
Lander started with the little armament from 
Milford Haven on 25 July, and reached Cape 
Coast Castle, after many disasters, 7 Oct. 
1832. Illnesses and mishaps innumerable de- 
layed the progress of affairs ; but in the end 
the steam ere ascended the river for a consider- 
able part of its course, afterwards returning 
to Fernando Po for fresh supplies of cowries, 
&c. Leaving the steamers in charge of Sur- 
geon Oldfield, Lander then returned to the 
Nun mouth, and thence began reascending 
the river in canoes. At a place called In- 
giamma the canoes were fired upon and pur- 
sued some distance down stream by the Brass 
River natives. Lander, who had great faith 
in and influence with the natives generally, 
received a musket-ball in the thigh, which 
could not be extracted. He was removed to 
Fernando Po, and was carefully attended in 
the house of the commandant, Colonel Nicolls ; 
but mortification set in suddenly, and he died 
(according to different statements) on 2 or 
7 Feb. 1834. He was buried in the Clarence 
cemetery, Fernando Po. A monument was 
placed by his widow and daughter, by per- 
mission, in the royal chapel of the Savoy, 
London, but was destroyed by the fire of 
7 July 1864. It has now been replaced by a 
stained-glass memorial window, put up by the 
Royal Geographical Society. A Doric memo- 
rial shaft in Lemon Street, Truro, was erected 
by public subscription, and dedicated with 
some ceremony in 1835, but fell down through 
defective workmanship the year after. It now 
bears a statue of Lander by the Cornish 
sculptor, Nevill Northey Burnard [q. v.]. 
Lander's portrait by William Brockedon 
[q. v.], which has been engraved by C. Turner, 
hangs in the council-room of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society. A government pension 
of 70/. a year was given to his widow, and a 
gratuity of 80/. to his daughter. The story 
of Lander's last expedition is told in 'Narra- 
tive of an Expedition into the Interior of 

Africain Steamers, in 1832, 1833, 1834 By 

Macgregor Laird and R. A. K. Oldfield, the 
surviving officers of the Expedition,' London, 
1835. 

In person Lander was very short and fair. 
His journals show that he possessed consider- 
able intellectual powers, as well as great 
muscular strength and an iron constitution, 
and the passive courage which is so essential 
a qualification in an African traveller. His 
manners were mild, unobtrusive, and pleas- 



Landmann 



Si 



Landmann 



ing, which, joined to his cheerful temper and 
handsome, ingenuous countenance, made him 
a general favourite. 

A portrait of Lander is prefixed to his 
4 Records of Clapperton's Last Expedition,' 
1880. 

[Tregellas's Cornish Worthies, London, 1884, 
vot ii. ; R. Lander's Records of Captain Clap- 
perton's Last Expedition, London, 1830; R. 
and J. Lander's Journal of an Expedition to 
explore the Course and Termination of the Niger, 
London, 1832; Macgregor Laird and Oldfield's 
Narrative of an Expedition into the Interior of 
Africa, London, 1835; Johnston's Diet of Geogr. 
London, 1877; Annual Biog. and Obituary, 1834; 
Commander William Allen's Picturesque Views 
on the River Niger, 1840.] H. M. 0. 

LANDMANN, GEORGE THOMAS 
{1779-1864), lieutenant-colonel royal en- 
gineers, son of Isaac Landmann [q. v.], was 
born at Woolwich in 1779. He became a 
cadet at the Royal Military Academy on 
16 April 1793, and obtained a commission as 
second lieutenant in the royal engineers on 
1 May 1795. Stationed at Plymouth and 
Falmouth, he was employed in the fortifica- 
tion of St. Nicholas Island at the former, and 
Pendennis Castle and St. Mawes at the latter 
place. He was promoted first lieutenant on 
3 June 1797, was sent to Canada at the end 
of that year, and was employed until the end 
of 1800 in the construction of fortifications 
at St. Joseph, Lake Huron, Upper Canada. 
In 1801 ana 1802 he was employed in cutting 
a new canal at the Cascades on the river St. 
Lawrence. On 13 July 1802 he was promoted 
captain-lieutenant, and at the end of the year 
returned to England, when he was stationed 
at Portsmouth and Gosport, and employed in 
the fortifications. 

On 19 July 1804 he was promoted second 
captain, and in December 1805 embarked at 
Portsmouth with troops for Gibraltar. On 
1 July 1806 he was promoted captain. In the 
summer of 1808 he embarked as commanding 
royal engineer with General Spencer's corps 
of seven thousand men from Gibraltar, and 
landed in August at Mondego Bay to join Sir 
Arthur Wellesley. He was then attached, to the 
light brigade under Brigadier-general Hon. 
IL Fane, was present at the battle of Roleia 
(17 Aug.}, when he succeeded Captain Elphin- 
stone, wno was wounded, in the command of 
the royal engineers. He made a plan of the 
battle for Sir Arthur Wellesley, which was 
sent home with despatches. He reconnoitered 
the field of Vimeiro,and commanded his corps 
at the battle on 21 Aug. In September he was 
sent to Peniche to report on that fortress, and 
when Major Fletcher went to Spain with Sir 
John Moore, he assumed the command of his 



corps in Portugal. In December he was sent 
to construct a bridge of boats at Abrantes, 
on the Tagus, another at Punhete, on the 
Zezere, and a flying bridge at Villa Velha, 
and to reconnoitre the country about Idanha 
Nova, &c. The bridges were completed in five 
days. 

On his return to Lisbon he was, in February 
1809, sent overland with despatches to Bar- 
tholomew Frere Tq. v.], the British minister 
at Seville, and tnence, as commanding en- 
gineer, to join the corps of General Mackenzie. 
Soon after Landmann's arrival at Cadiz an 
Smeute occurred among the inhabitants, who, 
suspecting the fidelity of their governor, the 
Marquis de Villel, desired to put him to death. 
General Mackenzie directed Landmann to 
endeavour to tranquillise the people, and as 
he spoke Spanish fluently he was eventually 
able to reconcile the contending parties. For 
his services on this occasion he received the 
thanks of the king of Spain through the secre- 
tary of state. On 22 Feb. 1809 Landmann 
was granted a commission as lieutenant- 
colonel in the Spanish engineers, and on Gene- 
ral Mackenzie and his troops leaving Cadiz 
for Lisbon, Landmann was left at Cadiz by 
Frere's desire. He went to Gibraltar in July, 
and sent home plans of the fortifications of 
Cadiz, with a report which led to vigorous 
efforts being made to defend that place. 

When, in January 1810, the French had 
entered Seville, and an attack on Gibraltar 
was expected from the land side, it was deemed 
expedient to demolish forts San Felipe and 
Santa Barbara in the Spanish lines. Land- 
mann was deputed to negotiate with the 
Spanish governor for the needful permission, 
and he accomplished his delicate task success- 
fully, though not without difficulty. When 
the French marched on Cadiz in February, 
Landmann volunteered to proceed thither 
with an auxiliary force embarked at Gibraltar, 
but being detained by a contrary wind, he hired 
a rowboat, reached Cadiz on the second day, 
and found himself for a time commanding 
engineer of the British forces. 

On 25 March 1810 he was appointed colonel 
of infantry in the Spanish army, and in April 
served at the siege of Matagorda. In August 
he returned to England on account of ill- 
health. In December he was appointed one 
of the military agents in the Peninsula, and 
sailed for Lisbon. After delivering despatches 
to Wellington at Cartaxo he proceeded to- 
wards Cadiz, and on the way joined the 
Spanish corps of General BaUasteros, and 
was present at the action of Castilejos, near 
the Guadiana, on 7 Jan. 1811. His horse 
fell under him, and he sustained an injury 
to his left eye. From Cadiz he returned in 

b2 



Landmann 



5* 



Landon 



June to Ayamonte, and rode round the sea 
coast to Corunna, whence, after a short stay 
in Galicia, he went hack to Cadiz hy another 
route. 

In March 1812 Landmann sailed for Eng- 
land in company with the Spanish ambassa- 
dor. His health was now so impaired that 
he was unable to return to duty until July 
1813, when he was sent to Ireland to com- 
mand the engineers in the Lough Swilly 
district. He nad been promoted on 4 June 
1813 brevet-major for his services, and be- 
came lieutenant-colonel on 16 May 1814. In 
March 1815 he was appointed commanding 
royal engineer of the Thames district, and in 
May 1817 was transferred to Hull as com- 
manding royal engineer of the Yorkshire 
district. He was granted leave of absence 
in 1819, and appears to have continued on 
leave until he retired from the corps, by the 
sale of his commission, on 29 Bee. 1824. 
He was a member of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers until 1852. He died at Shackle- 
wefl, near Hackney, London, on 27 Aug. 
1854. 

Landmann was author of: 1. ' Historical, 
Military, and Picturesque Observations in 
Portugal, illustrated with numerous coloured 
Views and authentic Plans of all the Sieges 
and Battles fought in the Peninsula during 
the present War/ 2 vols. 4to, London, 1818. 
2. 'Adventures and Recollections of Colonel 
Landmann/ 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1 852. 3. ' Re- 
collections of my Military Life/ 2 vols. 8vo, 
London, 1854 (cf. Athenatum, 1854, pp. 679- 
681). He also revised his father's 'Principles 
of Fortifications/ 8vo, London, 1831. 

[Corps Records; Landmann's Works; Gent. 
Mag. 1854, pti. p. 422; Royal Military Calendar, 
1826, vol. v. 3rd ed. p. 26 ; Pantheon of the Age, 
ii. 551.] R. H. V. 

LANDMANN, ISAAC (1741-1826 P), 
professor of artillery and fortification, born in 
1741, held for some years an appointment at 
the Royal Military School in Pans. Although 
he retired on the reorganisation of the school, 
he continued to live in Paris, and made an 
income of about 300/. per annum by teaching 
the young French nobility the art of war. On 
25 Nov. 1777 he assumed the appointment of 
professor of artillery and fortification at the 
Royal Military Academy at Woolwich at the 
invitation of Ueorge III. A letter from the 
board of ordnance, dated 25 Nov. 1777, in- 
troducing him to the lieutenant-governor of 
the Woolwich Academy, described him as a 
gentleman who * has seen a great deal of ser- 
vice and acted as aide-de-camp to Marshal 
Broglis in the late war.' His salary was 494/. 
per annum with a house. On 1 July 1816 



he retired, after thirty-eight years' successful 
service, on a pension 01 500/. per annum, 
granted him by the prince regent. He left 
a son, George Thomas Landmann [q. v.], who 
was an officer in the royal engineers. 

Landmann was author of : 1. * Ele- 
ments of Tactics and Introduction to Mili- 
tary Evolutions for the Infantry, by a cele- 
brated Prussian General [Saltern], translated 
from the original by I. L./ 8vo, London, 
1787. 2. 'Practical Geometry for the uso 
of the Royal Military Academy at Wool- 
wich/ 8vo, London, 1798; 2nd ed. 1805. 
3. ' The Field Engineer's Vade Mecum, with 
Plans/ 8vo, London, 1802. 4. 'The Prin- 
ciples of Fortification reduced into Questions 
and Answers for the use of the Royal Mili- 
tary Academy at Woolwich/ 8vo, London, 
1806. 6. ' The Construction of several Sys- 
tems of Fortification/ 8vo, London, with 
plates, fol. 1807. 6. < The Principles of Ar- 
tillery reduced into Questions ana Answers 
for the use of the Royal Military Academy 
at Woolwich/ 2nd ed., with considerable 
additions and improvements, 8vo, London, 
1808. 7. < Mullens Attack and Defence of 
Places/ 4th ed. 8vo, London. 8. * A Course 
of the Five Orders of Architecture/ fol. Lon- 
don. 9. ' A Treatise on Mines for the use 
of the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich/ 
8vo, London, 1815. 10. 'The Principles of 
Fortification/ 5th ed. 8vo, London, 1821. 

[Records of the Royal Military Academy, 
Woolwich, 4to, 1851.] R. H. V. 

LANDON, LETITTA ELIZABETH, 
afterwards Mbs. Maclean (1802-1838), 
poetess, and famous in her day under the 
initials ' L. E. L./ was born in Hans Place, 
Chelsea, on 14 Aug. 1802. She was descended 
from a family once possessed of considerable 
landed property at Crednall in Herefordshire, 
which was lost in the South Sea bubble. 
The descendants took to the church, and 
Letitia's great-grandfather is recorded on his 
monument to have employed his pen ' to the 
utter confutation of all dissenters.' Her 
grandfather was rector of Tedstone Delamere, 
Herefordshire. Her uncle, Dr. Whitting- 
ton Landon, who died on 29 Dec. 1838, held 
at the time the deanery of Exeter, to which 
he was appointed in 1813, and the provost- 
ship of Worcester College, Oxford, to which 
he had been nominated in 1796 (cf. Gent, 
Mag. 1839, i. 212). Her father, John Lan- 
don, who in his youth had voyaged to Africa 
and Jamaica, was at the time of her birth a 

S,rtner in Adair's army agency in Pall Mall, 
er mother, whose maiden name was Bishon, 
was of Welsh extraction; her maternal grand- 
mother, an intimate friend of Mrs. Siddons, 



Landon 



53 



Landon 



was thought to be the natural child of per- 
sons of rank. An only brother, Whittington 
Henry Landon (1804-1883\ was a graduate 
of Worcester College, Oxford, and vicar of 
Slebech, Pembrokeshire, from 1851 to 1877 
(Fobtbk, Alumni Oxon. ; Robinson, Merchant 
Taylors 1 School Beg.) Letitia received her 
first education at a school in Chelsea, where 
Miss Mitford and Lady Caroline Lamb were 
likewise educated, and was afterwards taught 
by masters. She very early exhibited an omni- 
vorous appetite for reading, and was ready in 
acquiring all branches of knowledge except 
music and calligraphy. About 1815 her family 
removed to Old Brompton, and there made 
the acquaintance of William Jerdan [q. v.], 
who exercised the most decisive influence on 
the future of the young poetess. ' My first 
recollection,' he says, ' is that of a plump girl 
bowling a hoop round the walks, witn the 
hoop-stick in one hand and a book in the 
other, reading as she ran. The exercise was 
prescribed; the book was choice.' Upon further 
acquaintance he thought her * a creature of 
another sphere, thougn with every fascina- 
tion which could render her loveable in our 
everyday world.' Inferior poetry to * L. E. L.'s ' 
would have found easy entrance to the 'Lite- 
rary Gazette' under such favourable prepos- 
sessions, and as her verse was not only good, 
but perfectly adapted to the taste of the day, 
she soon became a leading support of the 
periodical. Her first poem, ' Home,' appeared 
on 11 March 1820, under the signature of 
1 L.' Before long * she began to exercise her 
talents upon publications in general litera- 
ture,' that is to review, and soon ' did little 
less for the " Gazette" than I did myself,' an 
assertion the more probable as Jerdan was 
an indolent editor. Her labours as a reviewer 
were far from checking the facile flow of her 
fugitive verse, and she soon attempted poems 
of considerable compass. ' The Fate of Ade- 
laide' was published in 1821, ' The Improvisa- 
trice' in 1824 (6th edit. 1825), 'The Trouba- 
dour,' with other poems (three editions), in 
1825, 'The Golden Violet' in 1827, 'The 
Venetian Bracelet,' with other poems, in 1 829. 
She was also an incessant contributor to 
albums and other annuals, editing the ' Draw- 
ing Scrap Book' from 1832. By the advice, 
it is said, of her friend, Mrs. S. C. Hall^she first 
attempted fiction in ' Romance and Keality,' 
1881, and 'Francesca Carrara,' 1834. 
During this period she resided for the most 

Srt with elderly ladies, the Misses Lance and 
rs. Sheldon, both in Hans Place. The fasci- 
nation of her appearance and conversation at 
the time is described by Mr. S. C. Hall; the 
other side of the picture is given in Chorley's 
4 Memoirs,' where she is represented as a na- 



turally gifted person, spoiled by flattery, and 
associated with a very undesirable literary 
set, and, though earning large sums by her 
pen, estimated by Jerdan at not less than 
z,500/. altogether, harassed and worn by a 
continual struggle to support her family, who 
had become impoverished. The substantial 
truth of this picture is indubitable, and is 
sufficiently evinced by the cruel scandals 
which in her latter years became associated 
with ' L. E. L.'s' name, and, destitute as 
they were of the least groundwork in fact, 
beyond some expressions of hers whose tenor 
is only known from the admission of her 
friends that they were imprudent, occasioned 
her acute misery. Thev were, says Mr. S. C. 
Hall, employed in a letter to 'that very 
worthless person Maginn,' and ' sufficed to 
arouse the ire of a jealous woman. To have 
seen, much more to have known Maginn, 
would have been to refute the calumny.' It 
occasioned, nevertheless, the breaking off of 
an engagement between Miss Landon and an 
unnamed gentleman, said to be John Forster 
[q. v.] (cf. Bates, MacUse Gallery), and seems 
to have driven her in mere despair into an 
engagement with another gentleman of dis- 
tinguished public service and position, but 
with whom she can have had little sympathy, 
George Maclean [q. v.], governor of Cape 
Coast Castle. The marriage, delayed for a 
time by the rumour that Maclean had a wife 
living in Africa, took place in June 1838. 
Lytton Bulwer gave the bride away. On 
5 July the wedded pair sailed for Cape Coast, 
and arrived on 16 Aug. 

No circumstance respecting ' L. E. L.' has 
occasioned so much discussion as her sudden 
and mysterious death at Cape Coast Castle 
on 15 Oct. 1838. That she died of taking 
prussic acid can hardly be disputed, though 
the surgeon's neglect to institute a post- 
mortem examination left an opening for doubt. 
That she was found lying in her room with 
an empty bottle, which had contained a pre- 
paration of prussic acid, in her hand seems 
equally certain, and the circumstance, if 
provea, negatives the not unnatural suspicion 
that her death was the effect of the vengeance 
of her husband's discarded mistress, while 
there is no ground in any case for suspecting 
him. There remain, therefore, only the hypo- 
theses of suicide and of accident; and the 
general tone of her letters to England, even 
though betraying some disappointment with 
her husband, is so cheerful, and the fact of 
her having been accustomed to administer 
a most dangerous medicine to herself is so 
well established, that accident must be re- 
garded as the more probable supposition. 

' L. E. L.'s ' literary work had of late years 



Landor 



54 



Landor 



been lees copious than formerly, but included 
an unacted tragedy, ' Oastruccio Castracani,' 
1837,'TheVow of the Peacock/ 1835/ Traits 
and Trials of Early Life' (supposed to be 
in part autobiographical), 1836, and * Ethel 
Churchill/ the best of her novels, 1837. 
' The Zenana, and other Poems/ chiefly made 
up from contributions to annuals, appeared 
in 1839, immediately after her deatn, and 
a posthumous novel, 'Lady Granard/ was 
published in 1842. Collected editions of 
'L. E. L.V verse appeared in 1838 at Phila- 
delphia, in 1850 and 1873 in London, the last 
edited by W. Bell Scott. 

As a poetess Letitia Elizabeth Landon can 
only rank as a gifted improvisatrice. She 
had too little culture, too little discipline, too 
low an ideal of her art, to produce anything 
of very great value. All this she might and 
probably would have acquired under happier 
circumstances. She had genuine feeling, rich 
fancy, considerable descriptive power, great 
fluency of language, and, as Mr. Mackenzie 
Bell points out, a real dramatic instinct when 
dealing with incident. Her diffuseness is the 
common fault of poetesses, and in this and 
in other respects her latest productions 
manifest considerable improvement. If not 
entitled to a high place in literature upon 
her own merits, she will nevertheless occupy 
a permanent one as a characteristic repre- 
sentative of her own time, and will always 
interest by her truth of emotion, no less than 
by the tragedy and mystery of her death. 

A portrait of Miss Landon by Maclise was 
engraved by Edward Finden for her ' Traits 
and Trials/ Another portrait by Maclise is 
in the ' Maclise Portrait Gallery' (ed. Bates). 
An engraving by Wright appeared in the 
1 New Monthly Magazine ' for May 1837. 

[Blanchard's Life and Remains of L. E. L., 
1841; Jordan's Autobiog. ; Chorley's Memoirs; 
S. C. Hall's Book of Memories ; Grantley Ber- 
keley's Recollections ; Madden's Memoirs of Lady 
Blessiogton; Mackenzie Bell in Miles's Poets 
and Poetry of the Century; Gent. Mag. 1839, 
pt. i. pp. 160, 212 ; L'Estrange's Friendships of 
Mary Russell Mitford, i. 126, 169, 231, ii. 48, 50 ; 
and his Life of Miss Mitford, iii. 93, 1 19 ; Father 
Prout's Reliques, i. 214, ii. 189.] R. G. 

LANDOR, ROBERT EYRES (1781- 
1869), author. [See under Landor, Walter 

Savage.] 

LANDOR, WALTER SAVAGE (1775- 
1864), author of ' Imaginary Conversations/ 
born on 30 Jan. 1775, was the eldest son of 
Walter Landor, by his second wife, Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Charles Savage. The Lan- 
dors had been settled for some generations at 
Rugeley, Staffordshire. Their descendant's 



fancy ennobled his ancestry, and he be- 
lieved, gratuitously as it seems, that one of 
his mother's ancestors was Arnold Savage, 
speaker of the House of Commons in tne 
reign of Henry VII. The elder Landor was 
a physician, but after coming to his inherit* 
ance, resigned his practice, living partly at 
Warwick, and partly at Ipsley Court, his- 
second wife's property. By his first wife he 
had one daughter, married to her cousin, 
Humphry Arden, who inherited her mother's 
property. His own estates in Staffordshire 
were entailed upon his eldest son. His second 
wife was coheiress with her three sisters of 
their father, Charles Savage, who had only a 
small estate ; but after her marriage she in- 
herited from two great-uncles, wealthy Lon- 
don merchants, the Warwickshire estates of 
Ipsley Court and Tachbrook, which had for- 
merly belonged to the Savages. These estates 
were also entailed upon the eldest son. The 
other children of the marriage were Elizabeth 
Savage (1776-1864), Charles Savage (1777- 
1849), who held the family living of Colton, 
Staffordshire,MaryAnne(1778-1818),Henry 
Eyres (1780-1866), a solicitor, Robert Eyres 
(1781-1869), rector of Birlingham, Worces- 
tershire, and Ellen (1783-1835) (see Burxb, 
History of the Commoners, 1838). They de- 
pended for their fortunes upon their mother, 
and had an interest in the estate of Hughen- 
den Manor, which had been left to her and 
her three sisters. The daughters all died un- 
married. 

Walter Savage Landor was sent to a school 
at Knowle, ten miles from Warwick, when 
under five years of age. At the age of ten 
he was transferred to Rugby, then under Dr. 
James. He was a sturdy, though not spe- 
cially athletic lad, and famous for his skill in 
throwing a net, in which he once enveloped 
a farmer who objected to his fishing. He 
was, however, more given to study, and soon 
became renowned for his skill in Latin verse. 
He refused to compete for a prize, in spite 
of the entreaties of his tutor, John Sleath, 
afterwards prebendary of St. Paul's, to whom 
he refers affectionately in later years ( Works, 
iv. 400). His perversities of temper soon 
showed themselves. He took offence because 
James, when selecting for approval some of 
his Latin verses, chose, as Landor thought, the 
worst. Landor resented this by adding some 
insulting remarks in a fair copy, and after 
another similar offence James requested that 
he might be removed in order to avoid the 
necessit v of expulsion. He was placed accord- 
ingly, about 1/91, under Mr. Langley, vicar 
of Ashbourne, Derbyshire,whose amiable sim- 
plicity he has commemorated in the dialogue 
between Izaak Walton, Cotton, and Oldways. 



Landor 



55 



Landor 



Here he improved his Greek, and practised 
English ana Latin verse-writing, though his 
tutor's scholarship was scarcely superior to 
his own. In 1793 he entered Trinitv Col- 
lege, Oxford, as a commoner. He still de- 
clined to compete for prizes, though his Latin 
verses were by his own account the best in 
the university. He maintained his intimacy 
with an old school friend, Walter Birch, after- 
wards a country clergyman, and always an 
affectionate friend, and made a favourable 
impression upon his tutor, William Benwell 
[q. v.] He pronounced himself a republican, 
wrote satires and an ode to Washington, 
went to hall with his hair unpowdered, and 
was regarded as a ' mad Jacobin.' In the 
autumn of 1794 he fired a gun at the windows 
of an obnoxious tory, who was moreover 
giving a party of ' servitors and other raffs/ 
The shutters of the windows were closed, 
and no harm was done ; but Landor refused 
to give any explanations, and was conse- 
quently rusticated for a year. The autho- 
rities respected his abilities, and desired his 
return. The affair, however, led to an angry 
dispute with his father. Landor went off to 
London, declaring that he had left his father's 
house ' for ever.' He consoled himself by 
bringing out a volume of English and Latin 
poems. 

Meanwhile his friends tried to make peace. 
Dorothea, niece of Philip Lyttelton of Studley 
Castle, Warwickshire, where she lived with 
two rich uncles, was admired by all the 
Landor brothers, and carried on a correspond- 
ence which was sisterly, if not more than 
sisterly, with Walter, her junior by a year or 
two. She persuaded him to give up a plan 
for retiring to Italy, and finally induced nim 
to accept tne mediation of her uncles with his 
father. As Walter had no taste for a profes- 
sion, it was decided that he should receive an 
allowance of 150/. a year, with leave to live 
as much as he pleased at his father's house. 
It seems that he might have had 400/. a year 
if he would have studied law (see Madden, 
Lady Blessing ton y ii. 846). A proposal was 
made a little later that he should take a com- 
mission in the militia ; but the other officers 
objected to the offer, on the ground of his 
violent opinions. The needs of the younger 
brothers and sisters account for the small 
amount of his allowance. 

Landor left London for Wales, and for the 
next three years spent his time, when away 
from home, at Tenby and Swansea. Here 
he made friends with the family of Lord 
Aylmer. Rose Aylmer, commemorated in 
the most popular of his short poems, lent 
him a story by Clara Reeve, whicn suggested 
to him the composition of * Gebir.' The style 



shows traces of the study of Pindar and 
Milton, to which he had devoted himself in 
Wales. ' Gebir/ published in 1798, had a 
fate characteristic of Landor's work. It was 
little read, but attracted the warm admira- 
tion of some of the best judges. Southey 
became an enthusiastic admirer, and praised 
it in the ' Critical Review' for September 
1799. Coleridge, to whom Southey showed 
it, shared Southey's opinion. Henry Francis 
Cary [q. v.], the translator of Dante and a 
schoolfellow of Landor, was an early admirer. 
Heber, Dean Shipley, Frere, Canning, and 
Bolus Smith are also claimed as admirers by 
Landor; and Shelley, when at Oxford in 
1811, bored Hogg by his absorption in it. 
Landor had thus some grounds for refuting 
De Quincey's statement that he and Southey 
had been for years the sole purchasers of 
' Gebir.' Still, De Quincey's exaggeration was 
pardonable (Foestek, pp. 67-62, and Arch- 
deacon Hare and Landor in Imaginary Con- 
versations). Landor led an unsettled life for 
some years. He formed a friendship with 
Dr. Parr, who had been resident at Hatton, 
near Warwick, since 1783, and was one of 
the few persons qualified to appreciate his 
latinity. In spite of Parr's vanity and 
warmth of temper, he never quarrelled with 
Landor, left his after-dinner pipe and company 
to visit his young friend, and maintained 
with him a correspondence, which began 
during Landor's stay at Oxford, and con- 
tinued till Parr's death in 1825. Parr in- 
troduced Landor to Sir Robert Adair [q. v.], 
the friend of Fox, who took great pains, and 
with some success, to enlist Landor as a 
writer in the press against the ministry. 
Other friends were Isaac Mocatta, who 
persuaded him to suppress a reply (Fobs- 
tbb publishes some interesting extracts from 
the manuscript, pp. 69-72) to an attack 
upon ' Gebir' in the * Monthly Review,' and 
Sergeant Rough, who had published an imi- 
tation of ' Gebir,' called * The Conspiracy of 
Gowrie.' Mocatta died in 1801, and Rough 
had a quarrel with Landor at Parr's house, 
which ended their intimacy. In 1802 Lan- 
dor took advantage of the peace to visit 
Paris, and came back with prejudices, never 
afterwards softened, against the French and 
their ruler. On returning Landor visited 
Oxford, where his brother was superintend- 
ing the publication of a new edition of ' Gebir,' 
with ' arguments' to each book to explain its 
obscurity, and of a Latin version, ' Gebirus.' 
He continued to write poetry, lived in Bath, 
Bristol, and Wales, with occasional visits to 
London, and managing to anticipate his in- 
come. His father had to sell property in 
order to meet the son's debts, who under- 



Landor 



56 



Landor 



took in return to present his brother Charles 
to the family living of Colton when it should 
become vacant. 

The father died at the end of 1806 ; and 
Landor set up at Bath, spending money liber- 
ally, with a ' fine carriage, three horses, and 
two men-servants/ He had various love- 
affairs, commemorated in poems addressed 
to Ione ; poetical for Miss Jones, and Ianthe, 
otherwise Sophia Jane Swift, an Irish lady, 
afterwards Countess de Molande. In the 
spring of 1808 Southey met him at Bristol. 
Each was delighted with his admirer. Southey 
spoke of his intended series of mythological 
poems in continuation of ' Thalaba.' Landor 
immediately offered to pay for printing them. 
Southey refused, but submitted to Landor 
his 'Kehama' and 'Roderick/ as they were 
composed ; and Landor sent a cheque for a 
large number of copies of ' Kehama ' upon 
its publication. The friendship was very cor- 
dial, and never interrupted, in spite of much 
divergence of opinion. Each saw in the 
other an appreciative and almost solitary an- 
ticipator of the certain verdict of posterity ; 
and they had seldom to risk the friction of 
personal intercourse. 

The rising in Spain against the French 
caused an outburst of enthusiasm in Eng- 
land; and in August 1808 Landor sailed 
from Falmouth to join the Spaniards at 
Corunna. He gave ten thousand reals for the 
inhabitants of a town burnt by the French, 
and raised some volunteers, with whom he 
joined Blake's army in Gallicia. He took 
offence on misunderstanding something said 
by an English envoy at Corunna, and at once 

Eublished an angry letter in Spanish and Eng- 
sh. Landor could hardly have been of much 
use in a military capacity. He was at Bilbao, 
which was occupied alternately by the French 
and the Spaniards, towards the end of Sep- 
tember, and ran some risk of being taken 
prisoner. Blake's army, after some lighting, 
was finally crushed by the French in the 
beginning of November, and by the end of 
that month Landor was in England. The 
supreme junta thanked him for his services, 
and the minister, Cevailos, sent him an hono- 
rary commission as colonel in the service of 
Ferdinand. When Ferdinand afterwards 
restored the Jesuits, Landor marked his in- 
dignation by returning the commission to 
Cevailos. Upon his return to England he 
joined Wordsworth and Southey in de- 
nouncing the convention of C intra (signed 
80 Aug.), which had excited general indig- 
nation. The chief result, however, of his 
Spanish expedition was the tragedy of ' Count 
Julian/ composed in the winter of 1810-11. 
Southey undertook to arrange for its publi- 



cation. The Longmans refused to print it, 
even at the author's expense; and Landor 
showed his anger by burning another tragedy, 
' Ferranti and Giufio/ and resolving to burn 
all future verses. Two scenes from the de- 
stroyed tragedy were afterwards published 
as 'Ippolito di Este'in the 'Imaginary Con- 
versations.' Southey, however, got ' Count 
Julian' published by the Longmans. Al- 
though showing fully Landor's distinction of 
style, it is not strong dramatically, and the 
plot is barely intelligible unless the story is 
previously known. Naturally it made little 
impression. A comedy called ' The Charitable 
Dowager, 1 written about 1803, has disappeared 
(Fobstbb, pp. 176-7). 

Landor nad meanwhile resolved to esta- 
blish himself on a new estate. The land inhe- 
rited from his father was worth under 1,000/. 
a year ; but he bought the estate of Llan- 
thony Abbey, estimated at some 3,000/. a 
year, in the vale of Ewyas, Monmouthshire. 
To enable him to do this his mother sold 
for 20,000/. the estate of Tachbrook (en- 
tailed upon him), he in return settling upon 
her for life 450/. a year and surrendering the 
advowson of Colton to his brother Charles. 
An act of parliament, passed in 1809, was 
obtained to give effect to the new arrange- 
ments. Landor set about improving his pro- 
perty. His predecessor had erected some 
buildings in the ruins of the ancient abbey. 
Landor began to pull these down and con- 
struct a house, never finished, though he 
! managed to live at the place. He planted 
trees, imported sheep from Spain, improved 
the roads, and intended to become a model 
country gentleman. In the spring of 1811 
he went to a ball in Bath, and seeing a 
pretty girl, remarked to a friend, * That's 
the nicest girl in the room, and I'll marry 
her.' The lady, named Julia Thuillier, was 
daughter of a banker of Swiss descent, who 
had been unsuccessful in business at Ban- 
bury and gone to Spain, leaving his family 
at Bath. ' She had no pretensions of any 
kind,' as Landor wrote to his mother, * and 
her want of fortune was the very thing 
which determined me to marry her.' She 
had refused for him two gentlemen of rank 
and fortune (t&. p. 183). The marriage 
took place by the end of May 1811. The 
Southeys visited them at Llanthony in the 
following August. Landor was already set- 
ting into troubles upon his estate. He had 
offered to the Bishop of St. Davids to restore 
the old church. The bishop not answering, 
Landor wrote another letter saying that 
' God alone is great enough for me to ask 
anything of twice.' The bishop then wrote 
approving the plan, but saying that an act 



Landor 



57 



Landor 



of parliament would be necessary. Landor 
intimated dryly that he had had enough 
of applying to parliament. Meanwhile he 
found that his neighbours — as was always 
the case with Landor's neighbours — were ut- 
terly deaf to the voice of reason. The Welsh 
were idle and drunken, and though he had 
spent 8,000/. upon labour in three years, 
treated him as their 'worst enemy. In 
the summer assizes of 1812 he took the 
formal charge of the judge to the grand jury 
literally, and presented nim with a charge 
of felony against an attorney of ill-repute. 
The judge declined to take any notice of 
this. Landor next applied to be made a 
magistrate, and his application was briefly 
rejected by the lord-lieutenant, the Duke of 
Beaufort. He applied to the lord chancel- 
lor, Eldon, who was equally obdurate, and 
Landor revenged himself in a letter com- 
posed in his stateliest style, pointing out 
that none of the greatest thinkers from 
Demosthenes to Locke would have been ap- 
pointed magistrates. His next unlucky per- 
formance was letting his largest farm to one 
Betham, who claimed acquaintance with 
Southey. Betham knew nothing of farming, 
spent his wife's fortune in extravagant liv- 
ing, brought three or four brothers to poach 
over the land, and paid no rent. Landor was 
worried by knavish attorneys and hostile ma- 
gistrates. When a man against whom he had 
to swear the peace drank himself to death, 
he was accused of causing the catastrophe. 
His trees were uprooted and his timber stolen. 
When he prosecuted a man for theft he was 
insulted by the defendant's counsel, whom, 
however, he ' chastised in his Latin poetry 
now in the press/ An action brought by 
Landor against Betham was Anally successful 
in the court of exchequer ; but he was over- 
whelmed with expenses and worries, and re- 
solved to leave England. His personal pro- 
Srty was sold for the benefit of his creditors, 
is mother, however, as the first creditor 
under the act of parliament, was entitled to 
manage Llanthony, and under her care the 
property improved. She was able to allow Lan- 
dor 600/. a year and to provide sufficiently for 
the younger children. In the summer of 1814 
Landor went to Jersey, where he was soon 
joined by his wife. An angry dispute took 
place between them in regard to his plans for. 
settling in France. Landor rose at four, sailed 
to France without his wife, and by October 
was at Tours. His wife, as her sister wrote 
to tell him, was both grieved and seriously 
ilL Landor meanwhile found his usual con- 
solation in the composition of a Latin poem 
on the death of Ulysses, and so calmed his 
temper. His wife joined him at Tours, 



whither he was also followed by his brother 
Robert, who was intending a visit to Italy. 
Landor was soon in high spirits, made him- 
self popular in Tours, and always fancied 
that ne had there seen Napoleon on his flight 
after Waterloo. He soon became dissatisfied 
with the place, and started in September 
1815 with his wife and brother for Italy, 
after ' tremendous conflicts ' with his land- 
lady. The brother reported that during this 
journey the wife was amiable and only too 
submissive under Landor's explosions of 
boisterous though transitory wrath. He had 
money enough for his wants and lived com- 
fortably. The pair finally settled at Como 
for three years. Here he was a neighbour 
of the Princess of Wales, of whose question- 
able proceedings he made some mention in a 
letter to Southey. Sir Charles Wolseley de- 
clared in 1820 (in a letter to Lord Castle- 
reagh published in the Times) that he could 
obtain important information from a * Mr. 
Walter Landon ' upon this subject. Landor 
refused with proper indignation to have any- 
thing to do with the matter. Southey visited 
him at Como in 1817. In March 1818 his 
first child, Arnold Savage, was born at Como. 
In the same year he insulted the authorities 
in a Latin poem primarily directed against 
an Italian poet who had denounced Eng- 
land. Landor was ordered to leave the place, 
and in September 1818 he went to Pisa. He 
stayed there, excepting a summer at Pistoia 
in 1819, till in 1821 he moved to Florence, 
where he settled in the Palazzo Medici. 
Shelley was at Pisa during Landor's stay. 
Landor, to his subsequent regret, avoided a 
meeting on account of the scandals then 
current in regard to Shelley's character. 
Byron was not at Pisa till Landor had left it. 
In the course of his controversy with Southey 
Byron incidentally noticed Landor, and in 
the 13th canto of ' Don Juan ' called him 
the 'deep-mouthed Boeotian Savage Lan- 
dor,' who has 'taken for a swan rogue 
Southey's gander.' Landor retorted in the 
imaginary conversation between Burnet and 
Hardcastle. In his second edition he in- 
serted some qualifying praise in consequence 
of Byron's efforts for Greece ; but he could 
not be blind to the lower parts of Byron's 
character. 

The period of Landor's life which followed 
his removal to Florence was probably the hap- 
piest and certainly the most fruitful in literary 
achievement. In 1820 Southey had spoken in 
a letter of his intended ' Colloquies,' and this 
seems to have suggested to Landor a scheme for 
the composition of' Imaginary Conversations/ 
or rather to have confirmed a project already 
entertained. 'Count Julian, indeed, was 



Landor 



58 



Landor 



really an anticipation of his later plan. Lan- 
dor soon threw nimself with ardour into the 
composition of his prose conversations. The 
first part of his manuscript was sent by him 
to the Longmans in April 1832. It was 
declined by them and by several other pub- 
lishers. Landor committed the care of it 
to Julius Charles Hare [q. v.], to whom he 
was not as yet personally known. He had 
become acquainted with Hare's elder brother, 
Francis, at Tours; they were intimate at 
Florence, had many animated discussions 
with no quarrels, and remained intimate till 
Hare's death. Julius Hare at last induced 
John Taylor, proprietor of the ' London 
Magazine/ to publish the first two volumes. 
The dialogue Detween Southey and Porson 
was published by anticipation in the ' Lon- 
don Magazine ' for July 1823 ; and the two 
volumes appeared in the beginning of 1824. 
Hare endeavoured to obviate hostile criti- 
cism by an ingenious paper in the * London 
Magazine,' ironically anticipating the obvious 
topics of censure. It caused the suspension 
of a hostile review in the * Quarterly/ in 
order that the remarks thus anticipated might 
be removed. Hazlitt reviewed the book in the 
' Edinburgh ' in an article of mixed praise 
and blame, touched up to some extent by 
Jeffrey. Taylor had insisted upon omissions 
of certain passages, and Hare had reluc- 
tantly consented. Landor was of course 
angry, and exploded with wrath upon some 
trifling disputes about a second edition and 
the proposed succeeding volumes. He threw 
a number of conversations into the fire, 
swore that he would never write again, and 
that his children should be i carefully warned 
against literature/ and learn nothing except 
French, swimming, and fencing. The second 
edition, handed over to Colburn for publica- 
tion, appeared in 1826. A third volume, 
after various delays and difficulties, appeared 
in 1828, and a fourth and fifth were at last 
published by Duncan in 1829. A sixth had 
been finished, but remained long unpublished. 
Landor in 1834 entrusted his five volumes, 
* interleaved and enlarged/ together with 
this sixth volume, to N. P. Willis, for pub- 
lication in America. Willis sent them to 
New York, but did not follow them, and 
Landor had considerable difficulty in re- 
covering them. They were finally restored 
in 1837. 

Landor had acquired a high though not a 
widely spread literary reputation. He was 
visited at Florence by Hazlitt and Leigh 
Hunt, and was on intimate terms with Charles 
Armitage Brown [q. v.], Kirkup, the English 
consul, and others. He had of course various 
disputes with the authorities, and was once 



expelled from Florence. The grand duke took 
the matter good-naturedly, and no notice was 
taken of Landor's declaration that, as the 
authorities disliked his residence, he should 
reside there permanently. He had a desperate 
quarrel with a M. Antoir about certain rights 
to water, which led to a lawsuit and a chal- 
lenge, though Kirkup succeeded in arranging 
the point of honour satisfactorily. This 
water-dispute concerned the Villa Gherar- 
disca in Resole. Landor had been enabled 
to buy it for 2,000/. by the generosity of 
Mr. Ablett of Llanbedr Hall, Denbighshire, 
who had become known to him in 1827, 
and who in the beginning of 1829 advanced 
the necessary sum, declining to receive inte- 
rest. It was a fine house, with several acres 
of ground, where he planted his gardens, 
kept pets, and played with his four children. 
The death of his mother, in October 1829, 
made no difference to his affairs. They had 
always corresponded affectionately, and she 
had managed his estates with admirable care 
and judgment. In 1832 Ablett persuaded 
him to pay a visit to England. He arrived 
in London in May, saw Charles Lamb at 
Enfield, Coleridge at Highgate, and Julius 
Hare (for the first time) at Cambridge ; visited 
Ablett in Wales, and with him went to the 
Lakes and saw Southey and Coleridge. He 
travelled back to Italy with Julius Hare, 
passing through the Tyrol, and there inquir- 
ing into the history of Hofer, one of his 
favourite heroes. At Florence Landor set 
about the conversations which soon afterwards 
formed the volumes upon ' Shakespeare's 
Examination for Deer-stealing/ 'Pericles and 
Aspasia/ and the ' Pentameron/ and contained 
some of his most characteristic writing. 

In March 1835 Landor quarrelled with his 
wife. Armitage Brown, who was present at 
the scene, wrote an account of it to Landor. 
Mrs. Landor appears to have denounced Lan- 
dor to his friend and in presence of his chil- 
dren. Landor, he says, behaved with perfect 
calmness. He adds that through eleven years 
of intimacy he had always seen Landor behave 
with perfect courtesy to Mrs. Landor, who had 
the entire management of the house. Brown 
admits a loss of temper with ' Italians/ Un- 
fortunately, Landor acted with more than his 
usual impulsiveness. He left his house for 
Florence in April 1835, not to return for 
many years. He reached England in the 
autumn, and stayed with Ablett at Llanbedr, 
to whom he returned in the spring of 1836, 
after a winter at Clifton. It is idle to dis- 
cuss the rights and wrongs of this unfortu- 
nate business. Mrs. Landor was clearly unable 
to manage a man of irrepressible temper. His- 
friends tnought that his real amiability and 



Landor 



59 



Landor 



his tender attachment to his children might 
have led to happier results ; but his friends 
could escape from his explosions. Landor 
had been receiving about 600/. a year from 
his English properties, the remainder of the 
rents being absorbed by mortgages and a re- 
serve fund. On leaving Italy he made over 
400/. of his own share to his wife, and trans- 
ferred absolutely to his son the villa and 
farms at Fiesole. His income was thus 200/. 
a year, which was afterwards doubled at the 
cost of the reserve fund (Forster, p. 617). 

Landor was again at Clifton in the winter 
of 1836-7, and had a friendly meeting with 
Southey. After some rambling he settled at 
Bath in the spring of 1838, and lived there 
till his final departure from England. His 
' Shakespeare ' had been published in 1834 ; 
the ' Pericles and Aspasia ' came out with 
such ill-success that Landor returned to his 
publishers 100/., which they had paid for it, 
an action only paralleled in the case of Collins. 
A similar result seems to have followed the 
publication of the 'Pentameron'in 1837 (ib. 
pp. 372, 384, 403). He next set about his three 
plays, the * Andrea of Hungary/ * Giovanna of 
Naples/ and ' Fra Rupert, the last of which 
showed a curious resemblance, due probably to 
unconscious recollection, to the plot of a play 
called 'The Earl of Brecon/ published by 
his brother Robert in 1824. Little as these 
plays, or ' conversations in verse/ succeeded 
with the public, Landor gained warm ad- 
mirers, many of whom were his personal 
friends. At Bath he was intimate with Sir 
William Napier ; during his first years there 
he visited Armitage Brown at Plymouth, and 
John Kenyon, down to his death in 1856, 
was a specially warm friend. Southey's mind 
was giving way when he wrote a last letter 
to his friend in 1839, but he continued to 
repeat Landor's name when generally in- 
capable of mentioning any one. Julius Hare, 
whom he frequently visited at Hurstmon- 
ceaux, sent during his last illness (in 1854) 
for Landor, and spoke of him affectionately 
till the end. Landor occasionally visited. 
town to see Lady Blessington. Forster's 
review of the ' Shakespeare ' had led to a 
friendship, and Forster was in the habit of 

Soing with Dickens to Bath, in order to cele- 
rate on the same day Landor's birth and 
Charles Fs execution. Landor greatly ad- 
mired Dickens f 8 works, and was especially 
moved by ' Little Nell/ Dickens drew a por- 
trait of some at least of Landor's external pe- 
culiarities in his Boythorne in * Bleak House.' 
Forster had helped Landor in the publication 
of his plays, and was especially useful in the 
collection of his works, which appeared in 
1846. Forster having objected to the inser- 



tion into this of his Latin poetry, Landor 
yielded, and published his ' Poemata et In- 
scriptiones ' separately in 1847. In the same 
year he published the ' Hellenics/ including 
the poems published under that title in the 
collected works, together with English trans- 
lations of the Latin idyls. The collected 
works also included the conversations re- 
gained from N. P. Willis. Some additional 
poems, conversations, and miscellaneous writ- 
ings were published in 1853 as ' Last Fruit 
off an Old Tree/ It contained also some letters 
originally written to the ' Examiner/ then 
edited by Forster, on behalf of Southey's 
family, which had led, to Landor's pleasure, 
to the bestowal of one of the chancellor's 
livings upon Cuthbert, the son of his old 
friend. 

In the beginning of 1857 Landor's mind 
was evidently weakened. He unfortunately 
pot himself mixed up in a miserable quarrel, 
m which two ladies of his acquaintance were 
concerned. He pave to one of them a legacy 
of 100/. received from his friend Kenyon. 
She, without his knowledge, transferred half 
of it to the other. They then quarrelled, 
and the second lady accused the first of hav- 
ing obtained the money from Landor for dis- 
creditable reasons. Landor in his fury com- 
mitted himself to a libel, for which he was 
persuaded to apologise. Unluckily he had 
resolved, in spite of Forster's remonstrances, 
to publish a book called • Dry Sticks fagoted 
by W. S. Landor/ containing, among much 
that was unworthy of him, a scandalous lam- 
poon suggested by the quarrel. Landor had 
desired that the book should be described 
as by ' the late W. S. Landor/ and he had 
ceased in fact to be fully his old self. Un- 
luckily he was still legally responsible. At 
the end of March 1858 he was found insensible 
in his bed, was unconscious for twenty-four 
hours, and for some time in a precarious 
state. An action for libel soon followed. He 
was advised to assign away his property, to 
sell his pictures, and retire to Italy. He ac- 
cordingly left England for France on 14 July, 
went to Genoa, and thence to his old home 
at Florence. 

Landor, before leaving, transferred the 
whole of the English estates to his son. 
His wife's income, which in 1842 had been 
raised to 500/. a year, was now secured upon 
the Lianthony estate. The younger children 
had received from various legacies enough for 
their support. Landor had himself only a 
few boots, pictures, or plate, and 150/. in 
cash. Damages for 1,000/. were given against 
him in the libel case (23 Aug. 1858; re- 
ported in ' Times ' 24 Aug.), and by an order 
of the court of chancery this sum was paid 



Landor 



60 



Landor 



from the Llanthony rents, and deducted from 
the sum reserved for Landor's use. He was 
thus entirely dependent, at the age of eighty- 
three, upon the family who received the 
whole income from his property. He spent 
ten months at his villa, but three times 
left it for Florence, only to be brought back. 
In July 1869 he took refuge again at an 
hotel in Florence, with ' eighteenpence in 
his pocket.' His family appear to have re- 
fused to help him unless he would return. 
Fortunately the poet Browning was then 
resident at Florence. Upon his application 
Forster obtained an allowance of 200/. a 
year from Landor's brothers, with a reserve 
of 60/., which was applied for Landor's use 
under Browning's direction. Browning first 
found him a cottage at Siena, where the 
American sculptor, Mr. W. W. Story, was 
then living. He stayed for some time in 
Story's house, and was perfectly courteous 
and manageable. At the end of 1 869 Brown- 
ing settled him in an apartment in the Via 
Nunziatina at Florence, where he passed the 
rest of his days. Miss Kate Field, an Ame- 
rican ladv then resident in Florence, de- 
scribed him as he appeared at this time in 
three papers in the * Atlantic Monthly ' for 
1866. Landor was still charming, venerable, 
and courteous, and full of literary interests. 
He gave Latin lessons to Miss Field, repeated 
poetry, and composed some last conversa- 
tions. Browning left Florence after his wife's 
death in 1861, and Landor afterwards sel- 
dom left the house. He published some ima- 
ginary conversations in the ' Athenaeum ' in 
1861-2, and in 1863 appeared his last book, 
the ' Heroic Idyls,' brought to England by 
Mr. Edward Twisleton, who had been intro- 
duced to him by Browning. Five scenes in 
verse, written after these, are published in 
his life by Forster. His friendship with 
Fowter had been interrupted by Forster's re- 
fusal to publish more about the libel case ; 
but their correspondence was renewed before 
his death. Kirkup and his younger sons 
helped to soothe him, and in the last year of 
his life Mr. Swinburne visited Florence ex- 
pressly to become known to him, and dedi- 
cated to him the * Atalanta in Calydon.' He 
died quietly on 17 Sept. 1864. 

Landor left four children : Arnold Savage 
<*. 1818, d. 2 April 1871), Julia Elizabeth 
Savage, Walter (who succeeded his brother 
Arnold in the property), and Charles. A por- 
trait by Boxall, engraved as a frontispiece to 
Forster's life, is said by Lord Houghton and 
Dickens to be unsatisfactorily represented in 
the engraving. A drawing by Robert Faulk- 
ner is engraved in Lord Houghton's ' Mono- 
graph.' A portrait by Fisher, painted in 



1839, became the property of Crabb Robin- 
son, and was given by him to the National 
Portrait Gallery. A bust, of which some 
copies were made in marble, was executed 
for Ablett by John Gibson in 1858. An en- 
graving after a drawing by D'Orsay is pre- 
fixed to Ablett's ' Literary Hours ' (see below). 
Landor's character is sufficiently marked 
by his life. Throughout his career he in- 
variably showed nobility of sentiment and 
great powers of tenderness and sympathy, at 
the mercy of an ungovernable temper. He 
showed exquisite courtesy to women ; he loved 
children passionately, if not discreetly; he 
treated his dogs (especially ' Pomero ' at Bath) 
as if they had been human beings, and loved 
flowers as if they had been alive. His tre- 
mendous explosions of laughter and wrath 
were often passing storms in a serene sky, 
though his intense pride made some of his 
quarrels irreconcilable. He was for nearly 
ninety years a typical English public school- 
boy, full of humours, obstinacy, and Latin 
verses, and equally full of generous impulses, 
chivalrous sentiment, and power of enjoy- 
ment. In calmer moods he was a refined 
epicurean ; he liked to dine alone and deli- 
cately ; he was fond of pictures, and unfor- 
tunately mistook himself for a connoisseur. 
He wasted large sums upon worthless daubs, 
though he appears to have had a genuine 
appreciation of the earlier Italian masters 
when they were still generally undervalued. 
He gave away both pictures and books almost 
as rapidly as he bought them. He was gene- 
rous even to excess in all money matters. 
Intellectually he was no sustained reasoner, 
and it is a mistake to criticise his opinions 
seriously. They were simply the prejudices 
of his class. In politics he was an aristo- 
cratic republican, after the pattern of his 
great idol Milton. He resented the claims 
of superiors, and advocated tyrannicide, but 
he equally despised the mob and shudaered 
at all vulgarity. His religion was that of 
the eighteenth-century noble, implying much 
tolerance and liberality of sentiment, with 
an intense aversion for priestcraft. Even in 
literature his criticisms, though often admir- 
ably perceptive, are too often wayward and 
unsatisfactory, because at the mercy of his 
prejudices. He idolised Milton, but the me- 
dievalism of Dante dimmed his perception of 
Dante's great qualities. Almost alone among 
poets he always found Spenser a bore. As a 
thorough-going classical enthusiast, he was 
out of sympathy with the romantic movement 
of his time, and offended by Wordsworth's 
lapses into prose, though the so-called clas- 
sicism of the school of Pope was too unpoetical 
for his taste. He thus took a unique posi- 



Landor 



61 



Landor 



tion in literature. As a poet he was scarcely 
at his ease, though he has left many exquisite 
fragments, and he seems to he too much do- 
minated hy his classical models. But the 
peculiar merits of his prose are recognised 
as unsurpassable by all the best judges. ' I 
shall dine late/ he said, 'but the dining- 
room will be well lighted, the guests few 
and select ; I neither am nor ever shall be 
popular' (Forster, p. 500). Whether even 
the greatest men can safely repudiate all sym- 
pathy with popular feeling may be doubted. 
Landor's denance of the common sentiment 
perhaps led him into errors, even in the 
judgment of the select. But the aim of his 
ambition has been fairly won. After making 
all deductions, he has written a mass of 
English prose which in sustained precision 
and delicacy of expression, and in the full 
expression of certain veins of sentiment, has 
been rarely approached, and which will always 
entitle him to a unique position in English 
literature. 

Robebt Eyres Landor (1781-1869), Lan- 
dor's youngest brother, was scholar and fellow 
of "Worcester College, Oxford, was instituted 
to the rectory of Nafford with Birlingham, 
Worcestershire, in 1829, and was never absent 
from his parish for a Sunday until his death, 
26 Jan. 1869. The church was restored with 
money left by him. He had always spent 
upon nis parish more than he received, and 
was singularly independent and modest. One 
of the poems in 'Last Fruits off an Old Tree* 
is addressed to him. He was the author of 
'Count Arezzi,' a tragedy, 1823, which, as he 
says (Fobstbr, p. 400), had some success on 
being taken for Byron's. On discovering this 
he acknowledged the authorship, and the sale 
ceased. He also published in 1841 three tra- 
gedies, ' The Earl of Brecon/ ' Faith's Fraud,' 
and ' The Ferryman ; ' the ' Fawn of Sertorius,' 
1846 ; and the * Fountain of Arethusa,' 1848. 
The ' Fawn of Sertorius ' was taken for his 
brother's until he published his own name. 
He gave much information used in Forster's 
life of his brother. 

Some of Landor's works are now very rare, 
and several are not in the British Museum. 
Some of the rarer, marked F. in the following 
list, are in the Forster collection at the South 
Kensington Museum. 1. ' Poems of Walter 
Savage Landor,' 1795, F.; 'The Birth of 
Poesy,' 'Abelard to Heloise,' and 'Short 
Poems in English ;' ' Hendecasyllables' and 
a ' Latine Scribendi Defensio ' in Latin. 
2. ' Moral Epistle respectfully dedicated to 
Earl Stanhope,' 1795, F. (see Forster, pp. 
42-4). 3. ' Gebir,' 1798 (anonvmous). A 
second edition, with notes and a Latin version 
called 'Gebiru8,' was published at Oxford 



in 1803. A fragment of another edition, 
printed at Warwick, including a postscript 
to 'Gebir,' is in the Forster collection. 
4. ' Poetry by the Author of " Gebir"' (in- 
cludes the ' Phocean8' and ' Chrysaor'), 1802, 
F. 5. ' Simonidea,' English and Latin poems ; 
the first including 'Gunlang and Helga,' 
1806, F. (a unique copy). 6. 'Three Letters 
written in Spain to D. Francisco Riqueline,' 
1809, F. 7. ' Count Julian, a Tragedy,' 1812 
(anon.) 8. ' Observations on Trotters " Life 
of Fox,"' 1812 (the only known copv belongs 
to Lord Houghton). 9. 'Idyllia Sleroica,' 
1814 (five Latin idyls). 10. ' Idyllia Heroica 
decern. Librum phaleuciorum unum partim 
jam primo, partim iterum atque tertio edit 
Savagius Landor. Accedit qusestiuncula cur 
poet® Latini recentiores minus legantur,' F., 
Pisa, 1820 (includes the preceding). ll.'Poche 
osservazioni sullo stato attuale di que' popoli 
che vogliono ffovernarsi per mezzo delle rap- 
presentanze,' Naples, 1821, British Museum. 
12. ' Imaginary Conversations,' vols. i. and ii. 
1824 ; second edit., enlarged, 1826 ; vols. iii. 
and iv. 1828 ; vol. v. 1829. 13. ' Gebir, Count 
Julian, and other Poems,' F., 1831. 14. ' Cita- 
tion and Examination of William Shake- 
speare . . . touching Deer-stealing, to which 
is added a Conference of Master Edmund 
Spenser with the Earl of Essex . . .,' 1834 
(anon.) 15. ' Letters of a Conservative, in 
which are shown the only means of saving 
what is left of the English Church ; addrest 
to Lord Melbourne,' 1836. 16. ' Terry Hogan 
. . . edited by Phelim Octavius Quarlr (a 
coarse squib against Irish priests, attributed 
to Landor), 1836, F. 17. 'Pericles and As- 
tasia,' 1836 (anon.) 18. ' Satire upon Sa- 
tirists and Admonition to Detractors,' 1836 
(attack upon Wordsworth for depreciating 
Southey). 19. ' The Pentameron [Conversa- 
tions of Petrarca and Boccaccio, edited by 
" Pievano D. Grigi"] and Pentalogia [five 
conversations in verse, with dedication signed 
" W. S. L.," ' 1837. 20. ' Andrea of Hungary 
and Giovanna of Naples,' 1839. 21 . ' Fra Ru- 
pert, the last part of a Trilogy,' 1840. 22. ' Col- 
lected Works,' in two vols. 8vo, 1846 (the first 
volume gives the old ' imaginary conversa- 
tions,' the second new ' imaginary conversa- 
tions,' ' Gebir,' * Hellenics,' ' Shakespeare,' 
' Pericles and Aspasia,' and the ' Pentameron,' 
the three preceding plays, the ' Siege of 
Ancona,' and miscellaneous pieces). 23. ' The 
Hellenics of Walter Savage Landor, enlarged 
and completed,' 1847 (see above, republished 
with alterations in 1859). 24. 'Poemata 
et Inscriptiones : notis auxit Savagius Lan- 
dor,' 1847. Also the Latin 'qusBstio' from 
the ' Idyllia Heroica' of 1820. 25. ' Imagi- 
nary Conversation of King Carlo Alberto 



Landor 



62 



Landsborough 



and the Duchess Belgioioso on the Affairs of 
Italy . . .,' 1848. 26. ' Italic8 , (English verse, 
printed 1848). 27. « Popery, British and 
Foreign/ 1851. 28. ' The Last Fruit off an 
Old Tree/ 1853, includes eighteen new ' ima- 
ginary conversations/ * Popery, British and 
Foreign,' ' Ten Letters to Cardinal Wiseman/ 
letters to Brougham upon Southey from the 
* Examiner/ and 'five scenes in verse' upon 
Beatrice Cenci. 29. 'Letters of an Ame- 
rican, mainly on Russia and Revolution/ 
edited (written) by W. 8. Landor, 1854. 
30. « Letter from W. 8. Landor to R. W. 
Emerson/ 1856 (upon Emerson's 'English 
Tracts '). 31. ' Antony and Octavius, Scenes 
for the Study / 1856. 32. ' Dry Sticks fagoted 
by W. S. Landor/ 1858. 33. 'Savonarola 
e il Priore di San Marco/ 1860. 34. ' Heroic 
Idyls, with additional Poems/ 1863. 

Landor published some pamphlets now not 
discoverable (see Forstbb, pp. 42, 128), and 
contributed some letters on 'High and Low 
Life in Italy' to Leigh Hunt's 'Monthly 
Repository' (December 1837 and succeeding 
numbers). Six ' imaginary conversations ' 
and other selections are in J. Ablett's pri- 
vately printed volume, ' Literary Hours by 
various Friends/ 1837, F. A poem on the 
' Bath Subscription Ball/ conjecturally as- 
signed to him in the Forster collection, can- 
not be his. A selection from his writings 
was published by G. S. Hillard in Boston, 
Massachusetts, in 1856, and another by Mr. 
Sidney Colvin in 1882, in the 'Golden 
Treasury Series.' An edition of his English 
works in eight vols. 8vo, the first volume of 
which contains the life by Forster (first pub- 
lished in 1869), appeared in 1876. The ' Con- 
versations, Greeks and Romans/ were sepa- 
rately published in 1853, and a new edition 
of the ' Imaginary Conversations/ edited by 
Charles G. Crump, in six vols. 8vo, in 1891- 
1892. Mr. Crump has also edited the ' Pe- 
ricles and Aspasia' for the 'Temple Library' 
(1890). 

[Life by John Forster, 1869, and first vol. of 
Works, 1876 ; references above to the 1 876 edit. ; 
R. H. Home's New Spirit of the Age, 1844, i. 
153-76 (article partly by Mrs. Browning) ; Mad- 
den's Life, &c.of Lady Blessington, 1855, i. 114, 
ii. 346-429 (correspondence of Landor and Lady 
Blessington) ; Lady Blessington's Idler in Italy, 
ii. 310-12 ; Lord Houghton's Monographs (from 
Edinburgh Review of July 1869) ; C. Dickens in 
All the Year Round, 24 July 1869 ; Kate Field 
in Atlantic Monthly for April, May, and June 
1866 (Landor's last years in Italy) ; Mrs. Lynn 
Linton in Fraser's M*g. July 1870 ; Mrs. Crosse 
in Temple Bar for June 1891 ; H. Crabb Robin- 
son's Diaries, ii. 481-4, 600, 620. iii. 42, 59, 
106-8, 115; 8outhey's Life and Select Letters, 
for a few letters from Southey to Landor, and 



incidental references ; Sidney Colvin's Landor in 
Morley'8 Men of Letters Series.] L. S. 

LANDSBOROUGH, DAVID (1779- 
1854), naturalist, born at Dairy, Glen Kens, 
Galloway, 11 Aug. 1779, was educated at the 
Dumfries academy, and from 1798 at the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. Here, partly by his skill 
as a violinist, he made the acquaintance of Dr. 
Thomas Brown [q. v.] the metaphysician, and 
of the Rev. John Thomson of Duddingston, 
'the Scottish Claude Lorraine/ from whom he 
derived a taste for painting. He became tutor 
in the family of Lord Glenlee at Barskimming 
in Ayrshire, was licensed for the ministry of 
the church of Scotland in 1808, and in 1811 
was ordained minister of Stevenston, Ayr- 
shire. In addition to his clerical duties, and 
while keeping up his scholarship by reading 
some Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, or 
Italian daily, Landsborough seems to have 
early commenced the study of the natural 
history of his parish and that of the neigh- 
bouring island of Arran, which formed the 
subject of his first publication, a poem in six 
cantos, printed in 1828. He began his bo- 
tanical studies with flowering plants, after- 
wards proceeding in succession to alg®, 
lichens, fungi, and mosses. His discovery of 
a new alga, JEctocarpus Landsburgii, brought 
him into communication withWilliam Henry 
Harvey [q. v.], to whose ' Phycologia Britan- 
nica ' he made many contributions ; while the 
discovery of new marine animals, such as the 
species of jEolis and Lepralia that bear his 
name, introduced him to Dr. George Johnston 
of Berwick [q. v.] For many years he kept a 
daily register of the temperature, wind and 
weather, and noted the first flowering of 

flants and the arrival of migratory birds, 
le also studied land molluscs and the fossil 
plants of the neighbouring coal-field, one of 
which, Lyginodendron Landsburgii, bears his 
name. In 1837 he furnished the account of 
his parish of Stevenston to the ' Statistical 
Account ' of the parishes of Scotland. 

At the disruption of the Scottish church 
in 1843 he joined the free kirk, and became 
minister at Saltcoats; but the change in- 
volved a reduction of income from 350/. to 
120/. a year, and the loss of his garden, to 
which he was much attached. Its place was 
taken by the seashore, and many hundred 
sets of algro prepared by his children under 
his direction were sold to raise a fund of 
200/. in support of the church and schools. 
In 1845 he contributed a series of articles 
on i Excursions to Arran ' to * The Christian 
Treasury/ and in 1847 they appeared in book 
form as ' Excursions to Arran, Ailsa Craig, 
and the two Cumbrae8, , a second series being 
published in 1852. On Harvey's recom- 



Landsborough 63 



Landseer 



mendation Landsborough was employed to 
write a popular history of British seaweeds, 
and the work, on its appearance in 1849, was 
so satisfactory, that ne was commissioned 
to prepare a similar 'Popular History of 
British Zoophytes or Corallines/ which was 
published in 1852. In 1849 Landsborough 
was elected an associate of the Linnean 
Society, and in the following year he was 
mainly instrumental in the establishment of 
the Ayrshire Naturalists' Club. He visited 
most parts of Scotland and Ireland on minis- 
terial duty, and found opportunities of jour- 
neying through England and France. In 
1852, when upwards of seventy-three, he 
visited Gibraltar and Tangier, returning by 
way of the Balearic Isles, Marseilles, Genoa, 
Turin, and Paris. He reached London, after 
five months' absence, just in time to wit- 
ness Wellington's funeral. 

An epidemic of cholera broke out in his 
district in 1854. Landsborough was most 
assiduous in visiting the sick and dying, but 
was himself attacked by the disease, and 
succumbed, after a very brief illness, at Salt- 
coats on 12 Sept. 1854. Landsborough is 
said to have discovered nearly seventy species 
of plants and animals new to Scotland, and 
thus well earned the title of ' the Gilbert 
"White of Ardro8san.' He received the de- 
gree of D.D. from an American college in 
1849. Besides the species already mentioned, 
a New Zealand genus of alg® was dedicated 
to him by Harvey as Landsburgia. Lands- 
borough married in 1817 Margaret, daugh- 
ter of James M'Leish of Port Glasgow, oy 
whom he had four sons and three daughters. 
One son, William [q. v.], an Australian ex- 
plorer, is noticed separately; and another, 
David, now free kirk minister of Kilmarnock, 
has edited the work on Arran, with a memoir 
of the writer ( Ardrossan, 1875, 8vo). 

In addition to the works above mentioned, 
of which the ' Popular History of British 
Seaweeds ' reached a third edition in 1857, 
Landsborough published ' Ayrshire Sketches, 
or Memoirs of J. Charters, H. Cuninghame, 
and J. Baird,' 1839, 18mo ; a series of re- 
ligious biographies. His contributions to the 
' Annals and Magazine of Natural History ' 
and to the ' Zoologist ' deal with phosphores- 
cence, the habits of the rook, and the plio- 
cene and post-pliocene deposits at Stevens- 
ton. 

[Memoir by David Landsborough in his edition 
of his father's work on Arran, 1875; Proceedings 
of the Linnean Society, ii. 426.] G. S. B. 

LANDSBOROUGH, WILLIAM (d. 
1886V Australian explorer, son of David 
Landsborough [q. v.] tne naturalist, born at 



Stevenston, Ayrshire, Scotland, was educated 
at Irvine. On emigrating to Australia he 
became a squatter in New England, then 
in the Wide Bav district, and afterwards, in 
1856, near Rockhampton, Queensland. He 
then discovered Mount Nebo and Fort Cooper, 
and in 1859 explored Peak Downs and Nagod. 
In 1860 he discovered the sources of the 
Thomson river, and in 1861 made a survey of 
the Gregory and Herbert rivers. Several ex- 
peditions were at this date sent out to search 
for Robert O'Hara Burke and William J. 
Wills, the explorers, who had not been heard 
of since the previous year. Landsborough 
headed one of these, and starting with four 
companions from the Albert river on 14 Nov. 
1861, made a preliminary search to the south- 
west, going two hundred miles in the direc- 
tion of Central Mount Stuart, and then re- 
turning to the depdt. On 10 Feb. 1862 he 
again started, and crossed Australia from the 
Gulf of Carpentaria to Melbourne, discover- 
ing many fine rivers and much good country, 
but apparently making little effort to find 
Burke and Wills. The journal of his expedition 
was published. For nis discoveries he was, 
on 12 Nov., presented by Sir Henry Barkly, 
the governor of Victoria, with a service of 
plate valued at 500/., and received a gold 
watch from the president of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society. In 1864 he was elected 
a member of the Queensland parliament, but 
resigned his seat in the following year on 
obtaining the appointment of government 
resident in Burke district. Findings Burke- 
town very unhealthy, he removed his head- 
quarters to Sweere Island, whence he made 
explorations of the Gulf of Carpentaria. He 
ceased to be government resiaent in 1869. 
Some time afterwards he was gazetted in- 
spector of brands for East Moreton, Queens- 
land, and for his public services in exploring 
was awarded a grant of 2,000/. He died at 
Brisbane in May 1886. He married the sixth 
daughter of Captain Rennie, by whom he had 
a daughter. 

[Times, 3 June 1886, p. 7 ; Heaton's Austra- 
lian Diet, of Dates, 1879, p. Ill ; Howitt's Hist, 
of Discovery in Australia, 1865, ii. 191, 284-96 ; 
Julian E. T. Wood's Hist, of Discovery in 
Australia, 1865, ii. 390, 465-74; Journal of 
Landsborough's Expedition from Carpentaria, 
1862 ; Bourne's Journal of Landsborough's Ex- 
pedition, 1862.] G. C. B. 

LANDSEER, CHARLES (1799-1879), 
historical painter, born in 1799, was the second 
son of John Landseer, A.E.R.A. [q. v.], from 
whom he received his first instruction as an 
artist. He afterwards became a pupil of B. R. 
Haydon, and entered the schools of the Royal 
Academy in 1816. When a young man he 



Landseer 



6 4 



Landseer 



accompanied Lord Stuart de Rothesay to 
Portugal, and proceeded to Rio de Janeiro ' 
on a mission to negotiate a commercial treaty I 
with Don Pedro I. During this trip he made 1 
a number of sketches and drawings, some of ' 
which were exhibited at the British Institu- | 
tion in 1828. In this year he sent his first I 

fiicture to the Royal Academy, ' Dorothea ' ' 
from ' Don Quixote '). In 1833 he exhibited 
' Clarissa Ilarlowe in the Spunging House/ t 
which was bought by Mr. Vernon, and is now I 
in the National Gallery, together with the ' 
' Sacking of Basing House/ bequeathed to the 
nation by Mr. Jacob Bell. In 1837 he was 
elected an associate of the Royal Academy. 
In 1842 he exhibited ' Charles II escaping in > 
disguise from Colonel Lane's House/ in 1843 
'The Monks of Melrose/ and in 1844 'The 
Return of the Dove to the Ark/ In 1846 he 
received the full honours of the Academy, and 
exhibited « The Eve of the Battle of Edge- 
hill/ containing a proup of a spaniel and 
despatch-baps by his brother, Sir Edwin, 
which has since been cut out of the picture. 
In 1861 he succeeded George Jones, R.A. 
[q. v.], as keeper of the Royal Academy, an 
office which involves the duty of giving in- 
struction in the antique school. In 1873 he 
retired from the keepership with full salary. 
Between 1822 and 1879 he exhibited 110 

Sictures — seventy-three at the Royal Aca- 
emy, twenty-six at the British Institu- 
tion, and eleven at Suffolk Street. In 1879 
he sent three pictures, including a portrait of 
himself, to the Royal Academy, and he died 
on 22 July in the same year. He left a con- 
siderable property, part of which he inherited 
from his brother Edwin. He gave 10,000/. 
to the Royal Academy for the foundation of 
Landseer scholarships. 1 

[Bryan's Diet. (Graves and Armstrong) ; ' 
Catalogues of the National Gallery and South 
Kensington Museum; Stephens's Landseer in 
Great Artists Series ; Graves's Diet. ; Bedford's ' 
Sales.] C. M. I 

LANDSEER, Sir EDWIN HENRY 
(1802-1873), animal-painter, third and 
youngest son of John Landseer [q. v.], was 
born at 33 Foley Street (then 71 Queen Anne j 
Street East), London, on 7 March 1802. His ' 
father held that ordinary education was un- 
necessary, if not harmful, to artists, and as ' 
Edwin showed little love for books and a 
great deal for drawing, he was taken into the 
fields (which then extended nearly all the way 
from Marylebone to Hampstead) to sketch ' 
the sheep, goats, and donkeys which grazed ' 
there. There are very clever drawings made ' 
by him from nature before he was six in the 
South Kensington Museum and elsewhere. ' 
He also began very early to sketch the 



wild beasts at Exeter Change. His earliest 
known etching (1809) is from a drawing by 
himself, of ' Heads of a Lion and a Tiger/ in 
which the lion's head was etched by himself 
and the tiger's by his brother Thomas. Seven 
more etchings were executed by 1812. At 
this time, therefore, he could etch as well aa 
draw in pencil, chalk, and water-colours, and 
he painted in oils before he was twelve. The 
works of his childhood are still esteemed for 
their artistic merit. 'A Brown Mastiff/ 
painted at the age often, was sold at Sir John 
Swinburne's sale (1861 j for seventy guineas. 
His young genius was fostered by the whole 
family, and his genial disposition helped him 
to gam friends. At Beleigh Grange, Essex, 
the residence of Mr. W. W. Simpson, he 
found a second home, and drew the horses, the 
Persian cats, the dogs, and the coachman. 

In 1813 he was awarded the silver palette 
of the Society of Arts for drawings of ani- 
mals, and he took the Isis medal of the same 
society in 1814, 1815, and 1816. In 1815 he 
received some valuable hints from B. R. 
Haydon [q. v.], who gave him his dissections 
of a lion, bade him study anatomy, Ra- 
phael's cartoons, and the Elgin marbles, and 
be the Snyders of England, and in the same 
year he made his ctebut at the Royal Academy 
exhibitions with drawings of a ' Pointer bitch 
and puppy' (engraved) and a 'Mule' belong- 
ing to Mr. Simpson. In 1816 he entered the 
schools of the Royal Academy. At this time 
he is described by C. R. Leslie [q. v.] as ' a 
curly-headed youngster, dividing his time 
between Polito's wild beasts at Exeter 
Change and the Royal Academy Schools.' 

In 1817 he exhibited at the Royal Aca- 
demy a portrait of ' Brutus/ a terrier belong- 
ing to Mr. Simpson, and the father of an- 
other ' Brutus/ a celebrated dog of his own. 
In the same year a picture of ' A Sleeping 
Dog ' created an impression at the Society of 
Painters in Oil and Water-colours (now the 
Royal Society of Painters in Water-colours), 
ani this was exceeded by that of * Fighting 
Do£8 getting Wind ' at the following exhi- 
bition of the same society, which was bought 
by Sir George Beaumont. In 1820 he availed 
himself of the opportunity of dissecting a 
dead lion. In this year his previous successes 
were crowned by that of ' Alpine Mastiffs 
reanimating a Dead Traveller/ which was en- 
graved by his father and brother Thomas. 
In 1821 two large pictures of lions, ' A Lion 
enjoying his Repast ' and ' A Lion disturbed 
at his Repast/ were exhibited at the British 
Institution ; and in 1822 he obtained a price 
of 150/. from the directors of this institution 
for his picture of ' The Larder Invaded/ in 
which nis own dog 'Brutus' was intro- 



Landseer 



65 



Landseer 



duced. In this year he also executed a large 
picture of ' A rrowlinjj . Lion/ and a set 
of five original compositions of lions and 
tigers, engraved by his brother Thomas and 
published in a work called 'Twenty En- 
gravings of Lions, Tigers, Panthers, and 
Leopards, by Stubbs, Rembrandt, Spilsbury, 
Rey dinger, and Edwin Landseer; with an 
Essay on the Carnivora by J. Landseer/ and 
commenced his later series of etchings (seven- 
teen in number), one of which was the portrait 
of a dog named Jack, the original of his cele- 
brated picture of 'Low Life/ painted in 1829 
and now in the National Gallery. In 1824 
he exhibited at the British Institution the 
'Catspaw/ which was bought by the Earl of 
Essex, and established his reputation as a 
humorist. In this year he went to Scotland 
with Leslie, paying a visit to Sir Walter Scott 
at Abbotsford. There he drew the poet and 
his dogs ; ' Mai da/ the famous deerhound who 
only lived six weeks afterwards, and Ginger 
and Spice, the lineal descendants of Pepper 
and Mustard, immortalised as the dogs of 
Dandie Dinmont in ' Guy Mannering/ All 
these drawings were introduced in subsequent 
pictures, 'A Scene at Abbotsford' (1827), 'Sir 
Walter Scott in Rhymer's Glen* (1833), and 
other pictures. 

The visit to Scotland had a great effect upon 
Landseer. That country with its deer and 
its mountains was thenceforth the land of 
his imagination. He began to study and 
paint animals more in their relation to man. 
Lions, bulls, and pigs gave way before the red 
deer, and even aogs, though they retained 
their strong hold upon his art, were hereafter 
treated rather as the companions of man than 
in their natural characters of ratcatchers and 
fighters. 

In 1826 Landseer exhibited at the Royal 
Academy a large picture of ' Chevy Chase ' 
(now the property of the Duke of Bedford), 
and was elected an associate of the Royal 
Academy at the earliest age permitted by the 
rules, being then only twenty-four. He now 
left his father's house in Foley Street, and 
went to live at 1 St. John's Wood Road, 
Liason Grove, where he remained till his 
death. In 1827 appeared his ' Monkey who 
has seen the World' (belonging to Lord 
Northbrook), and his first highland picture 
of importance, 'The Deerstalker's Return' 
(Duke of Northumberland). In 1828 appeared 
'An Illicit Whiskey Still in the Highlands ' 
(Duke of Wellington). 

In 1831 he was elected to the full honours 
of the Academy, and in the same year ex- 
hibited at the British Institution the two 
small but celebrated pictures, 'High Life' 
and 'Low Life' (now in the National Gal- 

VOL. XXXII. 



1 lery), in which he contrasted opposite classes 
1 of society as reflected in their dogs — the aris- 
I tocratic deerhound and the butcher's mon- 
1 grel. In 1833 this vein of humour was de- 
veloped in his ' Jack in Office ' (South Ken- 
, sinffton Museum), the first of those canine 
I burlesques of human life to which he owed 
i much of his popularity. The next year he 
struck another popular note in his picture of 
' Bolton Abbey in the Olden Times ' (Duke 
of Devonshire), which exactly hit the pre- 
vailing romantic sentiment for the past which 
had been largely developed by Scott's novels, 
and displayed his power of elegant com- 
position and dexterous painting of dead 
game. In 1837 he showed the variety of 
his gifts in ' The Highland Drover's Depar- 
ture (South Kensington Museum), in which 
perception of the beauty of natural scenery 
was united with humour and pathos. A 
deeper note of pathos was sounded in the 
' Old Shepherd's Chief Mourner ' (South Ken- 
sington Museum), though the mourner was 
only a dog. In 1838 appeared ' A Distin- 
guished Member of the Humane Society ' 
(National Gallery), and ' There's Life in the 
old dog yet ' (Mr. John Nay lor), in which 
sympathy is excited for the dog only. In 
1840 came ' Laying down the Law ' (Duke 
of Devonshire), a scene in a court of law in 
which judge, counsel, &c, were represented 
by dogs of different breeds, one of the cleverest 
and most successful of his works of this 
class. Belonging to this period, though never 
exhibited, are three noble works, 'Suspense/ 
' The Sleeping Bloodhound/ and ' Dignity and 
Impudence.' The first is in South Kensing- 
ton Museum, and the two others in the Na- 
tional Gallery. 

Down to this time (1840) there had been 
no check in his success, artistic or social. 
Early in life he made his way into the highest 
society, and became an intimate and privi- 
leged friend of many a noble family, especi- 
ally that of the Russells. As early as 1823 
he painted his first portrait (engraved in the 
' Keepsake') of the Duchess of Bedford, and 
between that year and 1839 he painted a suc- 
cession of charming pictures of her children, 
especially Lords Alexander and Cosmo Rus- 
sell, and Ladies Louisa and Rachel (after- 
wards the Duchess of Abercorn and Lady 
Rachel Butler). Some of these, as ' Little 
Red Riding Hood/ 'Cottage Industry/ 'The 
Naughty Child ' (sometimes called ' The 
Naughty Boy/ but really a portrait of Lady 
Racnel\ and ' Lady Rachel with a Pet Fawn/ 
are pernaps as weU known as any of his pic- 
tures. A different version of the last subject, 
as well as several others of Landseer's works, 
was etched by the duchess. Among his other 

F 



Landseer 



66 



Landseer 



sittersat the time, some for separate portraits 
and others introduced into his sporting pic- 
tures, were the Duke of Gordon, the father of 
the Duchess of Bedford (' Scene in the High- 
lands/ 1828) ; the Duke of Athole (* Death 
of a Stag in Glen Tilt/ 1829) ; the Duke of 
Ahercorn (1831) ; the Duke of Devonshire 
and Lady Constance Grosvenor (1832) ; the 
Countess of Chesterfield and the Countess of 
Blessington (1835); the Earl of Tankerville 
(' Death of the Wild Bull ') ; Lady Fitzharris 
and Viscount Melbourne (1836) ; the Hon. 
Mrs. Norton, and two children of the Duke 
of Sutherland (1838). To 1839 belong the 
celebrated portraits of girls, Miss Eliza Peel 
with Fido ('Beauty's Bath '), Miss Blanche 
Egerton (with a cockatoo), and the Princess 
Mary of Cambridge with a Newfoundland dog 
('On Trust *) ; ana in the same year he painted 
his first portrait of the queen, which was given 
by her majesty to Prince Albert before their 
marriage. At the palace he was hereafter 
treated with exceptional favour. From 1839 
to 1868 he frequently painted or drew the 

rjen, the prince consort, and their chil- 
n, the Princess Royal, the Princess Alice, 
and the Princess Beatrice. He painted also 
her majesty's gamekeepers and her pets, and 
made designs for her private writing-paper. 
He taught the queen and her husband to etch, 
and between 1841 and 1844 the queen exe- 
cuted six and the prince four etchings from 
his drawings. 

In 1840 he was obliged to travel abroad , 
for the benefit of his health, and he sent no 
picture to the Academy in 1841. He made, 
however, a series of beautiful sketches dur- 
ing his absence, some of which were after- 
wards utilised in pictures like 'The Shep- 
herd's Prayer/ ' Geneva/ and ' The Maid and 
the Magpie/ and from 1842 to 1860 he exhi- 
bited regularly every year. To this period 
belong many of his most famous and most 
poetical pictures. In 1842 appeared 'The 
Sanctuary' (Windsor Castle), the first of 
those pictures of deer in which the feeling 
of the sportsman gave place to that of the 
sad contemplative poet, viewing in the life 
of animals a reflection of the lot of man. In 
1843 he painted a sketch of 'The Defeat 
of Comus ' for the fresco executed for the 
queen in the summer-house at Buckingham 
Palace called Milton Villa, one of the most 
powerful and least agreeable of his works. 
In 1844 came the painful ' Otter Speared ' 
and the peaceful ' Shoeing ; ' in 1846 the 
'Time of Peace' and 'Time of War;' in 
1848 'Alexander and Diogenes/ his most 
elaborate piece of canine comedy (the four 
last are in the National Gallery), and ' A 
Random Shot ' (a fawn trying to suck its 



mother lyinp dead on the snow), perhaps the 
most pathetic of all his conceptions. In 1851 
he exhibited the superb 'Monarch of the 
Glen' (which was painted for the refresh- 
ment-room at the House of Lords, but the 
House of Commons refused to vote the money), 
and his most charming piece of fancy, the 
scene from 'A Midsummer Night's Dream/ or 
' Titania and Bottom ' (painted for the Shake- 
speare Room of I. K. Brunei [q. v.], and now 
in the possession of Earl Brownlow) ; in 
1853 the grand pictures of a duel between 
stags named 'Night' and 'Morning' (Lord 
Hardinge) ; in 185i ' Piper and a pair ot Nut- 
crackers ' (a bullfinch and two squirrels) ; and 
the grim dream of polar bears disturbing the 
relics of Sir John Franklin's ill-fated arctic 
expedition, called ' Man proposes, God dis- 
poses ' (Holloway College). 

In 1850 Landseer was knighted by the 
queen, and in this year appeared ' A Dia- 
logue at Waterloo ' (National Gallery), with 
portraits of the Duke of Wellington and the 
Marchioness of Douro. He had gone to Bel- 
gium for the first time the year before, to get 
materials for this picture. In 1855 he re- 
ceived the large gold medal at the Paris Uni- 
versal Exhibition — an honour not accorded 
to any other English artist. In 1860 he 
produced ' The Flood in the Highlands.' 

A severe mental depression, from which he 
had long been suffering, began at this time 
to obscure Landseer's reason, and in 1862 
and 1863 no finished picture proceeded from 
his hand. But he rallied from the attack, 
and in 1865, on the death of Sir Charles 
Eastlake, he was offered the presidency of 
the Royal Academy, which he declined. In 
November 1868 his nervous state of health 
was aggravated by a railway accident, which 
left a scar upon his forehead. His most im- 
portant works between his partial recovery 
and his death were a picture of the ' Swan- 
nery invaded by Eagles/ 1869, in which all 
his youthful vigour and ambition seemed to 
flash out again for the last time, and the 
models of the lions for the Nelson Monu- 
ment, for which he had received the com- 
mission in 1869. These were placed in Tra- 
falgar Square in 1866, when he exhibited at 
the Royal Academy his only other work in 
sculpture, a fine model of a ' Stag at Bay.' 
His last portrait was of the queen, his last 
drawing was of a dog. He died on 1 Oct. 
1873, and was buried with public honours in 
St. Paul's Cathedral on 11 Oct. 

In person Landseer was below the middle 
height. His broad, frank face, magnificent 
forehead, and fine eyes are well rendered in 
the portrait-group called ' The Connoisseurs ' 
(1865), in which the artist has represented 



Landseer 



67 



Landseer 



himself sketching, with a dog on each side 
of him critically watching his progress. This 
portrait, which the artist presented to the 
frince of Wales, is in all respects charac- 
teristic, for Landseer always went about with 
a troop of dogs, making up, it was said, in 
quantity for the quality of his early favourite 

* Brutus.' In disposition he was genial, quick- 
witted, full of anecdotes of men and manners, 
and an admirable mimic, qualities which con- 
tributed largely to his great success in so- 
ciety. But his highly nervous disposition, 
which made him enjoy life so keenly, made 
him also extremely sensitive to anything like 
censure, or what appeared to him as slights 1 
from his distinguished friends, and to such I 
causes are attributed those attacks of mental 
illness which saddened his life. [ 

As an artist he was thoroughly original, 
striking out a new path for himself by treat- , 
ing pictorially the analogy between the cha- , 
racters of animals and men. His principal | 
forerunner in this was Hogarth, who occa- 
sionally introduced animals in his pictures 
from the same motive. But Landseer was 
more playful in his humour, more kind in 
his satire, trying only to show what was 
human in the brute, whereas Hogarth only 
displayed what was brutal in the man. But 
Landseer was a poet as well as a humorist, 
and could strike chords of human feeling 
almost as truly and strongly as if his sub- 
jects had been men instead of dogs and deer. 

As a draughtsman he was exceedingly 
elegant and facile, and his dexterity and 
swiftness of execution with the brush were 
remarkable, especially in rendering the skins 
and furs of animals; a few touches or twirls, 
especially in his later work, sufficed to pro- 
duce eflects which seem due to the most 
intricate manipulation. Of his swiftness of 
execution there are many examples. A pic- 
ture of a bloodhound called ' Odin* was com- 
pleted in twelve hours to justify his opinion 
that work completed with one effort was 
the best. Another, of a dog called 'Trim/ 
was finished in two hours, and the famous 

* Sleeping Bloodhound' in the National Gal- 
lery was painted between the middle of 
Monday and two o'clock on the following 
Thursday. 

His compositions are nearly always marked 
by a great feeling for elegance 01 line, but 
in his later works his colour, despite his skill 
in imitation, was apt to be cold and crude as 
a whole. Though he could not paint flesh as 
well as he painted fur, his portraits are frank 
and natural, preserving the distinction of his 
sitters without any affectation. His pictures 
of children (generally grouped with their 
pets) are always charming. Perhaps his best 



portraits of men are those of himself and his 
father. 

Landseer was fond of sport. In his boy- 
hood he enjoyed rat-killing and dog-fights, 
but in his manhood his favourite sport was 
deer-stalking. This he was able to indulge 
by yearly visits to Scotland, where he was a 
favoured guest at many aristocratic shooting- 
lodges. At some of these, as at Ardverikie 
on Loch Laggan, erected by the Marquis 
of Abercorn in 1840, and occupied by her 
majesty in 1847, and at Glenfeshie, the shoot- 
ing-place of the Duke of Bedford, he decorated 
the walls with sketches. Those at Ardverikie 
have been destroyed by fire. Sometimes the 
love of art got the upper hand of the sports- 
man, as once, when a fine stag was passing, he 
thrust his pun into the hands of the gillie, and 
took out his sketch-book for a ' shot' with his 
pencil. Between 1845 and 1861 he executed 
twenty drawings of deer-stalking, which, 
engraved by various hands, were published 
together under the title of ' Forest Work.' 

His most important work as an illustrator 
of books were his paintings and drawings 
for the ' Waverley Novels,' 1831-41, and six 
illustrations for Rogers's i Italy,' 1828. He 
drew a series (fourteen) of sporting subjects 
for 'The Annals of Sporting,' 1823-5, and 
engravings from his drawings or pictures ap- 
peared in ' Sporting,' by Nimrod (four) ; ' The 
New Sporting Magazine ' (two) ; 'The Sport- 
ing Review ' (one) ; ' The Sportsman's Annual ' 
(one) ; ' The Book of Beauty ' (five) ; Dickens's 
• Cricket on the Hearth' (one) ; ' The Mena- 
geries' in Charles Knight's ' Library of En- 
tertaining Knowledge, &c. In 1847 he drew 
a beautinil set of ' Mothers ' (animals with 
young) for the Duchess of Bedford, which 
were engraved by Charles George Lewis [q. v.] 

Landseer was the most popular artist of 
his time. His popularity, in the first place 
due to the character of his pictures and to 
the geniality of disposition wnich they mani- 
fested, was enormously increased by the 
numerous engravings that were published 
from his works. Mr. Algernon Graves, in 
his ' Catalogue of the Works of Sir Edwin 
Landseer,' numbers no fewer than 434 etch- 
ings and engravings made from his works 
down to 1875, and no less than 126 engravers 
who were employed upon them. Sir Edwin 
was also very fortunate in his engravers, espe- 
cially in his brother Thomas [q. v.], who may 
be said to have devoted his life to engraving 
the works of his younger brother. Of his 
other engravers the most important (in regard 
to the number of works engraved) were Charles 
George Lewis, Samuel Cousins, Charles Mot- 
tram, John Outrim, B. P. Gibbon, T. L. At- 
kinson, H. T. Ryall, W. H. Simmons, Robert 

f2 



Landseer 



68 



Landseer 



Graves, A.R.A., W. T. Davey, and R. J. 
Lane, A.R.A. (lithographs). Proofs of the 
most popular of these engravings are still at 
a great premium. The large fortune which 
he left behind him was mostly accumulated 
from the sale of the copyrights of his pictures 
for engraving. 

Landseer's paintings have greatlv increased 
in value since his death. Even his earliest 
works fetch comparatively large prices. ' A 
Spaniel/ painted in 1813, was bought in 
at Mr. H. J. A. Munro's sale (1867) for 
804/. 10*. ; a drawing of an ' Alpine Mastiff,' 
executed two years after, sold at the artist's 
sale (1874) for 122 guineas; and the picture 
(painted 1820) of 'Alpine Mastiffs reani- 
mating a Dead Traveller' sold in 1875 for 
2,257/. 10*. At the Coleman sale in 1881 
the following high prices were given : for a 
large cartoon of a ' Stag and Deerhound,' in 
coloured chalks, 5,250/. ; ' Digging out an Ot- 
ter,' finished by Sir John Millais, 3,097/. 10*. ; 
* Man proposes, God disposes,' 6,615/. ; and 
1 Well-bred Sitters,' 5,250/. The ' Monarch 
of the Glen ' was sold in April 1892 for over 
7,000/., and 10,000/. have been given for the 
' Stag at Bay ' and for the ' Otter Hunt.' 

There are several portraits of Landseer. 
Aa a boy he was painted bv J. Hayter, then 
himself a boy, as ' The Cricketer,' exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 1815, and in 1816 
by C. R. Leslie, in 'The Death of Rutland.' 
There are two lithographs after drawings by 
Count D'Orsay, 1843. He drew himself in 
1829 as ' The Falconer,' engraved in 1830 for 
' The Amulet' by Thomas Landseer, who in 
the same year engraved a portrait of him after 
Edward Duppa. In 1855 Sir Francis Grant 
painted him, and C. G. Lewis engraved a 
daguerreotype. ' The Connoisseurs belongs 
to 1866, and a portrait by John Ballantvne, 
R.S.A., to 1866. There is also a portrait of 
him by Charles Landseer, and others by him- 
self. A bust by Baron Marochetti is in the 
possession of the Royal Academy. In the 
winter of 1873-4 a large collection of his 
works was exhibited at tne Royal Academy. 

By the generosity of private persons, prin- 
cipally Mr. Vernon, Mr. Sheepshanks, ana Mr. 
Jacob Bell, the nation is rich in the works of 
Landseer both at South Kensington and the 
National Gallery, and the British Museum 
contains a collection of his etchings and 
sketches. 

[Cat. of the Works of Sir E. Landseer by Al- 
gernon Graves (a very valuable work, fall of 
notes teeming "with minute and varied informa- 
tion about Landseer And his works) ; Memoirs of 
Sir E. Landseer by F. G. Stephens, Sir Edwin 
Landseer in Great Artists Ser. by the same; Cun- 
ningham's British Painters (Heaton); Pictures 



by Sir E. Landseer by James Dafforne; Red- 
grave's Diet. ; Redgraves' Century ; Bryan's Diet. ; 
Graves's Diet. ; Euglish Cyclopaedia ; Annals of 
the Fine Arts; Lockhart's Life of Scott ; Ruskin's 
Modern Painters. The Art Journal for a number 
of years published steel engravings after his pic- 
tures in the Vernon and other collections, and 
in 1876-7 a qunntity of cuts after Landseer's 
sketches, extending over his whole career. The 
latter were republished as Studies of Sir E. 
Landseer, with letterpress by the present writer. 
Information from Mr. Algernon Graves.] 

C. M. 

LANDSEER, JESSICA (1810-1880), 
landscape and miniature painter, born, ac- 
cording to her own statement, 29 Jan. 1810. 
was the daughter of John Landseer [q. v.] 
Between 1816 and 1866 she exhibited ten 
pictures at the Royal Academy, seven at the 
feritish Institution, and six at Suffolk Street. 
She also etched two plates after her brother 
Edwin—' Vixen/ a Scotch terrier (also en- 
graved by her brother Thomas for 'Annals of 
Sporting ), and 'Lady Louisa Russell feeding 
a Donkey ' (1826). A copy by her on ivory of 
' Beauty's Bath ' [see Landseer, Sir Edwin] 
is in the possession of the Princess of Wales. 
She died at Folkestone on 29 Aug. 1880. 

[Bryan's Diet. ; Stephens's Landseer in Great 
Artists Series ; Graves's Catalogue of the Works 
of Sir E. Landseer; Graves's Diet.; information 
from Mrs. Mackenzie, sister of Miss Jessica 
Landseer.] C. M. 

LANDSEER, JOHN (1769-1852), 
painter, engraver, and author, the son of a 
jeweller, was born at Lincoln in 1769. He 
was apprenticed to William Byrne [q. v.], 
the landscape engraver, and his first works 
were vignettes after De Loutherbourg for the 
publisher Macklin's Bible and for Bowyer's 
' History of England.' In 1792 he exhibited 
for the first time at the Royal Academy. 
His contribution was a ' View from the Her- 
mit's Hole, Isle of Wight.' He was living 
at the time at 83 Queen Anne Street East 
(now Foley Street), London. His connec- 
tion with the Macklin family resulted in 
his marriage to a friend of theirs, a Miss 
Potts, whose portrait, with a sheaf of corn 
on her head, was introduced by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds into the picture of ' The Gleaners,' 
sometimes called ' Macklin's family picture,' 
as it contained portraits of the publisher, his 
wife, and daughter. After his marriage he 
removed to 71 Queen Anne Street East (now 
33 Foley Street), where his celebrated sons 
were born. In 1795 appeared 'Twenty Views 
of the South of Scotland,' engraved by him 
after drawings by J. Moore. In 1806 he 
delivered at the Royal Institution a series of 
lectures on engraving, still valuable for their 



Landseer 



6 9 



Landseer 



clear exposition of the principles of the art ' also commenced in 1816 a work on 'The An- 
and of the methods of different kinds of en- I tiquities of Dacca/ for which he executed 
graving. In these he defended his view of j twenty plates, but it was never completed, 
engraving as a description of ' sculpture by ( But he aid not entirely abandon himself to 
excision/ and warmly demanded from the archaeology. He (1814) engraved a drawing 
Royal Academy a more generous recognition I by his son Edwin (afterwards Sih Edwiit 
of the claims of engravers, who were then i Landseer, a. v.), called 'The Lions' Den.' In 
placed in a separate class as associate en- | 1823 he published an 'Essay on the Camivora' 
gravers and only allowed to exhibit two \ to accompany a book of ' Twenty Engravings 
works at the annual exhibitions. In the same | of Lions, Tigers, Panthers, and Leopards, by 
year he was elected an associate engraver, a Stubbs, Rembrandt, Spilsbury, Keydinger 
personal honour which he only accepted in j [Riedinger], and Edwin Landseer/ nearly all 
the hope that it would give him a stronger ! executed by his son Thomas. With some 
position for the furtherance of his views in assistance from his son Thomas he engraved 
favour of his profession. This hope was not 
realised. He, with James Heatn, another 



associate engraver, applied to the Academy 
to place engraving on the same footing as in 
academies abroad, but their application was 
refused. He also petitioned the prince regent 
without result. The lectures at the Royal 
Institution were cut short by his dismissal on 
the ground of disparaging allusions to Alder- 
man John Boydell [q. v.], who had died in 
1804. The action of the managers was no 
doubt due to the representations of John Boy- 
dell's nephew, Josiah Boydell. By no means 
daunted, Landseer published his lectures un- 
altered in 1807, with notes severely com- 
menting on Josiah Boydell and on a pamphlet 
which Boydell had issued. At this time Land- 
seer was engaged on several works, including 
illustrations for William Scrope's ' Scenes in 
Scotland' (published 1808) and the ' Scenery 
of the Isle of Wight ' (published 1812). For 
the latter he engraved three of J. M. W. 
Turner's drawings, ' Orchard Bay/ ' Shanklin 
Bay/ and ' Freshwater Bay.' His only other 
engravings after Turner were ' High Torr ' 
in Whitaker's ' History of Richmondshire ' 
(1812) and 'The Cascade of Terni' in Hake- 
will's * Picturesque Tour in Italy/ probably 
the finest of all Landseer's engravings. In 



assistance trom nis son J/nomas be engrav 
Edwin's celebrated youthful picture of ^Alpine 
Mastiffs reanimating a Distressed Traveller.' 
This was published in 1831 (eleven years after 
the picture was painted), together with a pam- 
phlet called ' Some Account of the Dogs and of 
the Pass of the Great St. Bernard/ &c. In 
1833 appeared a series of engravings illus- 
trating the sacred scriptures, after Raphael 
and others. In 1834 he published a descrip- 
tion of fifty of the ' Earliest Pictures in tne 
National Gallery/ vol. i. In 1836 he made 
another effort to press the claims of engrav- 
ing on the Royal Academy by joining in a 
petition to the House of Commons, who re- 
ferred it to a select committee. The report 
of the committee was favourable, and was fol- 
lowed by a petition to the king, which was 
ineffectual. In 1837 he commenced a short- 
lived but trenchant periodical called ' The 
Probe.' In 1840 appeared ' Vates, or the 
Philosophy of Madness/ for which he executed 
six plates. His contributions to the Royal 
Academy were only seventeen in number, but 
they did not cease till 1851. His last) con- 
tributions were drawings from nature ; one 
of ' Hadleigh Castle ' was exhibited after his 
death in 1852. He died in London, 29 Feb. 
1852, and was buried in Highgate cemetery. 
John Landseer was a F.S.A. and engraver 



1808 he commenced a periodical, ' Review of , to the king (William IV), and attained an 



Publications of Art/ which lived only to the 
second volume. In 1813 he lectured at the 
Surrey Institution on ' The Philosophy of Art.' 
Disappointed at the failure of his memorial 
to the Royal Academy, he is said by the author 
of a biography in the ' Literary Gazette ' 
(No. 1834) to have turned his attention from 
engraving to archaeology. In 1817 he pub- 
lished ' Ooservations on the Engraved Gems 
brought from Babylon to England by Abra- 
ham Lockett, Esq., considered with reference 
to Scripture History.' He contended that 
these ' gems ' or cylinders were not used as 
talismans but as seals of kings, &c, and in 
1823 he issued 'Sabeean Researches, in a 
Series of Essays on the Engraved Hiero- 
glyphics of Chaidea, Egypt, and Canaan.' He 



honourable reputation as an engraver, an an- 
tiquary, a writer on art, and a champion of 
his profession, but it has been said that his 
chief work was the bringing up of his three 
distinguished sons, Thomas, Charles, and 
Edwin. Out of eleven other children four 
daughters only lived to maturity : Jane (Mrs. 
Charles Christmas), Anna Maria, Jessica 
[q. v.], and Emma (Mrs. Mackenzie). A 
portrait of him by his son Sir Edwin Land- 
seer was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1840. It represents him as a venerable old 
man, with long white locks and great sweet- 
ness of expression, holding a large open 
volume. It is now in the possession of Mrs. 
Mackenzie, his only surviving child, but will 
become the property of the nat ion at her death. 



Landseer 



70 



Lane 



[Sir Edwin Landseer, in Great Artists Series, 
by F. G. Stephens ; Pye's Patronage of British 
Art; Crabb Robinson's Diary, 1869, i. 505-6; 
Literary Gazette, No. 1884 ; Evidence before 
the Select Committee of the House of Commons 
on Arts, &c, 1836, question 2046 ; Redgrave's 
Diet. ; Bryan's Diet. ; Graves's Diet. ; John Land- 
seer's Lectures on the Art of Engraving, 1807 ; 
Algernon Graves's Catalogue of the Works of Sir 
E. Landseer: Annals of the Fine Arts; informa- 
tion from Mrs. Mackenzie and Mr. Algernon 
Graves.] C. M. 

LANDSEER, THOMAS (1795-1880), 
engraver, eldest son of John Landseer [q. v.], 
was born at 71 Queen Anne Street East (now 
83 Foley Street), London, in 1795. He was 
brought up to tne profession of an engraver, 
and received instruction from his father, whom 
he assisted in several of his plates. He also 
studied with his brother Charles under B. R. 
Haydon [q. v.], under whose direction he made 
chalk drawings from the cartoons of Raphael 
and the Elgin marbles. In 1816 he pubbshed 
his first engraving on copper from a ' Study 
of a Head of a Sybil/ by Haydon, a mixture 
of etching and aquatint, and in the following 
year his father published the first part of 
a series of etchings by him, imitating the 
studies of Haydon for his pictures, and called 
'Haydon's Drawing Book.' Before this he 
had executed a number of etchings after his 
young brother Edwin's drawings, the first of 
which is ' A Bull, marked T. W.,' drawn 
and etched in the same year (1811), when 
Thomas was sixteen and Edwin nine years 
old. The rest of his life was mainly devoted 
to etching and engraving his brother's draw- 
ings and pictures [see Landseek, Sib Ed- 
win]. In 1823 he worked with great vigour, 
and engraved Edwin's picture of the 'Rat- 
catchers' and five of his drawings of wild 
beasts. These last plates, with others by him 
after Rubens ana other artists, with an 
' Essay on Carnivora ' by his father, were 
issued in a volume in 1823. Thomas's en- 
gravings after Edwin have a freedom which 
shows that he was already emancipating him- 
self from the somewhat formal style of his 
father. Bonn's edition of the work (1853) 
contains three additional plates after draw- 
ings by himself. Three etchings, after Edwin's 
drawings for the Annals of Sporting,' belong 
to the same year (1823), and in the next he 
engraved six more for the same periodical. In 
1825, besides many other plates, he executed 
one of a ' Vanquished Lion,' which has Ed- 
win's name engraved upon it, but is supposed 
to have been painted as well as engraved by 
himself (see Graves, Catalogue, No. 102). 
In 1837 ne engraved the ' Sleeping Blood- 
hound/ down to that time his most important 



work. Of etchings and engravings after his 
brother he executed over 125. Some of the 
more important of his later efforts in re- 
producing his brother's works are : ' A dis- 
tinguished Member of the Humane Society ' 
(1839), * Dignity and Impudence ' (1841), 
' Laying down the Law' (1843), 'Stag at 
Bay' (1848), 'Alexander and Diogenes' 
(1852), 'The Monarch of the Glen' (1852), 
'Night' and 'Morning' (1855), 'Children 
of the Mist ' (1856), ' Man proposes, God 
disposes' (1867), ' Defeat of Comue ' (1868), 
'The Sanctuary' (1869), 'The Challenge ' 
(1872), ' Indian Tent, Mare and Foal ' (1875), 
and his last plate, after almoet the last of 
his brother's pictures, ' The Font ' (1875). 

Thomas Landseer was an engraver of great 
power and originality, and may be said to 
have invented a style in order to render 
more faithfully and sympathetically the 
works of his brother. A master of all 
methods of engraving on metal, he employed 
in his most effective plates all the resources 
of the art, making especially a free use of 
the etched line in order to render more truly 
the textures of fur and hide. His great merit 
as an engraver is now well recognised, but 
the Royal Academy was long in granting 
him his due honour. He was not admitted 
into the ranks of the associates till 1868, 
when he was seventy-three years of age. 
The most important of his engravings after 
artists other than Sir Edwin is ' The Horse 
Fair,' after Rosa Bonheur. 

To the original designs, etched by himself, 
already mentioned should be added, ' Mon- 
keyana' (1827), 'Etchings illustrative of 
Coleridge's "Devil's Walk"' (1831), and 
' Characteristic Sketches of Animals ' (1832). 
He was also the author of an admirable bio- 
The Life and Letters of William 



wick' [q. v.], his former colleague and 
fellow-pupil under Haydon. It was pub- 
lished m 1871. 

Thomas Landseer died at 11 Grove End 
Road, St. John's Wood, on 20 Jan. 1880. 

[Bryan's Diet. (Graves) ; Annals of the Fine 
Arts; Stephens's Landseer in Great Artists 
Series; Graves's Diet.; Graves's Catalogue of 
the Works of Sir E. Landseer.] C. M. 

LANE, CHARLES EDWARD WIL- 
LIAM (1786-1872), general in the Indian 
army, son of John and Melissa Lane, was born 
29 Oct. 1786, and baptised at St. Martin's-in- 
the-Fields, London, in November the same 
year. He was nominated to a cadetship in 
1806, and passed an examination in Persian 
and Hindustani, for which he was awarded 
a gratuity of twelve hundred rupees and a 
sword. His commissions in the Bengal in- 
fantry were : ensign 13 Aug. 1807, lieutenant 



Lane 



7* 



Lane 



14 July 1812, captain (army 5 Feb. 1822) 
80 Jan. 1824, major 80 April 1885, lieutenant- 
colonel 26 Dec. 1841, colonel 25 May 1852. 
He became major-general in 1854, lieutenant- 
general in 1866, general in 1870. He snared 
the Deccan prize as lieutenant 1st Bengal 
native infantry for 'general capture8. , He 
sought permission in 1824 to change his name 
to Mattenby, but the request was refused as 
beyond the competence of the Indian govern- 
ment. He served with the 2nd native grena- 
dier battalion in Arracan in 1825, was timber 
agent at Naulpore in 1828, and was in charge 
of the commissariat at Dinapore in 1882. As 
major he commanded his regiment in Af- 
ghanistan under Sir William Nott in 1842, 
and commanded the garrison Of Candahar 
when, during the temporary absence of Nott, 
the place was assaulted on 10 March 1842 by 
an Afghan detachment, which was repulsed 
with heavy loss (see London Gazette, 6 Sept. 
1842). Lane received the medal for Candahar 
and Cabul, and was made C.B. 27 Dec 1842. 
He died in Jersey 18 Feb. 1872, aged 85. 

[Indian Army Lists; information obtained 
from the India office.] H. M. C. 

LANE, EDWARD (1605-1685), theolo- 
gical writer, born in 1605, was elected a 
scholar at St. Paul's School, where he was 
among the pupils of Alexander Gill the elder 

S\. v.I and was admitted on 4 July 1622 at St. 
ohn 8 College, Cambridge, graduating B.A. 
1625-6, M. A. 1629. In 1631 he was presented 
(admitted 24 March) to the vicarage of North 
Shoebury, Essex, by the crown, through the 
lord keeper, Thomas Coventry [q. v.] ; he re- 
signed on 28 Jan. 1636, being presented by 
the same patron to the vicarage of Sparsholt, 
Hampshire. He was also rector of Lainston, 
Hampshire, a parish adjoining, probably from 
1687. On 9 July 1639 he was incorporated 
M.A. at Oxford. In 1644, being a ' time of 
warre,' Lane was absent from Sparsholt. He 
was recommended by the assembly of divines 
to fill the sequestrated benefice of Sholden, 
Kent, 27 Feb. 1644-5 (Addit. MS. 15669, 
p. 89 b). His incumbency at Sparsholt lasted 
fifty years. He collected and transcribed the 
parish registers from 1607, and seems to have 
oeen an exemplary parish clergyman. He 
died on 2 Sept. 1685 m his eighty-first year, 
and was buried on 4 Sept. in the chancel of 
Sparsholt Church. His wife Mary was buried 
on 27 Oct. 1669. His children, none of 
whom survived him, included Edward, buried 
17 May 1660, who had been in Ireland, and 
Henry, baptised 11 April 1639, probationer 
scholar of New College, Oxford, buried 6 Oct. 
1659. 

He published : 1. ' Look unto Jesus,' &c, 
1668, ito (British Museum copy has author's 



corrections, and a manuscript presentation, 
with pretty verses, to Anne and Catherine 
Chettle). 2. ' Mercy Triumphant/ &c. 1680, 
4to (against Lewis du Moulin [q. v.J, who 
held that * probably not one in a million' 
of the human race would be saved) ; 2nd 
edition, with title ' Du Moulin's Reflections 
Reverberated,' &c, 1681, 8vo, has appended 
'Answer' to the 'Naked Truth. The Second 
Part,' by Edmund Hickeringill[q.v.] (Wood). 
Bound with the British Museum copy (696, 
f. 13) of No. 1 is an autograph manuscript, 
pp. 229, ready for press, and included in tne 
gift to the Misses Chettle, its title being ' A 
Taste of the Euerlasting ffeast ... in Heauen 
At the Marriage-Supper of the Lambe ... by 
E. L.,' &c. From 1638 to 1641 he wrote his 
surname ' LLane.' Lane left in manuscript 
a ' Discourse of the Waters of Noah,' in reply 
to Thomas Burnett's 'Theory of the Earth' 
(Notes and Queries, 5th ser. x. 181, 273). 
'An Image of our Reforming Times,' &c, 
1654, 4to, is by Colonel Edward Lane, ' of 
Ham-pinnulo,' a Fifth monarchy man. 

[Wood's Fasti (Bliss), i. 510 sq., ii. 127 ; Gar- 
diner's Register of St. Paul's School, 1884, p. 34 ; 
information from the Rev. Evelyn D. Heathcote, 
vicar of Sparsholt.] A. G. 

LANE, EDWARD WILLIAM (1801- 
1876), Arabic scholar, was born 17 Sept. 1801 
at Hereford, where his father, Theophilus 
Lane, D.C.L., of Balliol College and Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, was prebendary of Withington 
Parva. Four of his direct ancestors had been 
mayors of Hereford since 1621. His mother 
was Sophia Gardiner, niece of the painter 
Gainsborough, a woman of unusual intellect 
and character. He was educated, after his 
father's death in 1814, at the grammar schools 
of Bath and Hereford, where he showed a 
bent for mathematics, which led him to con- 
template a Cambridge degree with a view to 
taking orders. The plan was abandoned, how- 
ever, and he went to London to learn engrav- 
ing under Charles Heath, to whom his elder 
brother Richard James [q. v.] was articled. 
He possessed much the same delicacy of 
touch as his brother, but his health was 
unequal to the trials of a confined occupa- 
tion and the London climate, and after pub- 
lishing a solitary print a prolonged illness 
compelled him to seek a warmer latitude. 
To this happy disability he owed the develop- 
ment of his special genius. As early as 1822 
he had evinced a marked passion for eastern 
studies, and it was to Egypt that he now 
turned. An additional inducement was the 
hope of a consulship. Accordingly, in July 
1825, Lane set sail for Alexandria, and after 
an adventurous voyage of two months, during 
which his theoretical knowledge of naviga- 



Lane 



7* 



Lane 



tion enabled him to steer the ship through a 
terrific hurricane, when the sailing-master 
was incapacitated, and after narrowly es- 
caping death in a mutiny of the crew, he ar- 
rived in the land with which his name was 
henceforth to be permanently associated. 

Egypt was then almost an unknown coun- 
try. Napoleon's scientific commission had 
recently published the results of their re- 
searches in the monumental ' Description de 
l'Egypte,' but this great work was a tentative 
beginning. No one had yet fully taken stock 
of the monuments. On arriving, Lane found 
himself in the midst of a brilliant group of dis- 
coverers, who were longing to essay that task. 
Wilkinson and James Burton (afterwards 
Haliburton [q. v.]), the hieroglyphic scholars, 
were there, together with Linant and Bonomi, 
the explorers; the travellers Humphreys, 
Hay, and Fox-Strangways ; Major Felix and 
his distinguished friend, Lord Prudhoe. Lane 
determined to take his part in the work. He 
resolved to write an exhaustive description 
of Egypt, and to illustrate it by his own 
pencil. He possessed unusual qualifications 
for the task. He soon spoke Arabic fluently, 
and his grave demeanour and almost Arabian 
cast of countenance, added to the native dress 
which he always wore in Egypt, enabled him 
to pass among the people as one of themselves. 
After some months spent in Cairo in studying 
the townsfolk and improving himself in the 
dialect, and some weeks' residence in a tomb 
by the pyramids of Gizeh, Lane set out in 
March 1826 on his first Nile voyage. He 
ascended as far as the second cataract, an 
unusual distance in those days, spent more 
than two months at Thebes, in August to 
October, and made a large numberof exquisite 
sepia drawings of the monuments, aided by 
the camera lucida, the invention of his friend 
Dr. Wollaston. On his return to Cairo he 
devoted himself to a study of the people, 
their manners and customs, and the monu- 
ments of Saracenic art, and then ( 1827) again 
ascended the Nile to Wadi Halfeh, and com- 
pleted his survey of the Theban temples in 
another residence of forty-one days, living 
the while in tombs. At the beginning of 
1828 he was again in Cairo, and in the au- 
tumn he returned to England, bringing with 
him an elaborate ' Description of Egypt,' il- 
lustrated by 101 sepia drawings selected" from 
his portfolios. The work is a model of lucid 
and accurate description, but it has never 
been published, in consequence of the diffi- 
culty and expense of reproducing the draw- 
ings in a manner satisfactory to Lane's fas- 
tidious taste. The drawings and manuscript 
are now in the British Museum. 

Although the work was never printed as 



a whole, those chapters of it which related to 
; the modern inhabitants were, on the recom- 
! mendation of Lord Brougham, accepted by 
the Society for the Diffusion of Useful know- 
ledge for publication in their 'Library/ It was 
l characteristic of Lane's thoroughness that he* 
' refused to print the chapters as they stood, 
and insisted upon revisiting Egypt for the 
sole purpose oi revising and expanding what 
most men would have considered an ade- 
quate account. With the exception of six 
months in 1885 spent at Thebes m the com- 
pany of his friend: Fulgence Fresnel, in order 
to escape the plague which was then devas- 
tating the capital, this second residence in 
Egypt (December 1838 to August 1835) was 
devoted exclusively to a close study of the 
people of Cairo, with a view to his forthcoming 
work on their manners and customs. Lane 
lived in the Mohammedan quarters, wore 
the native dress, took the name of ' Mansoor 
Effendi,' associated almost exclusively with 
Muslims, attended on every possible occasion 
their religious ceremonies, festivals, and en- 
tertainments, and (except that he always re- 
tained his Christian belief and conduct) lived 
the life of an Egyptian man of learning. A 
yood picture of his daily pursuits is given 
in his diary (published in Lane-Poole's Life 
of E. W. Lane, pp. 41-84), where it appears 
that he became acquainted with most sides 
of Egyptian society, including the strange 
mystical and so-called magical element which 
I has since vanished from Cairo. The result of 
' his observations was the well-known ' Ac- 
count of the Manners and Customs of the 
Modern Egyptians,' which was first published 
in 2 vols, in December 1 836 by Charles Knight, 
who had bought the first edition from the So- 
ciety for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 
The book was an immediate success. The first 
edition was sold within a fortnight. The 
society's cheaper edition came out m 1837, a 
third in 1842, a fourth in « Knight's Weekly 
Volumes ' in 1846, and a fifth, in one volume, 
edited, with important additions, by Lane's 
nephew, Edward Stanley Poole, was pub- 
lished in 1860. This, which is the standard 
text, has been repeatedly reprinted in 2 vols. 
(1871, &c.) An unauthorised cheap reprint 
was included in the ' Minerva Library ' (edited 
by G. T. Bettany, with a brief memoir, 1891). 
The book has also been reprinted in America 
and translated into German. The value of 
the ' Modern Egyptians ' lies partly in the 
favourable date oi its composition,when Cairo 
was still a Saracenic city, almost untouched 
by European influences; but chiefly in its 
microscopic accuracy of detail, which is so 
complete and final that no important addi- 
tions have been made to its picture of the 



Lane 



73 



Lane 



life and customs of the Muslims of modern 
Egypt, in spite of the researches of numerous 
travellers and scholars. It remains after more 
than half a century the standard authority 
on its subject. 

Lane's next work was executed in England. 
It was a translation of the ' Thousand and 
One Nights,' or ' Arabian Nights' Entertain- 
ment/ and came out in monthly parts, illus- 
trated by woodcuts after drawings by Wil- 
liam Harvey, in 1838-40 (2nd edition, edited 
by E. S. Poole, 1859, frequently reprinted. 
A selection of the best tales was edited, with 
additions, by Lane's grand-nephew, S. Lane- 
Poole, in 3 vols. 16mo, 1891). This was the 
first accurate version of the celebrated Arabic 
stories, and still remains the best translation 
for all but professed students. It is not 
complete, and the coarseness of the original 
is necessarily excised in a work which was 
intended for the general public; but the 
eastern tone, whicn was lost in the earlier 
versions, based upon Galland's French para- 
phrase, is faithfully reproduced, and the very 
stifihess of the style, not otherwise commend- 
able, has been found to convey something of 
the impression of the Arabic. The work is 
enriched with copious notes, derived from the 
translator's personal knowledge of Moham- 
medan life and his wide acquaintance with 
Arabic literature, and forms a sort of ency- 
dopsedia of Muslim customs and beliefs. (The 
notes were collected and rearranged under 
the title of ' Arabian Society in the Middle 
Ages,' edited by S. Lane-Poole, in 1883.) 
In 1843 appeared a volume of * Selections 
from the Kur-an,' of which a second revised 
edition, with an introduction by S. Lane- 
Poole, appeared in TriibnerV Oriental Series,' 
1879. 

In July 1842 Lane set sail for Egypt for 
the third time, and with a new object. In 
his first visit he was mainly a traveller and 
explorer; in the second a student of the life 
of the modern Egyptians; in the third he was 
an Arabic scholar and lexicographer. The 
task he had set before himself was to remedy 
the deficiencies of the existing Arabic-Latin 
dictionaries by compiling an exhaustive the- 
saurus of the Arabic language from the nu- 
merous authoritative native lexicons. The 
work was sorely needed, but it is doubtful 
if even Lane, with all his laborious habits, 
would have undertaken it had he realised 
the gigantic nature of the task. The finan- 
cial difficulty, the expense of copying manu- 
scripts, and the enormous cost of printing, 
would have proved an insurmountable ob- 
stacle but for the public spirit and munifi- 
cence of Lane's friend of his earliest Egyptian 
years, Lord Prudhoe, afterwards (1847) fourth 




duke of Northumberland, who undertook the 
whole expense, and whose widow, after his 
death in 1864, carried on the duke's project, 
and supported it to its termination in 1892. 
When Lane returned to Cairo in 1842 he 
took with him his wife, a Greek lady whom 
he had married in England in 1840, his sister, 
Mrs. ~ " ' ~ ■ - " 

thoress < 
and ] 

be entirely among his Mohammedan frienas. 
Indeed, his work kept him almost wholly 
confined to his study. He denied himself to 
every one, except on Friday, the Muslim sab- 
bath, and devoted all his energies to the 
composition of the lexicon. Twelve to four- 
teen hours a day were his ordinary allowance 
for study ; for six months together he never 
crossed the threshold of his house, and in all 
the seven years of his residence he only left 
Cairo once, for a three days' visit to the 
Pyramids. At length the materials were 
gathered, the chief native lexicon (the * Taj- 
el-' Arus ') upon which he intended to found 
his own work, was sufficiently transcribed, 
and in October 1849 Lane brought his family 
back to England. He soon settled at Worth- 
ing, and for more than a quarter of a century 
devoted all his efforts to completing his task. 
He worked from morning till night, sparing 
little time for meals or exercise, and none to 
recreation, and rigidly denying himself to all 
but a very few chosen friends. On Sunday, 
however, he closed his Arabic books, but only 
to take up Hebrew and study the Old Tes^- 
tament. 

He returned to Europe the acknowledged 
chief of Arabic scholars, who were generous 
in their homage. He was made an honorary 
member of the German Oriental Society, the 
Royal Asiatic Society, the Royal Society of 
Literature, &c. ; in 1864 he was elected a 
correspondent of the French Institute ; and 
in 1876, on the occasion of its tercentenary, 
the university of Leyden granted him the 
degree of honorary doctor of literature. He 
declined other offers of degrees and also 
honours of a different kind, but accepted a 
civil list pension in 1863, the year in which 
the first part of the* Arabic-English Lexicon' 
was published, after twenty years of unre- 
mitting labour. The succeeding parts came 
out in 1865, 1867, 1872, 1874, and posthu- 
mously, under the editorship of S. Lane-Poole 
(unfortunately with unavoidable lacunas), in 
1877, 1885, and 1892. The importance of the 
dictionary was instantly appreciated by the 
orientalists of Europe, and the lexicon at 
once became indispensable to the student of 
Arabic. 

Lane continued his labours in spite of in- 



Lane 



74 



Lane 



creasingly delicate health and growing weari- 
ness. In the midst of his engrossing labours 
he contrived to help in the education of his 
sister's children and grandchildren, who lived 
under his roof, and in spite of his retired life 
and devotion to study nis conversation and 
manner possessed unusual charm and grace. 
On 6 Aug. 1876 he was at his desk performing 
his usual methodical toil in his unchanging 
delicate handwriting. He died four days later 
(10 Aug. 1876), aged nearly seventy-five. 
His portrait in pencil and a life-sized statue 
in Egyptian dress were executed by his bro- 
ther Kichard. 

Besides the works mentioned above, Lane 
published two essays, translated into German 
in the ' Zeitschrift der deutschen morgen- 
landischen Gesellschaft,' the one on Arabic 
lexicography, iii. 90-108, 1849, and the other 
on the pronunciation of vowels and accent in 
Arabic, iv. 171-86, 1850. 

[S. Lane-Poole's Life of Edward William Lane, 
prefixed to pt. vi. of the Arabic-English Lexicon, 
and published separately in 1877; personal know- 
ledge.] S. L.-P. i 

LANE, HUNTER (d. 1853), medical' 
writer, was admitted a licentiate of the Royal 
College of Surgeons, Edinburgh, in 1829, and i 
graduated M.D. at Edinburgh University in 
1830. He was honorary physician to the 
Cholera Hospital, Liverpool, during 1831-2, ■ 
and physician to the Lock Hospital of the ; 
Infirmary there in 1833. In 1834 he col- ' 
laborated with James Manby Gully [q. v.] ! 
in a translation of 'A Systematic Treatise on 
Comparative Physiology/ by Professor Fre- 
derick Tiedemann of Heidelberg, 2 vols. 8vo. 
In 1840 he was appointed senior physician I 
of the Lancaster Infirmary, and in the same , 
year brought out his ' Compendium of Ma- j 
teria Medica and Pharmacy, adapted to the , 
London Pharmacopoeia, embodying all the ! 
new French, American, and Indian Medi- ] 
cines, and also comprising a Summary of; 
Practical Toxicology, a work of considerable i 
value in its day. He was shortly afterwards 
elected president of the Royal Medical So- 
ciety of Edinburgh. For the last few years 
of his life Lane resided at 58 Brook Street, 
Grosvenor Square, and had an excellent 
London practice. He died at Brighton on 
23 June 1853. 

Besides the works mentioned, Lane con- 
tributed numerous articles to the medical 
papers, and for some time edited the ' Liver- 
pool Medical Gazette' and the 'Monthly 
Archives of the Medical Sciences.' He is 
said also {Med, Direct 1853) to have written 
an ' Epitome of Practical Chemistry/ 

[Gent. Mag. 1853, pt. ii. p. 420 ; Med. Direct. 
1854, obit, p. 798 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 



LANE, JANE, afterwards Lady Fisher 
(d. 1689), heroine, daughter of Thomas Lane 
of Bentley, near Walsall, Staffordshire, by 
Anne, sister of Sir Hervey Bagot, bart., of 
Blithfield in the same county, distinguished 
herself by her courage and devotion in the 
service of Charles H after the battle of Wor- 
cester (3 Sept. 1651). She was then residing 
at Bentley Hall, the seat of her brother, 
Colonel John Lane. Charles was in hiding at 
Moseley, and was in communication, through 
Lord Wilmot, with Colonel Lane regarding 
his escape. Jane Lane was about to pay a 
visit to her friend, Mrs. Norton, wife of George 
(afterwards Sir George) Norton of Abbots 
Leigh, near Bristol, and from Captain Stone, 
governor of Stafford, had obtained a pass for 
herself, a man-servant, and her cousin, Henry 
Lascelles. It was arranged that the king 
should ride with her in the disguise of her 
man-servant. Accordingly, at daybreak of 
10 Sept. Charles, dressed in a serving-man's 
8uit,and assuming the name of William Jack- 
son, one of Colonel Lane's tenants, brought 
Jane Lane's mare to the hall-door at Bentley, 
and took her up behind him on the pillion. 
Jane Lane's brother-in-law, John Petre, and 
his wife, who were not in the secret, were to 
accompany her as far as Stratford-upon-Avon, 
also riding saddle-and-pillion ; Henry La- 
scelles was to escort her the whole way. As 
they approached Stratford-upon-Avon Petre 
and his wife turned back at sight of a troop 
of horse, in spite of the urgent entreaties of 
Jane Lane. The others rode quietly through 
the soldiers and the town without being chal- 
lenged, and on to Long Marston, where they 
put up at the house of one Tombs, a friend of 
Colonel Lane. Next day they rode without 
adventure to Cirencester, and put up at the 
Crown Inn. The third day brought them to 
Abbots Leigh, where, at Jane Lane's request, 
Pope, the butler, found a private room for 
William Jackson, whom she gave out as 
just recovering from an ague. The butler, 
an old royalist soldier, recognised the king, 
and proved trusty and serviceable. But 
no ship was available for Charles's flight at 
Bristol, and the risk of discovery at Abbots 
Leigh was very great. Jane Lane, therefore, 
at Pope's suggestion, left Abbot's Leigh with 
the long on the pretence of returning to her 
father at Bentley, early on the morning of 
16 Sept., and conducted him that day to 
Castle Cary, and thence next day to the house 
of Colonel Francis Wyndham, at Trent, near 
Sherborne. The king being now in a position 
to reach France in safety, Jane, after a brief 
stay at Trent, returned with her cousin to 
Bentley Hall. The news of the king's escape 
soon got abroad, and, though nothing very 



Lane 



75 



Lane 



definite leaked out, the fact that a lady, before 
whom he had ridden in the disguise of her man- 
servant, had been principally concerned in it, 
actually got into print within a month of 
Charles's arrival in Paris (13 Oct.) Colonel 
Lane accordingly determined to remove his 
sister to France, and, disguised as peasant- 
folk, they made their way on foot from Bentley 
Hall to Y armouth, where they took ship for 
the continent in December. Arrived there 
they threw off their disguise and posted to 
Paris, having sent a courier in advance to 
apprise Charles of their approach. Charles 
came from Paris to meet them, accompanied 
by Henrietta Maria and the Dukes of York 
and Gloucester, and gallantly saluting Jane 
Lane on the cheek, called her his ' lite ' and 
bade her welcome to Paris. After residing 
some little time at Paris, where she was 
treated with great distinction by the court, 
Jane Lane entered the service of the Princess 
of Orange, whom she attended to Cologne in 
1654. She was also one of the very small 
retinue which the princess took with her 
when she went incognito with Charles to 
Frankfort fair in the autumn of 1665. Three 
letters from Charles to her, written during 
the interregnum, are extant. Two are sub- 
scribed ' your most affectionate friend/ and 
one * your most assured and constant friend.' 
All have been printed, one in the ' European 
Magazine,' 1794, ii. 253, reprinted in Seward's 
' Anecdotes/ 1795, ii. 1, and Clayton's ' Per- 
sonalMemoirs of Charles 11/ i. 338 ; another 
in Hughes's ' Boscobel Tracts/ 2nd edit. p. 87 ; 
the third in the Historical MSS. Commission's 
6th Rep. p. 473 (for her own letters see Hist . 
MSS. Comm. 3rd Rep. App. p. 253, 4th Rep. 
App.p. 336). Nor was her devotion forgotten 
at tne Restoration. The House of Commons 
voted her 1,000/. to buy herself a jewel, and 
Charles gave her a gold watch, which he re- 
quested might descend as an heirloom to 
every eldest daughter of the Lane family for 
ever. It passed into the possession of Mrs. 
Lucy of Charlecote Park, Warwickshire, as 
then eldest daughter of the house of Lane, 
and was soon stolen from that house by 
burglars. A pension of 1,000/. was also 
granted to Jane Lane, and another of 500/. 
to her brother. Her pension was paid with 
fair regularity, being only six and a half years 
in arrear on the accession of James II, who 
caused the arrears to be made good and the 
pension continued. It was also continued 
by William III. Her portrait, attributed to 
lily, with one of Charles painted expressly 
for her in 1652, is now in the possession of 
Mr. Lane of Kings Bromley manor, Stafford- 
shire, the direct descendant of Colonel Lane 
of Bentley. The features are said to resemble 



those of Anne Boley n. A portrait of her by 
Mary Beale, with a miniature of Charles II 
by Cooper, and a deed of gift of money from 
him to her and her sisters, is at Narford Hall, 
Brandon, Norfolk, the seat of Mr. Algernon 
Charles Fountaine. Other relics of Jane 
Lane are two snuff-boxes, one engraved with 
a profile of Charles I in silver, the other with 
a portrait of Charles II ; and a pair of silver 
candlesticks inscribed ' given to J. L. by the 
Princess Zulestein.' These are now the pro- 

g;rty of Mr. John Cheese of Amersham, 
uckinghamshire. The assistance so bravely 
rendered to Charles II by Jane Lane is one 
of the historical incidents selected for the 
frescoes in the lobby of the House of Com- 
mons. 

Jane Lane married, after the Restoration, 
Sir Clement Fisher, bart., of Packington 
Magna, Warwickshire, whom she survived, 
dying without issue on 9 Sept. 1689. She 
is said to have left but 10/. behind her, it 
being her rule to live fully up to her income, 
which she pithily expressed by saying that 
* her hands should be her executors.' 

[The principal authorities are the Boscobel 
Tracts, ed. Hughes, 2nd edit. 1858, and authori- 
ties there cited ; Whiteladies, or his Sacred 
Majesty's Preservation, London, 1660, 8vo; 
Bates's Elenchus Motuum Nuperorum in Anglia, 
pt. ii. London, 1668, 8vo ; Jenings's Miraculum 
Basilicon, London, 1664, 8vo ; Clarendon's Re- 
bellion, bk. xiii. ; Shaw's Staffordshire, ii. 97 ; 
Dugdale's Warwickshire, ed. Thomas, ii. 989 ; 
Evelyn's Diary, 21 Dec. 1651 ; Thurloe State 
Papers, i. 674, v. 84; Merc. Po)it. 18-25 Oct. 
1655 ; Cal. Clarendon Papers, ii. 157 ; Comm. 
Journ. viii. 215, 216, 222, x. 230 ; Lords' Journ. 
xi. 219; Pepys's Diary, 9 Jan. 1660-1 ; Secret' 
Services of Charles II and James II (Camd. Soc), 
p. 51 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1660-1 p. 423, 
1661-2 p. 393, 1664-5 p. 500 ; Luttrell's Rela- 
tion of State Affairs, i. 607; Collectanea, ed. 
Burrows (Oxford Hist. Soc.), ii. 394 ; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. i. 501, 4th ser. i. 303.] 

J. M. R. 

LANE, JOHN (/. 1620), verse-writer, 
lived on terms of intimacy with Milton's 
father. His friends also included ' Thomas 
Windham, Kensfordise, Somersettensis,' Mat- 
thew Jefferey, master of the choristers at 
Wells Cathedral, and 'George Hancocke, 
Somersettensis.' The approval he bestows on 
the Somerset poet Daniel, and his description 
of his own verse as 'Lane's Western Poetry/ 
in contrast with 'Tusser's Eastern Hus- 
bandry,' further strengthen the assumption 
that he was connected by birth with the 
county of Somerset (cf. Triton's Trumpet, 
infra). In his dedication of ' The Squire's 
Tale' to the poets laureate of the universities 
he says that he had had no academic educa- 



Lane 



7 6 



Lane 



tion. He speaks of himself as an old man 
in 1621, but if he be the John Lane who 
wrote to the astrologer William Lilly On 
6 June 1648 (MS, Ashmol. 423, art. 34), he 
must have lived to a great age. It is certain 
that he was personally known to Milton's 
nephew, Edward Phillips, who was born in 
1630. In his ' Theatrum Poetarum,' 1675, 
Phillips describes Lane as ' a fine old Eliza- 
beth gentleman/ He left much in manu- 
script, but published only two pieces : 1. ' Tom 
Tel-troths Message and his Pens Complaint. 
A worke not vnpieasant to be read, nor vn- 
profitable to be followed. Written by Jo. 
La., Gent. London, for R. Howell, 1600.' 
This poem, in 120 six-line stanzas, is dedicated 
to Master George Dowse, and is a vigorous de- 
nunciation of the vices of Elizabethan society. 
Lane describes it as ' the first fruit of my 
barren brain/ It was reprinted by the New 
Shakspere Society (ed. Dr. F. J. Furnivall) in 
1876. 2. ' An Elegie ypon the Death of the 
high and renowned Princesse our late Soue- 
raigne Elizabeth. By I. L., London, for John 
Deane, 1603/ 4to. The Bodleian Library 
possesses the only copy known. 

In 1616 Lane completed in manuscript 
Chaucer's unfinished ' Squire's Tale/ adding 
ten cantos to the original two, and carrying 
out the hints supplied by Chaucer with re- 
ference to the chief characters, Cambuscan, 
Camball, Algarsife, and Canace. Lane at- 
tempts an archaic style and coins many 
pseudo-archaisms. The literary quality of 
his work is very poor. A revised version was 
finished by Lane in manuscript in 1630, and 
was dedicated to Queen Henrietta Maria. 
Copies of both versions are in the Bodleian 
Library, the earlier being numbered Douce 
MS. 170, and the later Ashmole MS. 53. The 
former, although licensed for the press 2 March 
1614-15, was printed in 1888 by the Chaucer 
Society for the first time. The edition is 
carefully collated with the 1630 version. 

Two other manuscript poems, still un- 
printed, were finished by Lane in 1621. One 
is ' Tritons Trumpet to the sweet monethes, 
husbanded and moralized by John Lane, 
poeticalie adducinge (1) the Seauen Deadlie 
Sinnes practised into combustion ; (2) their 
Remedie by their Contraries the Virtues . . . 
(8J the execrable Vices punished/ Phillips 
reiers to the piece under the title of * Twelve 
Months/ A dedication copy, presented to 
Charles, prince of Wales, is in the British 
Museum (MS. Reg. 17 B. xv. Brit. Mus.) On 
fol. 179 Lane refers admiringly to the elder 
Milton's skill in music. Another manuscript 
cony is at Trinity College, Cambridge (O. li. 
68). The last work left by Lane in manuscript 
is ' The Corrected Historic of Sir Gwy, Earle 



! of Warwick . . . begun by Dan' Lidgate . . 

! but now dilligentlie exquired from all anti- 

| quitie by John Lane, 1621 '(Harl.MS. 6243). 

1 It is prefaced by a commendatory sonnet by 
Milton's father, and bears an ' imprimatur ' 

1 dated 13 July 1617 (Masson, Milton, i. 43). 
The prose introduction is printed in the ' Percy 

1 Folio Ballads,' ii. 521-6 (ed. Furnivall anil 
Hales). 

In prefatory verses to his ' Squire's Tale ' 
Lane claims that he was author of another 

I piece of verse, in which he ' had to poetes an 
alarum given.' In his ' Address to all Lovers 

1 of the Muses,' prefixed to his ' Triton's Trum- 
pet,' he notes that he had written a work 
called 'Poetical Visions.' Phillips credits him 
with two poems called respectively ' Alarm 
to the Poets' and* Poetical Visions.' Nothing 
seems known of these productions, although 

! Phillips asserts that they were extant in 
manuscript in his time. Had Lane's works, 
Phillips adds, escaped ' the ill fate to remain 
unpublisht — when much better meriting than 
many that are in print — [they] might possibly 
have gained him a name not much inferiour 
if not equal to Drayton and others of the next 
rank to Spenser.' This verdict modern critics 
must decline to ratify. 

[Phillips's Theatrum Poetarum, 1676,pp.Hl- 
112; Winstanley's Lives of the Poets, 1 687, p. 1 00 
(repeating Phillips); Hunter's MS. Chorus Vatum 
in Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 24489, pp. 143 sq.; Lane's 
Continuation of Chaucer's Squire's Tale (Chaucer 
Soc.), 1888, pp. ix-xv; Lane's Tom Tel-troth's 
Message, reprinted by New Shakspere Soc., 1 876, 
ed. Furnivall, pp. xii-xv.] S. L. 

LANE, JOHN BRYANT (1788-1868), 
painter, born at Helston in Cornwall in 1788, 
, was son of Samuel Lane, chemist and excise- 
man, and Margaret Baldwin his wife. Lane 
was educated at Truro until he was fourteen, 
when his taste for art was noticed by Lord 
de Dunstanville of Tehidy, who afforded him 
the means to practise it in London. Lane 
obtained a gold medal from the Society of 
Arts for an historical cartoon of 'The Angels 
Unbound.' In 1808 he exhibited at the 
Royal Academy an altarpiece for Lord de 
Dunstanville's church in Cornwall ; in 1811 
4 Christ mocked by Pilate's Soldiers,' for the 
! guildhall at Helston; in 1813 'Eutychus,' 
1 for a church in London. In 1817 his patron 
; sent him to Rome, where he remained for 
ten years, engaged on a gigantic picture, 
I * The Vision of Joseph,' which he refused to 
I show during progress. At last he completed 
it, and exhibited it at Rome. Certain details 
, in it were offensive to the papal authorities, 
who expelled the artist and his picture from 
the papal dominions. Lane then sent the 
picture to London, where he exhibited it in 



Lane 77 Lane 

a room at the royal mews, Charing Cros9. < there for the next two years, latterly as 
Its huge size attracted attention, but from sheriff of co. Kerry. Sir H'enry Wallop com- 
an artistic point of view it was a complete plained to Burghley that Lane expected ' to 
failure. It was deposited in the Pantech- have the best and greatest things in Kerry, 
nicon, where it mouldered to decay. Lane and to have the letting and setting of all the 
subsequently devoted himself to portrait- rest . . / (ib. 21 May 1585). 
painting, and sent portraits occasionally to Lane sailed for North America in the ex- 
the Royal Academy, exhibiting for the last pedition under Sir Richard Grenvilie [q. v.], 
time in 1884. Among his sitters were Sir | which left Plymouth on 9 April, ana after 
Hussey Vivian, Mr. Davies-Gilbert, Mr. le i touching at Dominica, Porto Kico, and His- 
Grice, and Lord de Duns tan ville. Lane died, | paniola, passed up the coast of Florida, and 
unmarried, at 45 Clarendon Square, Somers . towards the end of June arrived at Wokokan, 
Town, London, on 4 April 1868, aged 80. . one of the many islands fringing the coast of 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Boase and ^.? Tt ] i Carolina, or, as it was then named, 
Courtney's Bibliotheca Cornubiensis ; Boase's , Virginia. Here the colony was established, 
Collectanea Conmb.; Gent. Mag. xcriii. (1828) ' with Lane as governor, and two months later 
ii. 61 ; Royal Academy Catalogues.] L. C. Grenvilie left for England, not before a bitter 

quarrel had broken out between him and 

LANE, Sib RALPH (d. 1603), first ( the governor. Lane wrote to Walsingham, de- 
gjovernor of Virginia, may probably be iden- ( nouncing Grenville's tyranny and pride, and 
tified with Ralph, the second son of Sir Ralph defending himself and the others against 
Lane (d. 1541) of Horton, Northamptonshire, charges which he anticipated Grenvilie would 
by Maud, daughter and coheiress of Wil- ' bring against him (ib. Col. 12 Aug., 8 Sept. 
liam, lord Parr of Horton, and cousin of j 1585). After Gren villous departure the colony 
Catherine Parr, Henry VTII's last queen J was moved to Roanoke, and there they re- 
(Collins, 1768, iii. 164). His seal bore the , mained, exploring the country north and 
arms of Lane of Horton (Cal. State Papers, , south. Quarrels, however, broke out with 
Ireland, 15 March 1598-9), and the arms as- j the natives, and provisions ran short. Aa 
signed him by Burke quarter these with those , the next year advanced the colonists were 
of Maud Parr (General Armoury). In his , in great straits, and when Sir Francis Drake 
correspondence he speaks of nephews Wil- . [q. v.] came on the coast in June he yielded 
liam and Robert Lane (Cal. State Papers, Ire- to their prayers, and brought them all home 
land, 26 Dec. 1592, 7 June 1595), of a kinsman, to Portsmouth, 28 July 1586. It is not im- 
John Durrant (ib.), and is associated with a ' probable that potatoes and tobacco were first 
Mr. Feilding (#. 23 June 1698), all of whom j Drought into England at this time by Lane 
appear in the Lane pedigree (Blore, Hist. j and his companions ; but there is no direct 
and Antig. of Rutlandshire, p. 169). "Wil- . evidence of it. 

liam Feilding married Dorothy, a daughter , During 1587 and 1588 Lane was employed 
of Sir Ralph Lane of Horton, and John Dur- in carrying out measures for the defence of 
rant was the husband of Catherine, her first the coast. When his proposal to erect ' sconces 
cousin. or ramparts along the whole line of coast 

Lane would seem to have been early en- accessible to an enemy ' was rejected (ib, 
ffaged in maritime adventure, and in 1571 Dom. 30 April 1587), he requested that he 
he had a commission from the queen to search , might have the title of colonel, ' for viewing^ 
certain Breton ships reputed to be laden with and ordering the trained forces ' (ib. 6 Dec. 
unlawful goods (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1587). He was afterwards appointed to 
21 Aug.) He corresponded continually with j 'assist in the defence of the coast of Nor- 
Burghley, frequently suggesting schemes for , folk ' (ib. 30 April 1588), when he seems to 



have acted as muster- master (ib. 17 Sept., 
1 Oct. 1588), in which capacity he also acted 
in the expedition to the coast of Portugal 
under Drake and Norreys in 1589 (ib. 27 July, 



the advantage of the public sendee (e.g. ib. 
4 June 1572, 16 Aug. 1579, 30 April 1587) 
and for his own emolument. In 1579he was 
meditating an expedition to the coast of Mo- 
rocco (ib. 16 Aug.), and in 1584 he wrote | 7 Sept. 1589). In the following year fie 
that ' he had prepared seven ships at his own j served in the expedition to the coast of Por- 
charges, and proposed to do some exploit on tugal under Hawkyns (ib. 4 Dec. 1590), and 
the coast of Spain/ for the furtherance of j in January 1591-2 was appointed ' muster- 
which he requested to have ' the queen's master of the garrisons in Ireland.' During 
commission and the title of " general of the the rebellion there in the north in 1593- 
adventurers " ' (ib. 25 Dec.) In 1583 he was i 1594 he served actively with the army, was 
sent to Ireland to make some fortifications , specially commended for his conduct in a 
(ib. Ireland, 8 Jan. 1582-3), and continued [ skirmish near Tulsk in Roscommon (ib. Ire- 



Lane 



78 



Lane 



land, 23 June 1593), and again in the spring 
of 1594, when he was dangerously wounded. 
On 15 Oct. 1593 he was knighted by the lord 
deputy, Sir William Fitz William [q. v.] 

In September 1594 Lane applied to Burgh- 
ley for the reversion of a pension of 10s. a 
day (ib. 24 Sept.) ; and again, a few months 
later, for ' the office of chief bell-ringer in 
Ireland, paying a red rose in the name of 
rent/ or ' the surveyorship of parish clerks in 
Ireland ; ' ' a base place/ he added/ with some- 
thing, which is better than greater employ- 
ment with nothing ' (ib. 16 Feb. 1594-5). 
Apparently about this time he was appointed 
keeper of Southsea Castle at Portsmouth, 
the reversion of which office was afterwards 
granted to his nephew, Robert Lane (Cal. 
State Paper 8, Dom. 29 June 1599). If it was 
not a sinecure Lane performed its duties by 
deputy, for from 1595 he resided in Dublin 
in the exercise of his office of muster-master. 
He died in October 1603, and was buried in 
St. Patrick's Church on the 28th (funeral 
entry, Ulster's Office). As during life he was 
an inveterate beggar, not only for himself, 



from the trial, and effected their purpose by 
a bill of attainder. He was also appointed 
counsel for Mr. Justice Berkley in October 
1641, and for the twelve imprisoned bishops 
in January 1641-2. He joined the king at 
Oxford, and was knighted there on 4 Jan. 
1643-4 (Metcalfe, Book of Knights,*. 201\ 
He was made lord chief baron on 25 Jan. fol- 
lowing, having been invested with the Ser- 
jeant's coif two days before, and being created 
D.C.L. by the university six days afterwards. 
He acted as one of the commissioners on the 
part of the king in treating for an accommo- 
dation at Uxbridge in January 1645, and 
joined the other lawyers in resisting the 
demand of the parliament for the sole control 
of the militia. On the ensuing 30 Aug. he 
was appointed lord keeper. Oxford surren- 
dered to Fairfax on 24 June 1646, under 
articles in which Lane was the principal 
party in the king's behalf. He is said to 
have struggled hard to insert an article in 
the capitulation that he should have leave to 
carry away with him the great seal, together 
with the seals of the other courts of justice 



but for his nephews, and as no mention ap- and the sword of state. On 8 Feb. 1649 he 
pears of either wife or child, it would seem pro- had a grant of arms from Charles H, which 
bable that he was unmarried. Sir Parr Lane, 
whose name frequently appears in the ' State I 
Papers' of the time of James I, was a nephew. ! 
Captain George Lane, the father of Sir Ri- 
chard Lane of Tulsk, bart., and grandfather ] 
of George Lane, first viscount Lanesborough, 
seems to have belonged to a different family. ' 

[Calendars of State Papers, Dom., Ireland, and , 
Colonial ; Hakluyt's Principal Navigations, iii. | 
251 ; Smith's Hist, of Virginia ; notes kindly j 
furnished by Mr. Arthur Vicars.] J. K. L. 



LANE, Sir RICHARD (1584-1650), lord 
keeper, baptised at Harpole, Northampton- 
shire, on 12 Nov. 1584, was son of Richard 
Lane of Courteenhall, near Northampton, by 
Elizabeth, daughter of Clement Vincent of 
Harpole (Baker, Northamptonshire, i. 181). 
He was called to the bar from the Middle 
Temple, and practised in the court of ex- 
chequer, where he was known as a sound 
lawyer. In 1615 he was chosen counsel for, 
or deputy-recorder of Northampton. He was 
elected reader to his inn in Lent 1630, and 
was treasurer in 1637. In September 1634 
he was appointed attorney-general to the 
Prince of Wales (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1634^5, p. 221), and in May 1638 was nomi- 
nated by Henry, earl of Holland, his deputy 
in Forest Courts (ib. 1637-8, p. 484). When 
Strafford was impeached by the House of 
Commons in 1641, Lane conducted his de- 
fence with so much ability, especially in the 
legal argument, that the commons desisted 



is preserved in the "William Salt Library 
at Stafford (Athenceum, 2 April 1892, p. 
440). 

Lane continued nominally lord keeper 
during the remainder of the king's life, and 
his patent was renewed by Charles II. He 
followed the latter into exile, arriving at 
St. Malo in March 1650 in a weak state of 
health. Thence he wrote to the king, asking 
him to appoint his son Richard one of the 
grooms of his bedchamber (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1650, pp. 612, 613). He was subse- 
quently removed to Jersey, where he died in 
April 1650 (ib. pp. 110-11 ; Administration 
Act Book, P. C. C., 1651, f. 54). His widow 
Margaret, who was apparently aunt to the 
poet Thomas Randolph (1605-1635) [q. v.], 
survived until 22 April 1669, and was buried 
at Kingsthorpe, Northamptonshire (BiJCBR, 
i. 42). Thomas Randolph addressea verses 
both to Lane and his wife ( Works, ed. Haz- 
litt, i. 59, ii. 565-8). 

According to Wood (Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, 
ii. 63-4), Lane on going to Oxford entrusted 
his chambers, library, and goods to his inti- 
mate friend Bulstrode Whitelocke, who when 
they were applied for by the lord keeper's son 
denied all knowledge of the father. White- 
locke is known to have obtained from the 
parliament a few of Lane's books and manu- 
scripts (Peck, Desiderata Curiosa, ii. 366). 

Lane was author of ' Reports in the Court 
of Exchequer from 1605 to 1612/ fol., Lon- 
don, 1657 ; another edition, with notes and 



Lane 



79 



Lane 



a life of Lane by C. F. Morrell, 8vo, London, 
1884. ! 

His portrait was painted in 1646 by Daniel 
Mytens, and was in 1866 in the possession of 
Mr. G. N. W. Heneage. I 

[Nicholas Papers (Camd.Soc.); Cal. Clarendon I 
State Papers; Nalson's Collect, of Affairs of State , 
(1683), ii. 10, 153, 499, 812; Foss's Judges; 
Cobbett and Howell's State Trials, iii. 1472; I 
Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors, ii. 608; ' 
Wallace's Reporters, p. 237; Dugdale's Origines; ' 
Cat. of the first special Exhibition of National 
Portraits, South Kensington, No. 724.] G. G. I 

LANE,RICHARDJAMES(1800-1872), I 
line-engraver and lithographer, elder brother ' 
of Edward William Lane [a. v.], and second , 
son of the Rev. Theophilus Lane, LL.D., pre- | 
bendary of Hereford, was born at Berkeley 
Castle, 16 Feb. 1800. His mother was a niece ' 
of Gainsborough the painter. From his child- ' 
hood he showed a preference for mechanical 
and artistic work rather than scholarship, i 
and at the age of sixteen he was articled to 
Charles Heath the line-engraver. In 1824 
his prints were alreadv attracting notice, and ' 
in 1827, when he produced an admirable en- I 
graving of Sir Thomas Lawrence's ' Red , 
Riding Hood/ he was elected an associate- | 
engraver of the Royal Academy, although he . 
had so far shown only a single print at their 
exhibitions. In later years, when he had no , 
personal interest to serve, he was largely in- i 
strumental in obtaining, in 1865, the ad- ! 
mission of engravers to the honour of full ; 
academician, for which they were previously I 
not eligible. His peculiar delicacy and tender- ' 
ness of touch were conspicuous in his pencil | 
and chalk sketches, of which he executed a , 
large number, representing most of the best- : 
known people of the day. In 1829 he drew 
his well-known portrait of the queen, then 
Princess Victoria, aged ten years, and he I 
afterwards executed portraits in pencil or 
chalk of the queen and most of the royal 
family at various ages, besides prints after 
Winterhalter's portraits. 

Meanwhile he had turned from engraving 
to lithography, then a newly discovered art, 
in which ne attained a delicacy and re- 
finement which have never been surpassed. 
Among the best examples of this branch of 
his work are the delightful ' Sketches from 
Gainsborough/ in which he reproduced his 
great-uncle '8 charm with marvellous fidelity ; 
and the scarcely less admirable series of 
copies of Sir Thomas Lawrence's portraits of ] 
George I Vs cycle, which are almost deceptive | 
in their imitative skill. He also lithographed 
several hundred pictures of the leading artists 
of the day, especially those of Leslie, Land- i 
seer, Richmond, and his own special friend 



Chalon, and no less than sixty-seven of his 
lithographs were exhibited at the Academy. 
The total of his prints reached the number 
of 1,046. He also tried his hand at sculpture 
with such success as to attract the admiration 
of Chantrey, his most important work in this 
branch of art being a lite-size seated statue 
of his brother, Edward Lane, in Egyptian 
dress. In 1837 he was appointed lithographer 
to the queen, and in 1840 to the prince con- 
sort. In 1864, when he had almost given 
up lithography, he became director of the 
etching class in the science and art depart- 
ment at South Kensington, and retained the 
post almost till his death, which took place 
on 21 Nov. 1872. 

Lane married, 10 Nov. 1825, Sophia Hodges, 
by whom he had two sons (who predeceased 
him) : and three daughters. 

Lane's pre-eminent gifts were a sensitive 
sympathy in interpretation of his subjects, and 
a delicacy and precision of touch, in which, 
as a lithographer, he had no rival. In spite 
of the ' woolliness ' of the material his fine 
pencil gave a sharpness and brilliancy to his 
lithographs, which were carried as far in 
elaboration as a finished line-engraving, for 
which, indeed, at first sight, they might 
almost be mistaken. Personally, his social 
qualities were of an unusual order ; his grace- 
ful courtesy of the old school, his powers of 
recitation and marvellous memory, and his 
fine tenor voice contributed to his popularity. 
Besides his own artistic circle he was espe- 
cially at home among the leaders of the opera 
and theatre, and among his intimate friends 
were Charles Kemble ("whose * Readings from 
Shakspeare ' he edited in 3 vols, in 1870), 
Macready, Fechter, Malibran, and her bril- 
liant operatic contemporaries. His literary 
work was limited to some sketches of ' Life 
at the Water-cure,' 1846, which went to 
three editions. 

[Magazine of Art, 188 1 , pp. 431-2 ; Athenaenm, 
29 Nov. 1872 ; personal knowledge.] S. L.-P. 

LANE,SAMUEL (1780-1869), portrait- 
painter, son of Samuel and Elizaoeth Lane, 
was born at King's Lynn on 26 July 1780. In 
consequence of an accident which he met with 
in childhood he became deaf and partially 
dumb. He studied under Joseph Farington 
[q. v.], R.A., and afterwards under Sir Thomas 
Lawrence, who employed him as one of his 
chief assistants. Lane first exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1804, and, securing a large 
practice, was a constant contributor for more 
than fifty years, sending in all 217 works ; 
these included portraits of Lord George Ben- 
tinck (for the Lynn guildhall); Lord de 
Saumarez (for the United Service Club) j Sir 



Lane 



80 



Lane 



George Pollock and Sir John Malcolm (for the 
Oriental Club); Charles, fifth duke of Rich- 
mond ; C. J. Blomfield, bishop of London ; 
Thomas Clarkson (for the Wisbech town- 
hall) ; Sir Philip P. V. Broke, bart. (for the 
East Suffolk Hospital) ; T. W. Coke, M.P., 
afterwards Earl of Leicester (for the Norwich 
Corn Exchange) ; Luke Hansard (for the 
Stationers' Company) ; Thomas Telford, Ed- 
mond Wodehouse,M.P., and other prominent 
persons. Lane owed his success to the matter- 
of-fact truthfulness of his likenesses, which 
in other respects have little merit ; many of 
them have been well engraved by C. Turner, 
S. W. Reynolds, W. Ward, and others. 
Lane resided in London (at 60 Greek Street, 
Soho) until 1853, and then retired to Ipswich, 
whence he sent his last contribution to the 
Academy in 1857. He died at Ipswich on 
29 July 1859. 

[Redgrave s Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880 ; Seguier s Diet, of Painters ; 
Royal Academy Catalogues.] F. M. O'D. 

LANE, THEODORE (1800-1828), pain- 
ter, is said to have been born at Isle worth, 
Middlesex, in 1800, but the statement is not 
confirmed by the parish register. His father, 
a native of Worcester, was a drawing-master 
in straitened circumstances, and he received 
very little education. At the age of fourteen 
he was apprenticed to J. Barrow of Weston 
Place, St. Pancras, an artist and colourer of 
prints, who assisted him in his studies. Lane 
nrst came into notice as a painter of water- 
colour portraits and miniatures, and he ex- 
hibited works of that class at the Royal 
Academy in 1819, 1820, and 1826. But his 
talent was for humorous subjects, and a series 
of thirty-six designs by him, entitled * The 
Life of an Actor/ with letterpress by Pierce 
Egan, was published in 1825. Lane etched 
some clever prints of sporting and social life, 
such as ' Masquerade at the Argyll Rooms/ 
1 Scientific Pursuits, or Hobby Horse Races 
to the Temple of Fame/ and ' A Trip to 
Ascot Races/ a series of scenes on the road 
from Hyde Park Corner to the heath, which 
he dedicated to the king, 1827. He also il- 
lustrated with etchings and woodcuts 'A 
Complete Panorama of the Sporting World/ 
and P. Egan's ' Anecdotes of the Turf/ 1827. 
About 1825 Lane took up oil-painting, and, 
though left-handed, with the help of Alex- 
ander Fraser, R.S.A., rapidly attained to 
great proficiency. In 1827 he sent to the 
Academy ' The Christmas Present/ and to 
the British Institution ' An Hour before the 
Duel.' In 1828 his ' Disturbed by the Night- 
mare ' was exhibited at the Academy, ' Read- 
ing the Fifth Act of the Manuscript ' at the 



British Institution, and ' The Enthusiast ' at 
the Suffolk Street Gallery. These attracted 
much attention bv their humorous treatment 
and delicate finish, and Lane had apparently 
a very successful career before him, when his 
life was terminated by an accident. While 
waiting for a friend at the horse repository 
in Gray's Inn Road he by mistake stepped 
upon a skylight, and, falling on the pavement 
below, was killed on the spot, 21 May 1828. 
He was buried in Old St. Pancras church- 
yard. Lane left a widow and three children, 
for whose benefit his best-known work, ' The 
Enthusiast/ representing a gouty angler fish- 
ing in a tub of water, was engraved by R. 
Graves; it was subsequently purchased by 
Mr. Vernon, and engraved by H. Beckwitn 
for the ' Art Journal/ 1850 ; it is now in the 
National Gallery. His picture entitled ' Ma- 
thematical Abstraction/ which he left un- 
finished, was completed by his friend Fraser, 
and purchased by Lord North wick; it has 
been engraved by R. Graves. In 1831 Pierce 
Egan published 'The Show Folks/ illustrated 
with woodcuts designed by Lane, and ac- 
companied by a memoir of him, which was 
dedicated to the president of the Royal Aca- 
demy. 

[P. Egan's Show Folks, 1831 ; Redgrave's Diet, 
of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1828, i. 572 ; Art Journal, 1850.] 

F. M. O'D. 

LANE, THOMAS (fl. 1695), civilian, 
third son of Francis Lane of Glendon, North- 
amptonshire, by his wife Mary, born Bernard, 
was admitted at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1674, graduated B.A. 1677, entered 
Christ Church as a commoner in the same 
year, and was incorporated B.A. at Oxford 
10 Oct. 1678. Through ' the endeavours of 
Mr. William Bernard of Merton Coll.' he 
was, after a wearisome dispute between the 
fellows and the warden, who claimed an abso- 
lute veto, elected and admitted probationer- 
fellow of that house in 1680, and graduated 
M.A. December 1688 and LL.D. 8 July 1686. 
In March 1684 his name occurs as one of the 
signatories of a report drawn up with a view 
to the better management of the Ashmolean 
Museum (Wood, Athena, ed. Bliss, xcviii n.) 
In January 1687 he was reported to have 
turned papist, and went out with Francis 
Taafe, third earl of Carlingford [q. v.], in the 
embassy despatched to Hungary to De pre- 
sent at the coronation of Joseph I. In the 
following year, during his tenure of office as 
bursar, he suddenly left Merton, with the 
intention of travelling and without rendering 
his account, carrying with him a consider- 
able sum belonging to the college. The sub- 



Lane 



81 



Laneham 



warden followed him, and seems to have re- 
covered the money (Bkoduck, Mem*, of 
Merton, p. 296). In 1689 he commanded a 
troop in James ITs army in Ireland, was 
wounded and taken prisoner at the Boyne, 
and remained in confinement at Dublin until 
1690. About Easter in either that or the 
following year he returned to Morton, and 
< esteemed that place a comfortable harbour 
of which before, Dy too much ease and plenty, 
he was weary and sick/ In 1695 he was 
practising as an advocate in Doctors' Com- 
mons (Cootb, English Civilians, p. 102), but 
no further mention of him can be traced. 

Lane is said by Wood to have had a hand 
in the ( English Atlas printed at the Theater, 
Oxford, for Moses Pitt/ 1680-4, 5 vols. imp. 
fol. William Nicolson [q. v.], afterwards 
archbishop of Cashel, was the chief literary 
director or this colossal work. Lane's name 
does not appear in connection with it, but 
he may well have been one of the nume- 
rous minor collaborators. He is also said to 
have translated into English Nepos's ' Life 
of Epaminondas/ Oxford, 1684, 8vo, in addi- 
tion to which, remarks Wood, ' he hath writ- 
ten certain matters, but whether he'll own 
them you may enquire of him.' 

[Wood's Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 480 ; 
Wood's Fasti Oxon. ii. 368; Bridges's Northamp- 
tonshire, ed. Whalley, ii. 65 ; Graduati Cantabr.] 

T. 8. 

LANE, WILLIAM (1746-1819"), por- 
trait draughtsman, was born in 1746, and 
commenced his career as an engraver of £ems 
in the manner of the antique, exhibiting 
works of that class at the Koyal Academy 
from 1778 to 1789. Between 1788 and 1792 
he engraved a few small copperplates, in- 
cluding portraits of Mrs. Abington and the 
Duke ana Duchess of Rutland after Cosway, 
and Charles James Fox after Reynolds. In 
1785 Lane exhibited some crayon portraits, 
and later became a fashionable artist in that 
style ; his drawings were slightly executed 
in hard coloured chalks, and admired for 
their accuracy as likenesses. He was pa- 
tronised by the prince regent and many of 
the nobility, and from 1797 to 1816 was a 
large contributor to the exhibitions. A few 
of Lane's works have been engraved; in 
1816 was engraved his portrait of Sir James 
Edward Smith, M.D., F.R.S., by Frederick 
Christian Lewis [q. v.] He died at his house 
in the Hammersmith Road, London, 4 Jan. 
1819. 

Anna Louisa Lane, who was Lane's wife 
or sister, sent miniatures to the Academy in 
1778, 1781, and 1782. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Gent. Mag. 1819, 
i. 181 ; Royal Acad. Catalogues.] F. M. O'D. 

VOL. XXXH. 



LANEHAM, ROBERT (/. 1676), 
writer on the Kenil worth festivities of 1575, 
was a native of Nottinghamshire. He at- 
tended successively St. Antholin's and St. 
Paul's schools in London, and apparently 
reached the fifth form at the latter. He read 
^Esop and Terence and began Virgil. On 
leaving school he was apprenticed to a 
mercer of London named Bomsted, and in 
due course began business on his own account. 
He travelled abroad for the purposes of trade, 
especially in France and Flanders, and his 
travels were sufficiently extensive to enable 
him to become an efficient linguist in Spanish 
and ' Latin ' (i.e. probably Italian), as well as 
in French and Dutch. The Earl of Leicester, 
attracted by his linguistic faculty, seems to 
have taken him into his service, and helped 
him and his father to secure a patent for sup- 

S lying the royal mews with beans. Finally, 
e was appointed door-keeper of the council 
chamber, and appears to have accompanied 
the court on its periodical migrations. He 
was thus present at the great entertainment 
given by Leicester to Queen Elizabeth from 
9 to 27 July 1575, and wrote a spirited descrip- 
tion of the festivities in the form of a letter to 
his 'good friend, Master Humphrey Martin/ 
another mercer of London. The letter, which 
was dated ' at Worcester 20 Aug. 1576/ was 
published without name or place with the title 
( A Letter: whearin part ofthe entertainment 
untoo the Queens Majesty at Killingwoorth 
Castle, in Warwik Sh'eer in this Soomerz 
Progress, 1576, iz. signified : from a freend 
officer attendant in the Coourt (Ro. La. of 
the coounty Nosingham untoo hiz freend a 
citizen and merchaunt of London. 1 At the 
close Laneham describes himself as ' mercer, 
merchant, aventurer, clerk of the council 
chamber door, and also keeper of the same.* 
The accounts of the last week's festivities 
are somewhat scanty. Copies are in the 
British Museum and Bodleian Libraries. 
Laneham writes with much spirit, and his 
spelling is quaint and unconventional. To- 
wards the close of the tract hegives an in- 
teresting account of himself. He claims to 
be a good dancer and singer, and an expert 
musician with the guitar, cithern, and vir- 
ginals. Stories he delights in, especially 
when they are ancient and rare, and a very 
valuable part of his ' Letter* deals with the 
ballads and romances in the library of his 
friend Captain Cox of Coventry [q. v.] He 
was a lover of sack and sugar, and refers 
jovially to his rubicund nose and complexion. 
The work was reissued at Warwick in 1784, 
and was reprinted in Nichols's ' Progresses of 
Queen Elizabeth.' Sir Walter Scott quoted 
from it in his novel of ' Kenilworth ' (1821), 



Laney 



82 



Laney 



and introduces Laneham, with his pert man- 
ner and sense of official consequence. The 
popularity thus given to Laneham and his 
literary work led to the republication of the 
'Letter' in London in 1821. Subsequent 
reprints are to be found in George Adlard's 
1 Amye Robsart' (1870), in the Rev. E. H. 
Knowles's 'Kenilworth Castle ' (1871), and 
in the publications of the Ballad Society (ed. 
Furnivall), 1871. 

' Old Lanam,' who may be identical with 
Laneham, is mentioned as lashing the puritan 
pamphleteers with ' his rimes ' in * Rhythmes 
against Martin Marre Prelate* (1589 P). One 
John Lanham was a player in the Earl of 
Leicester 8 company in 1674, and on 15 May 
1689-90 he and another actor, described as 
two of the queen's players, received payment 
for producing two interludes at court. 

[Laneham'8 Letter, ed. Furnivall; Ballad 
Society, 1871 ; Nichols's Progresses of Queen 
Elisabeth, i. 420 sq.] S. L. 

LANEY, BENJAMIN (1591-1676), 
bishop successively of Peterborough, Lincoln, 
and Ely, born at Ipswich in 1591, was the 
fourth and youngest son of John Laney, re- 
corder of that town (who died in 1633, and 
was buried in St. Mary's Church). His 
mother, Mary, daughter of John Poley of 
Badley, was granddaughter of Lord Thomas 
Wentworth of Nettlested. He was educated 
at Christ's College, Cambridge, where he 
matriculated on 7 July 1608, and graduated 
BA. in 1611, standing twentieth in the list 
of honours. He subsequently migrated to 
Pembroke Hall, where he was admitted MA. 
in 1615, was elected to a fellowship on Smart's 
foundation on 19 Nov. 1616, and to a founda- 
tion fellowship on 16 Oct. 1618. His subse- 
quent degrees were B.D. 1622, D.D. 1630. He 
was incorporated MA. of Oxford on 15 July 
1617. In 1625 he obtained leave of absence 
from his college for two years for the purpose 
of foreign travel. The secretary of state issued 
an order that all the profits of his fellowship 
were to be reserved to him during his absence, 
which suggests that his journey was con- 
nected with the king's service. On 25 Dec. 
1630 he succeeded Dr. Jerome Beale as master 
of Pembroke Hall; and in 1632-3 served 
the office of vice-chancellor (Baker, Hist . of 
St. John's College, Cambridge, ed. Mayor, p. 
214). Richard Crashaw [a. v.], then a Pem- 
broke man, dedicated the nrst edition of his 
'Epigrammata Sacra' to him in an epistle 
botn in prose and verse, in which he cele- 
brates Laney's restoration of the choral ser- 
vice and a surpliced choir in the college 
chapel, the dignified adornment of the altar, 
ana the general care of the fabric (Crashaw, 
Works, ed. Grosart, ii. 7-16). 



Laney became chaplain first to Richard 
Neile [q. vA bishop of Winchester, and after- 
wards to Charles I. By Neile he was ap- 
pointed to the rectory of Buriton with Pe- 
tersfield, Hampshire, and on 31 July 1631 to 
a prebendal stall in Winchester Cathedral, 
which on 19 June 1639 he exchanged for 
one at Westminster, on the kind's nomina- 
tion. As a devoted royalist and high church- 
man, Laney on the outbreak of the civil wars 
became the object of fierce hostility to the 
puritan party. He was denounced by Prynne 
as ' one of the professed Arminians, Laud's 
creatures to prosecute his designs in the uni- 
versity of Cambridge' (Canterburies Dooms, 
p. 177), who, when one Adams was brought 
before the authorities for preaching in favour 
of confession to a priest, had united with the 
majority of the doctors in acquitting him 
(ib. p. 193). When the parliament exercised 
supreme power he was deprived of all his 
preferments, his rectory of Buriton being 
sequestered ' to the use of one Robert Harris, 
a godly and orthodox divine, and member 
of the Assembly of Ministers' (Baker MSS. 
xxvii. 439). In March 1643-4 he was ejected 
from his mastership, by a warrant from the 
Earl of Manchester, ' for opposing the pro- 
ceedings of the Parliament and other scan- 
dalous acts.' In 1644 he was one of the 
episcopalian divines chosen, together with 
Sneldon, Hammond, and others, to argue the 
question of church government against non- 
conformist divines before the Scotch commis- 
sioners, but was refused a hearing (Fuller, 
Church Hist vi. 290). On his ejection from 
Cambridge he attached himself to the person 
of Charles I, and in February 1646 attended 
him as chaplain at the fruitless negotiation 
with the heads of the presbyterian party at 
Uxbridge. He served Charles II in the same 
capacity during his exile ( in a most dutiful 
manner, and suffered great calamities.' At 
the Restoration he at once recovered his 
mastership and other preferments. Kennett 
speaks of him as having ' made a great bustle 
in the crowd of aspiring men at Cambridge' 
(Register, p. 376). On 80 July 1660 he was 
appointed dean of Rochester, and was con- 
secrated in Henry VU's Chapel on 2 Dec. 
to the see of Peterborough. The see was 
apoor one, and he was allowed to hold his 
Westminster stall and his mastership in com- 
mendam, and resided chiefly in his prebendal 
house. High churchman as he was, Laney 
treated the nonconformists of his diocese with 
much leniency, in his own words ( looking 
through his Angers at them. 9 He enforced 
the Bartholomew Act with much reluctance, 
saying to his clergy at his primary visitation, 
'as though he would wipe his hands of 



Laney 



83 



Lanfranc 



it/ 'not I, but the law' (#. pp. 876, 804, 
818, 815 ; Kbitnbtt, Zan*2. Af& 986). He 
was a member of the Savoy conference, but 
he was not frequent in his attendance, and 
spoke seldom (Baxter, Life apud Calamt, 
L 173). On the death of Bishop Sanderson 
[q. v.] in 1663, he was translated on 10 March 
to Lincoln, having, as a parting gift to Peter- 
borough, devoted 100/. towards the repair of 
one of the great arches of the west front of 
the cathedral, 'which was fallen down in 
the late times ' (Patrick apud Guxton, Hi$t . 
of Peterborough). At Lincoln, where he re- 
mained five years, he pursued the same system 
of moderation towards the nonconforming 
clergy as at Peterborough, and allowed a 
nonconformist to preach publicly very near 
his palace for some years (Calamt, Memorial, 
pp.d2,94,496). Calamy ill-naturedly suggests 
that this line of conduct was adopted to spite 
the government through ' discontent because 
he had not a better Dishoprick' (t&. p. 94). 
On the death of Bishop Wren in 1667 he 




who spent the chief of his fortune in works 
of piety, charity, and munificence,' He re- 
built the greater part of Ely Palace, which 
had suffered greatly at the hands of the puri- 
tans. By his will he bequeathed 600*. to the 
rebuilding of St. Paul's, the like sum to the 
erection of public schools at Cambridge, or 
failing that, to the improvement of the fel- 
lowships at Pembroke, and other sums to i 
putting out poor children in Ely and Soham 
as apprentices. The legacies to his relatives 
were small, as he had helped them adequately 
in his lifetime (Baker M8S. zjex. 381). Ue 
was unmarried. He was buried in the south 
aisle of the presbytery of Ely Cathedral, under 
a monument for which he left the money. 
There is a portrait of him in the master's 
lodge at Charterhouse. Laney's only contri- 
bution to literature, with the exception of 
sermons, was ' Observations ' upon a letter of 
Hoboes of Malmesbury, * about Liberty and 
Necessity/ published m 1677 anonymously 
after his death; it shows acuteness and 
learning. Most of his printed sermons were 
preached before the king at Whitehall, and 
were published by command, five of these 
were issued in a collected shape during his life- 
tra, 1668-9, which, Canon Overton writes, 
are * especially worthy of notice, as giving a 
complete compendium of church teaching as 
applied to the particular errors of the times, 
showing a firm grasp and bold elucidation 
of church principles. 'There is a raciness 
about them which reminds one of South, 
and a quaintness which is not unlike that of 



Bishop Andrewes' (Lincoln Diocesan Maga- 
zine, iv. 214). 

[Lansdowne MS. 986, pp. 27, 180; Baker 
MSS. xxvii. 439, xxx. 381 ; Clarke's Ipswich, 
p. 385 ; Prynne's Canterburies Doome, pp. 177, 
193, 396 ; Crashaw's Works by Grosart, it 7-16 ; 
Heylyns Laud, p. 55 ; Woods Life and Times 
(Oxf. Hist. 80c), ii. 26, 106, 297; Calamy's 
Account, pp. 92, 94 ; Neals Puritans, ii. 251 ; 
Patrick's Ufe t p. 167 ; Fuller's Church Hist vi. 
290; Kennett's Register, pp. 37, 222, 376, 407, 
804, 813, 815; Bakers Hist, of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, ed. Mayor, p. 214.] E. V. 

LANFRANC (1005 P-1089), archbishop 
of Canterbury, born about 1006 (Mabillojt), 
was son of Hanbald and Roza, citizens of 
Pavia, of senatorial rank. Hanbald, who 
was a lawyer, held office in the civic magis- 
tracy. ^ From early youth Lanfranc was edu- 
cated in all the secular learning of the time, 
and seems to have had a knowledge of Greek. 
Specially applying himself to the study of 
law he became so skilful a pleader that while 
he was a young man the older advocates of 
the city were worsted by his knowledge and 
eloquence, and his opinions were adopted by 
doctors and judges. His father died in his 
son's youth, and instead of succeeding to 
Hanbald 1 s office and dignity he left the city, 
bent on devoting himself to learning. He 
went to France, where he gathered some 
scholars round him, and hearing that there 
was great lack of learning in Normandy, and 
that he might therefore expect to gain wealth 
and honour there, he moved to Avranches, 
where he set up a school in 1039. He soon 
became famous as a teacher, and many 
scholars resorted to him. Among them was 
one whom he named Paul, afterwards abbot 
of St. Albans, one of his relations, and, ac- 
cording to tradition, his son ( Vitm Abbatum, 
L 52). Religion gained power over him, and 
he determined to become a monk in the 
poorest and most despised monastery that 
he could find. He left Avranches secretly, 
taking Paul with him. As he journeyed to- 
wards Rouen, in the forest of Ouche, he fell 
among thieves, who robbed, stripped, and 
bouna him to a tree, leaving him witn his cap 
tilted over his eyes. In the night he wished 
to say the appointed office, but found himself 
unable to repeat it. Struck by the contrast 
between the time which he had devoted to 
secular learning and his ignorance of divine 
things, he renewed his vow of self-dedication* 
In the morning some passers-by released him, 
and in answer to his inquiry alter a poor and 
despised monastery directed him to tne house 
which Herlwin was building at Bee. Herl- 
win, the founder and abbot, gladly received 
him as a member of the convent, and found 

62 



Lanfranc 



8 4 



Lanfranc 



his knowledge of affairs very useful. Lan- 
franc applied himself to the study of the 
scriptures. Ignorant as the abhot was of 
worldly learning, for he had passed his life 
as a warrior, Lanfranc listened with admi- 
ration to his expositions of the Bible, and 
obeyed him and the prior implicitly in all 
things. Being dissatisfied with the character 
of his fellow-monks, and knowing that some 
of them envied him, for the abbot treated 
him with respect and affection, he formed 
the design of becoming a hermit. Herlwin 
dissuaded him, and in or about 1045 appointed 
him prior. He opened a school in the monas- 
tery, which quickly became famous, and 
scholars flocked to him from France, Gas- 
cony, Brittany, Flanders, Germany, and 
Italy, some of them clerks, and others young 
men of the highest rank. About 1049 he 
was sent with three monks to St. Evroul, 
which was for a short time in the possession 
of the convent of Bee ; but he soon returned 
to Bee. Among his scholars were Ernost 
and Gundulf, both afterwards bishops of 
Rochester ; Guitmund, bishop of Avranches ; 
William de Bona Anima, archbishop of 
Rouen ; and Anselm of Badagio, afterwards 
Pope Alexander II. Anselm [q. v.], his suc- 
cessor at Canterbury, joined the convent 
while he was prior. As the number of his 
scholars increased the monastery became too 
small for them, and the place being un- 
healthy he persuaded Herlwin about 1058 to 
remove the convent and erect new buildings 
on another site in the neighbourhood. 

Meanwhile the Duke William had heard 
of his renown, had made him his counsellor, 
and trusted him in all matters. However, 
probably in 1049, he incurred the duke's dis- 
pleasure by opposing, on the ground of con- 
sanguinity, his proposed marriage with Ma- 
tilda, lie had enemies, and mischief was 
made. The duke sent an order that he was 
at once to leave his dominions. Lanfranc 
left Bee with one servant, and on a lame 
horse, the best which the house could give 
him. On his way he met William, and said 
pleasantly that he was obeying his command 
as well as he could, and would obey it better 
if the duke would rive him a better horse. 
William was pleased with his spirit, entered 
into conversation, and was reconciled to him, 
Lanfranc promising" to advocate the duke's 
cause at Borne, whither he was going to at- 
tend the council held in May 1050. At this 
council the opinions of Berengar of Tours on 
the sacrament of the altar were discussed. 
Though Lanfranc had been one of Berengar's 
friends he differed from him on this subject, 
holding that by divine operation through the 
ministry of the priest a change was wrought 



in the essence of the elements, which was 
converted into the essence of the Lord's body, 
the sensible qualities of the bread and wine 
still remaining (Lcmfranci Opera, i. 17, ii. 
180), while Berengar maintained the doctrine 
of John Scotus or Erigena [q. v.] Berengar 
wrote in a somewhat contemptuous strain 
to Lanfranc on their difference. His letter 
was brought to Bee while Lanfranc was at 
Borne ; Lanfranc's friends sent it on to him, 
and talked freely of the heresy which it 
contained. The news was carried to Rome 
that Berengar had written heresy to Lan- 
franc, and, according to Lanfranc's account 
of the matter, he became as much an object 
of suspicion as Berengar. He produced the 
letter ; it was read before the council, and 
Berengar was at once condemned on the 
ground of its contents. Then, at the bidding 
of Pope Leo IX, Lanfranc, to exculpate him- 
self, expounded his own belief; his speech 
was approved by all, and he became the 
champion of the catholic doctrine. At the 
council of Vercelli held in September he 
again, at the pope's request, maintained the 
orthodox cause. In 1055 he confuted Be- 
rengar at the council of Tours, and in 1059 
again overcame him in the Lateran council 
held by Pope Nicolas II. Berengar acknow- 
ledged his error, but did not desist from 
teaching it, and Lanfranc at a later date 
wrote his book, *De Corpore et Sanguine 
Domini/ against him ; it was received with 
universal admiration. At the Lateran council 
he obtained the papal dispensation for the 
duke's marriage, performed six years before. 
In June 1066 he unwillingly yielded to Wil- 
liam's solicitations, left Bee, and was in- 
stalled abbot of the duke's new monastery, 
St. Stephen's, at Caen. 

Though Lanfranc's name is not mentioned 
in connection with the duke's negotiations 
with Alexander II concerning the invasion 
of England, there can be no doubt that 
William was guided by him in the policy 
which gave the expedition something of the 
character of a holy war. Successful as this 
policy was, as far as the conquest was con- 
cerned, it eventually strengthened the papal 
power at the cost of the English crown Dy 
calling in the pope to decide who was the 
rightful possessor of the kingdom (Fkeekait, 
iforman Conquest, iii. 274V On the death 
of Maurilius, archbishop of Kouen, in August 
1067, Lanfranc was unanimously elected his 
successor; he declined the promotion, actu- 
ated, it is said, by humility, though it is pro- 
bable that he was aware that a greater office 
was in store for him. In accordance with 
his wish the Bishop of Avranches was trans- 
lated to Rouen, and Lanfranc went to Rome 



Lanfranc 



85 



Lanfranc 



to fetch the pall for the new archbishop and 
to consult the pope on ecclesiastical matters, 
acting, of course, as the Conqueror's repre- 
sentative. In 1070, Stigand having been de- 
prived of the archbishopric of Canterbury by 
a legatine council held in April, the Con- 
queror, after consulting the nobles, fixed on 
Lanfranc as the new archbishop, and two 
legates went to Normandy to urge him to 
accept the office. The matter was settled 
in a synod of the Norman church ; Lanfranc 
professed unwillingness, all pressed him to 
yield, Queen Matilda and her son Robert en- 
treated him, and his old friend and master, 
Herlwin, bade him not refuse. He yielded, 
crossed over to England, received the arch- 
bishopric from the kin? on 15 Aug., and was 
consecrated at Canterbury on the 29th by 
the Bishop of London and eight other bishops 
of his province. 

As archbishop, Lanfranc worked in full 
accord with the Conqueror ; he continued to 
be his chief counsellor, carried out, and, it 
may fairly be supposed, often suggested his ec- 
clesiastical policy, and by means proper to his 
office contributed largely to the complete 
subjugation of the English. His policy as 
primate was directed towards the exaltation 
of the church, and though, as was natural in 
a statesman who in early manhood had been 
a lawyer in the imperialist city of Pa via, he 
was by no means subservient to Rome, he 
nevertheless strengthened the papal power in 
England. The measures by which he and 
the king — for in ecclesiastical matters it is 
often impossible to separate their work — im- 

Sarted a new character to the national church, 
estroyed its isolation, brought it into close 
connection with the continent, and laid the 
foundation of its independence of the state 
in legislation and jurisdiction, tended to raise 
its dignity, and to give opportunity for the 
exercise of papal control. As long as two 
men so strong as William and Lanfranc 
worked in harmony — the one supreme alike 
in church and in state, the other administer- 
ing the affairs of the church — there was no 
risk that the spiritual power would come into 
collision with the temporal. When Lanfranc 
was himself consecrated, he declined to con- 
secrate Thomas of Bayeux to the see of York 
until Thomas made profession of canonical 
obedience to the church of Canterbury. 
Thomas appealed to the king, who at first 
took his part, but Lanfranc convinced the 
whole court of the justice of his claim, and 
won over the king by representing that an 
independent metropolitan of the north might 
be politically dangerous. Finally, Thomas 
made a personal profession to Lanfranc, 
the general question being deferred to the 



future decision of a competent ecclesiastical 
i council. Lanfranc then consecrated him. In 
| 1071 he went to Rome for his pall, and was 
, received with special honour by Alexander II, 
i formerly his pupil. Thomas also came for 
| his pall at the same time, and is said to have 
| been indebted to Lanfranc's good offices with 
the pope. The pope referred Thomas's claim 
to include three of the suffragan sees of Can- 
terbury in his province to an ecclesiastical 
council to be held in England. The case was 
argued at Winchester in the king's court, in 
the presence of prelates and laymen, at Easter 
107§, and was decided at Windsor in an ec- 
clesiastical assembly held at Whitsuntide. 
The sees were adjudged to belong to Canter- 
bury, and it was declared that Thomas and 
his successors owed obedience to Lanfranc 
and his successors {Lavfrand Opera, i. 23- 
27, 303-6). In addition to this victory Lan- 
franc raised the dignity of his see in the esti- 
mation of Christendom (see ib. p. 276, and 
also under Anselm, his successor). He was 
consulted by one archbishop of Dublin on 
sacramental doctrine, consecrated the two 
next archbishops of Dublin, and wrote to two 
of the Irish kings, exhorting them to correct 
abuses in morals and church discipline. Mar- 
garet, queen of Malcolm of Scotland, sought 
his help in her work of ecclesiastical refor- 
mation (Epp. 36, 39, 41, 43, 44). 

Instead of leaving ecclesiastical legislation 
to mixed assemblies of clergy and laymen, 
according to the English custom, Lanfranc 
held frequent councils, which seem to have 
met at the same times and places as the na- 
tional assemblies. His revival and constant 
use of synodical meetings had much to do 
with growth of the usage by which convoca- 
tion is summoned to meet at the same time 
as parliament, though as distinct from it. 
The policy of assigning different spheres of 
action to the church and to the state was 
further carried out by the Conqueror's writ 
separating the spiritual from the temporal 
courts, in which the assent and counsel of 
the two archbishops among others are ex- 
pressly noted. In Lanfranc's synods the sub- 
jugation of the English was forwarded by 
the deposition of native churchmen. Only 
two native bishops still held their sees when 
he came to England. One of these, however, 
Wulfstan, bishop of Worcester, whom he is 
said to have determined to depose at a synod 
held in 1076, escaped deposition, and Lan- 
franc employed him, and successfully upheld 
his cause in a suit against his own rival of 
York. His hand was heavy on the native 
abbots, for the monasteries were the strong- 
holds of national feeling, and it was good 
policy to restrain the monks by giving them 



Lanfranc 



86 



Lanfranc 



foreign superiors. In accomplishing this 
Lanfranc was often unjust, and did not 
always even go through tne form of consult- 
ing a synod (Orderic, p. 523). In ecclesi- 
astical appointments it is evident that he 
was consulted by the king, for the new 
bishops were generally ' scholars and divines ' 
{Constitutional History, i. 283). Some of 
the abbots were men of a lower stamp, and 
oppressed their monks. Almost without an 
exception foreigners alone were promoted to 
high office in the church, and brought with 
them ideas and fashions that tended to as- 
similate the English church to the churches 
of the continent. Lanfranc held the igno- 
rance of the native clergy in scorn. While, 
however, he remained a foreigner to the Eng- 
lish, to the world at large he assumed the 
position of an Englishman, writing ' we Eng- 
lish ' and ' our island/ One effect of the ap- 
pointment of foreign prelates was the decree 
of the council of London in 1075, which re- 
moved bishops' sees from villages to cities. 
The change had been begun in the reign of 
the Confessor ; but it was largely developed 
under Lanfranc, in accordance with conti- 
nental custom. In another synod which he 
held at Winchester in April 1076 a decree 
enjoined clerical celibacy. On this point, 
which was then one of the principal features 
of the papal policy, the English custom was 
lax. Lanfranc refrained from laying too 
heavy a burden on the married clergy. But 
no canons were allowed to have wives, and 
for the future no married man was to be or- 
dained deacon or priest. The parish priests 
who already had wives were not, however, 
compelled to part with them. The laity were 
warned against giving their daughters in 
marriage without the rites of the church. A 
comparison between the writings of Abbot 
^Elfric (ft. 1006) [q. v.] and the frequent 
stories of miracles connected with the holy 
elements in books written in England after 
the Norman conquest points to a change in 
the position of the national church with re- 
ference to eucharistic doctrine, which, to a 
large extent, must no doubt be attributed to 
the influence of Lanfranc. 

Later in the year Lanfranc, accompanied 
by the Archbishop of York and the Bishop of 
Dorchester, went to Rome to obtain certain 
privileges for the king from Gregory VII, 
and carried rich gifts from William to the 
pope. On their return in 1077 they stayed 
for some time in Normandy, and were present 
with the king and queen at the dedication of 
the cathedrals of Evreux and Bayeux, and 
of the church of Lanfranc's former house, 
St. Steuben's at Caen. He visited Bee, and 
while tnere lived as one of the brethren of 



the house. In October he dedicated the 
church of Bee, which had been begun when, 
at his request, Herlwin moved the convent. 
His affection for monasticism was evident in 
his administration of the English church, and 
one English chronicler calls him ( the father 
and lover of monks.' An attempt, led by 
Walkelin, bishop of Winchester, to displace 
monks by canons in his and other cathedral 
chapters, and even in the church of Canter- 
bury, though approved by the king, was de- 
feated by Lanfranc, who obtained a papal 
bull condemning the scheme, and ordering 
that the metropolitan church should be served 
by monks. At the same time it is doubtful 
whether he approved of the exemption of 
abbeys from episcopal jurisdiction, which was 
then becoming frequent, for Gregory "VH 
blamed him for not checking the efforts of 
Bishop Herfast [q. v.] to bring St. Edmund's 
Abbey under his control. 

Owing to William's determination to be 
supreme alike in church and state, Lanfranc's 
relations with the papacy were sometimes 
strained. When the King refused some de- 
mands made by a legate on behalf of the pope, 
Gregory laid the blame on Lanfranc. The 
hop answered that he had tried 



archbishop answered that he had tried to 
persuade the king to act differently. About 
1079 Gregory reproved him for keeping 
away from Rome ; he was not to allow any 
fear of the king to hinder him from coming ; 
it was his duty to reprove William for his 
conduct towards the holy see. Lanfranc de- 
clined this and similar invitations until (in 
1082) Gregory summoned him to appear at 
Rome on the ensuing 1 Nov. under pain of 
suspension from his office. There is nothing 
to prove that this threat drew Lanfranc to 
Rome. On the question of the schism in the 
papacy he wrote with caution ; while re- 
buking a correspondent for abusing Gregory 
he informed him that England had not yet 
acknowledged either of the rivals (Ep. 65). 
Lanfranc asserted his full rights within 
his diocese and brought a suit against Bishop 
Odo for the restoration of lands and rights 
belonging to his see. The cause was decided 
in his favour by the shire-moot of Kent on 
Pennenden Heath under the presidency of 
Bishop Geoffrey of Coutances, and Lanfranc 
regained the lands unjustly taken from his 
church by others besides Odo, and established 
his claim to certain rights and immunities, 
both in his own lands and in the lands of the 
king. The decision of the local court was 
approved by the king and his council. Lan- 
franc spent his revenues magnificently. His 
cathedral church had been burned in 1067. 
In the short space of seven years he rebuilt 
it in the Norman style. His new church was 



Lanfranc 



*7 



Lanfranc 



cruciform, with two western towers, a central 
lantern, and a nave of eight hays; the ceilings 
were illuminated, and it was furnished with 
gorgeous vestments. He gradually and by 
gentle means brought the members of his 
chapter to forsake their worldly and luxuri- 
ous ways of living, raised their number to 
160, and made the constitution of the house 
completely monastic, placing it under a prior 
instead of a dean, and probably causing canons 
to take monastic vows, for previously the 
chapter seems to have been of a mixed cha- 
racter. He also either separated, or con- 
firmed the separation of, the estates of the 
convent from those of the archbishop. He 
built a palace for himself, and several good 
churches and houses on his estates. At 
Canterbury he also built two hospitals for 
the sick and poor of both sexes, and the 
church of St. Gregory, which he placed in 
the hands of regular canons, giving them 
charge of the poor in his hospitals. The 
foundation of this priory seems to have been 
the first introduction of regular canons into 
England. The church of Rochester Lanfranc 
made his special care [see under Gtodulf]. 
His friendship with Scotland, abbot of St. 
Augustine's at Canterbury, enabled him 
quietly to take measures that lessened the 
independence of the monastery, and prepared 
the way for his attack on its privileges after 
the Conqueror's death. 

In secular matters Lanfranc played a con- 
spicuous part during the reign of the Con- 
queror. He was sometimes, as in the case 
of the dispute between Bishop Herfast and 
St. Edmund's Abbey [see under Baldwin, 
d. 1008], commissioned by the king to pre- 
side over a secular court. During one or 
more of the king's absences from England he 
was the principal vicegerent of the kingdom, 
a function subsequently annexed to the later 
office of the chief justiciar, and so that title 
is sometimes assigned to him. While Wil- 
liam was in Normandy in 1074-6 Lanfranc 
appears to have suspected that Roger, earl 
of Hereford, was unfaithful to the king, and 
when his suspicion was confirmed excommu- 
nicated the earl, and would not absolve him 
until he had thrown himself on the king's 
mercy. About the same time Earl Waltheof 
came to Lanfranc, and confessed that he had 
been drawn into the conspiracy of the Earls 
of Hereford and Norfolk. Lanfranc appointed 
him a penance, and bade him go and tell all 
to the king. In 1076 he visited Waltheof 
in prison, and used to speak warmly of his 
repentance and of his innocence of the crime 
for which he was put to death. Meanwhile, 
the earls having taken up arms, the leaders 
of the royal forces sent reports of their doings 



to Lanfranc, who wrote to the king the news 
of victory. Lanfranc is credited with en- 
couraging William in 1082 to arrest Bishop 
Odo, his old opponent, to whom the king had 
given the earldom of Kent. The king scrupled 
to imprison 'a clerk,' but the archbishop 
answered merrily, * It is not the Bishop 01 
Bayeux whom you will arrest, but the Earl 
of Kent.' At the Whitsuntide court at 
Westminster in 1086 Lanfranc armed the 
king's youngest son, Henry, on his receiving 
knighthood, as he had armed his brother 
Rufus on a like occasion. In September 1087 
the news of the Conqueror's death filled him 
with such anguish that his monks feared that 
he would die. 

As it pertained to Lanfranc's office to 
crown a new king, and probably also because 
he possessed great power and influence, his 
action at this crisis is represented as of para- 
mount importance (see William Rufus, i. 
10, ii. 469). When William Rufus came to 
him at Canterbury, bringing a letter in which 
the Conqueror had when dying expressed to 
his old minister his wish that William should 
succeed to his kingdom, Lanfranc appears to 
have hesitated ; but being unwilling to pro- 
long the interregnum he accepted William, 
, and on the 26th crowned him at Westmin- 
ster, receiving from him, in addition to the 
coronation oath, the promise that he would 
in all things be led by the archbishop's coun- 
| sel. He attended the new king's court at 
[ Christmas, and it must have been against his 
1 will that the king then reinstated Bishop 
J Odo, the archbishop's implacable enemy, as 
I Earl of Kent. On the death of Abbot Scot- 
: land in September 1087, Lanfranc renewed 
his attack on the independence of St. Augus- 
tine's, and hallowed as abbot Guy, apparently 
the king's nominee. The next day Lanfranc, 
accompanied by Bishop Odo as earl, went to 
the monastery, and demanded if the monks 
would accept Guy as their abbot. They re- 
fused. He bade all who would not submit 
to leave the house, and installed Guy. Most 
of the monks withdrew to the precincts of 
St. Mildred's Church, but the prior and some 
others were sent to prison. When dinner- 
time came most of the seceding monks, being 
hungry, made their peace, and promised obe- 
dience to the abbot ; the rest Lanfranc sent 
to different monasteries until they grew sub- 
missive. Before long a conspiracy was made 
against Guy, and a monk named Columban, 
being brought before the archbishop, owned 
that he haa intended to slay the abbot. On 
this Lanfranc caused him to be tied naked 
before the gate of the abbey and flogged in 
the presence of the people, and then bade 
that his cowl should be cut off and he should 



Lanfranc 



88 



Lanfranc 



be driven from the city. Meanwhile, during 
the rebellion of Odo and the Norman lords 
in 1088, Lanfranc, together with his suffra- 
gans and the English people, stood by the 
king. In November, when the rebellion was 
put down, he attended the king's court at 
Salisbury, where William of St. Calais, 
bishop of Durham, was tried, and he took a 
prominent Dart in maintaining the king's 
right of jurisdiction over the bishop, who 
tried to shelter himself under his spiritual 
character. In putting aside as trivial the 
bishop's objection that both he and the bishops 
who were to judge him should have been 
wearing their robes, Lanfranc implied that 
the bishop stood there, not as an ecclesiastical 
dignitary, but as one of the king's tenants in 
chief, while he and the other bishops who 
were judging him were in like manner doing 
their service as members of the king's court. 
Again, as he is said to have suggested a dis- 
tinction between the ecclesiastic and civil 
characters borne by Odo, so one of his answers 
to the Bishop of Durham implied that the 
term ' bishopric ' had two significations, that 
the bishop's spiritual office was separable from 
his temporalities which he had received from 
the king, and which were liable to be resumed. 
While he did not directly oppose the bishop's 
appeal to Rome, he maintained that the king 
had a right to imprison him, and his words 
excited the applause of the lay barons, who 
cried, ' Take mm, take him I that old gaoler 
says well.' He further pointed out that if 
the bishop went to Rome to the king's 
damage his lands might reasonably be seized. 
The part which he took in these proceedings 
illustrates his view of the relations between 
the crown and its spiritual subjects. He 
was not acting as a mere instrument of the 
royal will, for he checked the king when it 
was proposed to carry the case against the 
bishop further than the law allowed (Mvnaa- 
ticvn, i. 246-9; William Rufus, i. 96-116). 
Useful as Lanfranc was to him, William did 
not keep his promise that he would be guided 
by his counsel, grew angry when on one oc- 
casion the archbishop reminded him of it, 
and from that time ceased to regard him with 
favour. Yet it is certain that as long as 
Lanfranc lived the king put some restraint 
on his evil nature. In May 1089 Lanfranc 
was seized with a fever at Canterbury ; his 
physicians urged him to take some draught 
which they prescribed. He delayed drinking 
it till he nad received the sacrament; it 
had a bad effect on him, and he died on the 
24th, after a primacy of eighteen years and 
nine months. He was buried in his cathe- 
dral. When Anselm built the new choir 
Lanfranc's body was removed and placed in 



another part of the church ; no trace of his 
tomb remains. When his body was removed 
one of the monks secretly cut off a piece of 
his coffin, which was said to emit a migrant 
odour ; this was taken as a proof of his holiness. 
He is styled saint in the * Benedictine 
Martyrology,' and there were pictures of him 
in the abbey churches of Caen and Bee ; as, 
however, he had no commemorative office, he 
should perhaps be styled 'Beatus' rather 
than 'oanctus.' Although a large part of 
his life was spent in transacting ecclesiastical 
and civil affairs, he never lost the habits and 
tastes which he had acquired at Bee ; he re- 
mained a devout man, constant in the dis- 
charge of his religious duties. Strenuous in 
all things, far-seeing and wise, resolute in 
purpose, stern towards those who persisted 
in opposing his policy, and not over-scrupu- 
lous as to the justice of the means which he 
employed in carrying it out, or the sufferings 
which it entailed on others, he was in many 
respects like his master and friend, William 
the Conqueror, and men looked on the king 
and the archbishop as well matched in strength 
of character (Brevis Relatio, p. 10). In Lin- 
franc there was, moreover, the subtlety of 
the Italian lawyer, and his power of drawing 
distinctions, the quickness of his perception, 
and the acuteness of his intellect must have 
rendered him vastly superior to the church- 
men and nobles of the court. Combined with 
these traits were others more suited to his 
profession, for he was humble, munificent, 
and, when no question of policy was con- 
cerned, gentle and considerate towards all. 
His munificence was not confined to gifts to 
J churches, such as those which he made to 
j St. Albans, where the great works of Abbot 
Paul were carried out largely at his expense ; 
he gave liberally to widows and the poor. If 
j he saw any one m trouble he always inquired 
I the cause, and endeavoured to remove it. 
Over the brethren of his large monastery he 
exercised a fatherly care, not only promoting 
their comfort, but providing for their poor 
relatives. His death was mourned by all, 
and specially by those who knew him most 
intimately (Vita, c. 52; Eadmer, Historia 
Novorum, cols. 354, 355). 

As archbishop Lanfranc kept up the learned 
pursuits of his earlier days, and gave much 
of his time to correcting the English manu- 
scripts of the scriptures and the fathers, which 
had been corrupted by the errors of copyists. 
His latinity was much admired ; his style, 
although good and simple, is often antithe- 
tical, and plays on words. His writings, 
which, considering his fame as a scholar, 
were few, were first published collectively by 
Luc d'Achery, Paris, 1648, foL, in a volume 



Lanfranc 



8 9 



Lang 



containing : 1 . ' Commentaries on the Epistles 
of St. Paul/ consisting of short notes, pro- 
bably used in lectures. 2. ' Liber de Cor- 
pore et Sanguine Domini nostri,' his book 
against Berengar, written, as is proved by 
internal evidence, not earlier than 1079, and 
printed at Basle in 1528, 1551, with Pas- | 
chasius Radbert in 1640, with works of other j 
authors at Louvain in 1561, and in various , 
early collections. 3. ' Annotatiunculsa in 
nonnullas J. Cassiani collationes,' merely ' 
four short notes. 4. ' Decreta pro ordine S. I 
Benedicti/ printed in Revner's ' Apostolatus I 
Benedictinorum in Anglia,' 1626, contains a , 
complete ritual of the Benedictine use in 
England, with rules for the order ; it brought 
about a revival of discipline (Gesta Abbatum 1 
8. Albani, i. 52 ; Matthew of Westminster, i 
ann. 1071, 1077). 6. ' Epistolarum liber/ , 
sixty letters. 6. ' Oratio in concilio habita,' { 
report of speech on the primacy of Canter- 
bury, an extract from William of Malmes- 
bury's ' Gesta Pontificum/ lib. i. c. 41. 7. A 
treatise, ' De Celanda Confessione/ of doubt- 1 
ful authorship. Besides these Luc d'Achery , 
printed a short tract, ' Sermo vel Sententiffi/ 
on the duties of religious persons, in his 
'Spicilegium/ iv. 227, first edition 1677. ' 
These pieces, with the exception of the * An- | 
notatiunculoB ' and the ' Oratio/ were re- t 
printed in ' Maxima Bibliotheca Patrum/ 
xviii. 621 sqq., Lyons, 1677. They are all in ' 
Migne's ' Patrologia Lat.' cl., and were re- , 
printed by Giles in 1844 in his edition of { 
Lanfranc's works, 2 vols, of ' Patres Ecclesice 
AnglicansB ' series, including the ' Chronicon 
Beccense,' the * Vitro Abbatum Beccensium,' 
and other pieces, together with a work en- 
titled ' Elucidarium, a dialogue between a 
master and pupil on obscure theological 
matters, attributed to Lanfranc in a twelfth- 
century copy in the Brit. Mus. MS. Rep. 
5 E. vl, but of doubtful authorship (Hw- 
toire LittSraire, viii. 200). A commentary 
on the Psalms by him and a history of the 
church of Canterbury in his own time (^Ead- 
meb, Historia Novorum, col. 366), which is 
perhaps the same as a book attributed to him I 
on the deeds of William the Conqueror | 
(Histoire LittSraire, viii. 294), are not now j 
known to exist. Other lost works have been , 
attributed to him, in some cases at least , 
erroneously. 

[Freeman's Norman Conquest, ii. iii. iv. passim, I 
and William Bums, i. 1-140 passim, and ii. 359- , 
860, give a full account of Lanfranc's work in 
England, while his William the Conqueror, pp. 
141-6 (Engl. Statesmen Ser.), contains an excel- I 
lent sketch of his policy and work, for which see | 
also Stubbs's Const. Hist. i. 281-8, 347. Hook's ' 
life in Archbishops of Cant. ii. 73 sqq. is unsatis- 



factory; Charma's Lanfranc, Notice Biogra- 
phique, forms a valuable monograph. Vita Lan- 
franci, by Milo Crispin, cantor of Bee, written 
from recollection of Laofranc's contemporaries, 
was printed by Giles in his Lanfranci Opp. i. 281 
sqq., along with Chron. Beccense, Epistles, and 
other pieces. See also Letters from Gregory VII 
in Jaffe'sMon. Greg. pp. 49, 366, 494, 520 ; Ead- 
mer*s Hist. Nov. cols. 352-61, ed. Migne; Wil- 
liam of Jumi&ges, vi. 9, vii. 26, viii. 2, ed. Du- 
chesne ; Brevis Relatio in Giles's Gesta Willelmi, 
i. 10, and ib. p. 175, Carmen de morte Lan- 
franci; Orderic, pp. 494, 507, 523, 548, 666, 
ed. Duchesne; A.-S. Chron. ann. 1070, 1087, 
1089, with the Latin Life in App. pp. 386-9 
(Rolls Ser.) ; Flor. Wig. ann. 1074, 1075 (Engl. 
Hist. Soc.); William of Malmesbury's Gesta 
Regum, cc. 447, 450, 462, 486, 495 (Engl. Hist. 
Soc.), and Gesta Pontiff, pp. 37-73, 322, 428 
(Rolls Ser.); Gervase of Cant. i. 9-16, for 
Lanfranc's rebuilding of Christ Church, and 
43, 70, ii. 363-8 (Rolls Ser.) ; Willis's Hist, of 
Canterbury, pp. 13, 14, 65 ; Walsingham's Gesta 
Abbatum S. Albani, L 46, 47, 52, 58 (Rolls Ser.) 
For the York side of the dispute with Archbishop 
Thomas, consult Hugh the Chan tor ap. Historians 
of York, ii 99-101, and T. Stubbs, ib. 357, 358 
(Rolls Ser.) ; for the suit on Pennenden Heath, 
Anglia Sacra, i. 334 sqq. ; for the St. Augustine's 
version of Lanfranc's dealings Thorn's untrust- 
worthy account in Decern Scriptores, cols. 1791- 
1793; for Bishop of Durham's trial, Dugdale's 
Monasticon, i. 246 sqq., and vi. 614, 615; for 
writs st-nt to Lanfranc as a vicegerent, Liber 
Eliensis, pp. 256-60 (Anglia Christ.) Gallia 
Christiana, xi. 219 sqq. ; Labbe's Concilia, xix. 
759, 774, 859, 901 ; Mabillon's Acta SS. O.S.B. 
v. 649 sqq ; Acta SS., Bolland., May v. 822 sqq. ; 
Wilkins's Concilia, i. 367 ; Hist. Litt. de France, 
viii. 197 sqq. ; Wright's Biog. Lit. ii. 1-14, are 
also useful.] W. H. 

LANG, JOHN DUNMORE (1799-1878), 
writer on Australia, was born at Greenock, 
Scotland, 25 Aug. 1799, received his educa- 
tion at the parish school of Largs, Ayrshire, 
and at the university of Glasgow, where he 
remained eight years and obtained the M.A. 
degree 11 April 1820. He was licensed to 

f reach by the presbytery of Irvine on 1 June 
820, and ordained in September 1822 with 
a view to his forming a church in Sydney, 
New South Wales, in connection with the 
established church of Scotland. He arrived 
in Australia in May 1823, and was the first 
presbyterian minister who regularly officiated 
in New South Wales. His church, known as 
the Scots church, was at Church Hill, Syd- 
ney. In 1831 , while in England, he obtained 
orders from Lord Goderich directing the 
colonial government to pay 3,500/. towards 
the establishment of a college in Sydney for 
the education of young men and of candi- 
dates for the ministry, on the condition that 



Lang 



90 



Lang 



a. similar sum should be subscribed by the 
promoters. This scheme met with opposition 
in the colony , and Lang had to sell his private 
property to liquidate his responsibilities. On 

I Jan. 1836 he established the | Colonist/ a 
weekly journal, in which he discussed the 
public questions of the day with great vigour. 
He protested against emancipated convicts 
occupying the positions of leaders of the 
press, and against the vice of concubinage in 
high quarters. For a,jeu cCesprit he wrote on 
an offending merchant his editor was fined 
100/., but the money was paid by the public. 
The ' Colonist' died in 1840, and on 7 Oct. 
1841 he edited the first number of the ' Colo- 
nial Journal/ and then, 1851-2, the ' Press/ 
another weekly paper. It was not long be- 
fore he became aware that to diffuse healthy 
principles into a community so largely com- 
posed of the convict element it was necessary 
to introduce industrious free people from the 
mother-country. As early as 1831 he brought 
out a number of Scottish mechanics at his 
own risk. In 1836, when he went to England 
to engage ministers and schoolmasters, he 
persuaded the English government to devote 
colonial funds to aid four thousand people 
who contemplated emigration, and who in the 
course of three years left for Australia. On 
his voyage to England in 1839 his vessel put 
into New Zealand. lie advocated in pub- 
lished letters addressed to the Earl of Durham 
the occupation of that group of islands ; no 
act of parliament, he urged, was necessary, 
as the commission granted in 1787 to Cap- 
tain Arthur Phillip, governor of New South 
Wales, included the holding of New Zealand. 
Mainly, if not entirely, in consequence of 
these representations, Captain William Hob- 
son took possession of the islands for Queen 
Victoria in February 1 840. On Lang's return 
to Australia in 1841 he was, on 11 March 
in that year, admitted a member of the pres- 
byterian synod of Sydney, but that body, on 

II Oct. 1842, ' deposed him from the office 
of the holy ministry ' (cf. An Authentic State- 
ment of the Facts, Sydney, 1860). A large 
portion of Lang's congregation sided with 
nim, and continued to attend his ministration 
at Church Hill, Sydney. Eventually in 1865 
he and his congregation were reconciled to 
the presbyterian synod. In July 1843 he was 
elected one of the six members for Port Phillip 
district to the legislative council, the single 
chamber which then ruled New South Wales. 
He sat until 1846. In 1846 he went to Eng- 
land for the sixth time ' to give an impulse 
to protestant emigration, and to prevent the 
colony being turned into an Irish Roman 
catholic settlement/ and until 1849 he was 
employed in lecturing on the advantages of 



Australia. In 1860 he was elected one of the 
members for the city of Sydney, in Septem- 
ber 1851 he was re-elected for Sydney at the 
head of the poll, but resigned his seat on going 
to England in February 1852. On his return 
he was elected for the county of Stanley, 
Moreton Bay, in July 1854. After the intro- 
duction of responsible government Lang was 
three times elected as a representative to the 
legislative council for the constituency of 
West Sydney, namely in 1869, in 1860, and in 
1864. He was a most active and energetic 
member of parliament, and took a prominent 
part in all the questions of the day, advocating 
postal reform, the elective franchise, separa- 
tion of Port Phillip from New South Wales, 
education, the abolition of the transportation 
of convicts, triennial parliaments, abrogation 
of laws of primogeniture, and abolishing of 
state aid to religion. On 2 May 1826 Glas- 
gow, his own university, created him a doctor 
of divinity. During the course of his career 
he made many enemies, but his views of 
public affairs were liberal and statesmanlike, 
and his personal foes admitted that he was 
nearly always right in his public conduct. 
He died in Sydney 8 Aug. 1878, and his re- 
mains were accorded a public funeral. 

His better-known writings were : 1. ' A 
Sermon preparatory to the Building of a 
Scots Church in Sydney/ 1828. 2. 'Account 
of Steps taken in England with a View to 
the Establishment of an Academical Institu- 
tion in New South Wales, and to demonstrate 
the practicability of an Emigration of the 
Industrious Classes/ 1831. 3. 'Emigration; 
in reference to Settling throughout New 
South Wales a numerous Agricultural Popu- " 
lation/ 1833. 4. ' An Historical and Statisti- 
cal Account of New South Wales/ 1834, 
2 vols. ; 2nd edit. 2 vols. 1837 ; 3rd edit. 
1852; 4th edit. 1874, 2 vols. 6. 'View of 
the Origin and Migrations of the Polynesian 
Nation/ 1834. 6. ' A Sermon Preached at 
the Opening of the Scots Church, Hobart 
Town, 1835. 7. 'Transportation and Colo- 
nisation/ 1837. 8. ' New Zealand in 1839; 
or, Four Letters to Earl Durham on the Colo- 
nisation of that Island/ 1839. 9. 'Reli- 
fion and Education in America/ 1840. 
0. ' Cooksland in North-Eastern Australia, 
the future Cotton Field of Great Britain/ 
1847. 11. ' Phillipsland or Port Phillip, its 
Condition and Prospects as a Field for Emi- 
gration/ 1847. 12. 'Repeal or Revolution, 
or a Glimpse of the Irish Future/ 1848. 

13. ' The Australian Emigrants' Manual, 
or a Guide to the Gold Colonies/ 1862. 

14. ' Freedom and Independence for the 
Golden Lands of Australia,' 1862 ; 2nd edit. 
1857. 15. 'Three Lectures on Religious 



Langbaine 



91 



Langbaine 



Establishments, or the granting Money for 
the Support of Religion from the Public 
Treasury in the Australian Colonies/ 1856. 
16. 'Queensland, Australia, a highly eligible 
Field for Emigration, and the future Cotton 
Field of Great Britain/ 1861, 1866. 17. 'The 
Coming Event! or Freedom and Indepen- 
dence for the Seven United Provinces of Aus- 
tralia/ 1870. 18. 'Historical Account of 
the Separation of Victoria from New South 
Wales, 1870. 19. 'Origin and Migration 
of the Polynesian Nation/ 2nd edit. 1877. 

[A Brief Sketch of my Parliamentary Life, by 
J. D. Lang, 1870 ; Barton's Poets of New South 
Wales, 1866, pp. 33-7 ; Triibner's American Re- 
cord, 1879, pp. 14, 15 ; Lang's New South Wales, 
1875, 2 vols.; Times, 2 Nov. 1878, p. 11; 
Beaton's Australian Dictionary of Dates, 1879, 
pp. 111-13.1 G. C. B. 

LANGBAINE, GERARD, the elder 
n609-1668)jjprovost of Queen's College, Ox- 
ford, son of William Langbaine, was born at 
Barton, Westmoreland, and was educated at 
the free school at Blencow, Cumberland. He 
entered Queen's College, Oxford, as ' bateller ' 
17 April 1625, and was elected * in munus 
aervientis ad mensam ' 17 June 1626. He 
did not matriculate in the university till 
21 Nov. 1628, when he was nineteen years 
old. He was chosen ' taberdar ' of his col- 
lege 10 June 1630 ; graduated B.A. 24 July 
1630, M.A. 1633, D.D. 1646, and was elected 
fellow of his college in 1633. He was vicar 
of Crosthwaite in the diocese of Carlisle, 
15 Jan. 1648 (Wood, Colleges and Halls, 
ed. Gutch, p. 149 nX but seems to have re- | 
sided in Oxford. In 1644 he was elected 1 
keeper of the archives of the university, and 
on 11 March 1645-6 was chosen provost of i 
Queen's College. Owinff to the city of Ox- I 
ford being invested at the time by the par- | 
liamentary forces, the ordinary form of con- 1 
firmationto the provostship by the archbishop j 
of York was abandoned, and Langbaine's . 
election was confirmed with special permis- | 
aion of the king by the bishop of Oxford, and 1 
Drs. Steward, Fell, and Ducke (6 April 1646). ! 
From his youth Langbaine showed scho- 
larly tastes. In 1635 he contributed to the I 
volume of Latin verses commemorating the , 
death of Sir Rowland Cotton of Bellaport, 
Shropshire. In 1636 he edited, with a Latin 
translation and Latin notes, Longinus's Greek 
4 Treatise on the Sublime.' The work, which 
is admirable in all respects, and has a title- 
page engraved by William Marshall, is called 
4 Aiowaiov Aoyyivov 'Pfjropos nepl ityovf \6yov 
fbffktov : Dionysii Longini Rhetoris Pra> 
stantissimi Liber de Grandi Loquentia sive 
Sublimi dicendi genere, Latine redditus 
*irode<r«<ri avvoimxaU et ad oram Notationi- 



bus aliquot illustratus— edendum curavit et 
notarum insuper auctarium adjunxit G. L. 
cum indice. Oxonii excud. G. T. Academi» 
Typographus impensis GuiL Webb. Biblio.,' 
1636 (c£ Hbakkb, Coll, ed. Doble, Oxford 
Hist. Soc., ii. 207). Another edition, de- 
scribed in the title-page as ' postrema,' ap- 
" in 1638. In 1638 Langbaine pub- 



lished ' A Review of the Councell of Trent 
. . . first writ in French by a learned Roman 
Catholique fW. Ranchinl. Now translated 
by G. L.,' Oxford, fol. This was dedicated 
to Dr. Christopher Potter, at the time pro- 
vost of Queen's. Langbaine's love of learning 
gained him the acquaintance of the chief 
scholars of his time. Ben Jonson gave him 
a copy of Vossius's * Greek Historians,' which 
he annotated and ultimately presented to 
Ralph Bathurst, president of Trinity College. 
With Selden he corresponded on learned 
topics in terms of close intimacy, and several 
of his letters dated towards the close of his 
life have been printed by Hearne (cf . Lbland, 
Collectanea, ed. Hearne, v. 282-93). When 
Ussher died in 1656 he left his collections 
for his ' Chronologia Sacra ' to Langbaine, as 
' the only man on whose learning, as well as 
friendship, he could rely to cast them into 
such a form as might render them fit for the 
press ' (Paeb, Ussher, p. 13). Langbaine left 
the work to be completed by his friend 
Thomas Barlow [q. v.], bishop of Lincoln, who 
succeeded him as provost. 

On the approach of the civil wars Lang- 
baine avowed himself a zealous royalist and 
supporter of episcopacy. He is credited with 
the authorship of 'Episcopal Inheritance . . . 
or a Reply to the Examination of the An- 
swers to nine reasons of the House of Com- 
mons against the Votes of Bishops in Parlia- 
ment,' Oxford, 1641, 4to, and of ' A Review 
of the Covenant, wherein the originall 
grounds, means, matters, and ends of it are 
examined . . . and disproved ' [Bristol], 1644, 
4to. The latter is a searching examination of 
the covenanters' arguments. With a view 
to strengthening the position of his friends, 
he also reprinted in 1641 Sir John Cheke's 
'True Subject to the Rebell, or the Hurt of 
Sedition, how grievous it is to a Common- 
wealth . . . whereunto is newly added a Briefe 
Discourse of those times (i.e. of Edward VI) 
as they relate to the present, with the Au- 
thor's Life,' Oxford, 1641, 4to. Moreover, 
he helped Sanderson and Zouch to draw up 
' Reasons of the Present Judgment of the 
University concerning the Solemn League 
and Covenant' (1647), and translated the 
work into Latin (1648). 

But Langbaine also took practical steps to 
enforce his views. In 1642 he acted as a 



Langbaine 



92 



Langbaine 



member of the delegacy, nicknamed by the 
undergraduates * the council of war/ which 
provided for the safety of the city and for 
Sir John Byron's royalist troops while sta- 
tioned there. In May 1647 he was a member 
of the committee to determine the attitude 
of the university to the threatened parlia- 
mentary visitation. He advocated resistance, 
and was the author, according to Gough, of 
' The Privileges of the University of Oxford 
in Point of Visitation, clearly evidenced by 
Letter to an Honourable Personage : together 
with the Universities' Answer to the Sum- 
mons of the Visitors/ 1647, 4to. In Novem- 
ber 1647 he carried some of the university's 
archives to London, and sought permission 
for counsel to appear on the university's be- 
half before the London committee of visitors. 
His efforts produced little result, and on j 
6 June 1648, shortly after the parliamentary 
visitors had arrived in Oxford, Langbaine was 
summoned to appear before them (Burkows, 
Oxford Visitation, p. 129); but the chief 
visitor, Philip Herbert, earl of Pembroke, 
apparently treated him leniently, and he re- 
tained his provostship. In January 1648-9 
Eermission was virtually granted to Lang- 
aine to exercise all his ancient privileges as 
provost of Queen's. Next month he joined 
a sub-delegacy which sought once again to 
induce the visitors to withdraw their preten- 
sions to direct the internal affairs of the col- 
leges, but the visitors ignored their plea, 
and illustrated their power by appointing a 
tabarder in 1660 and a fellow in 1651 in 
Langbaine's college. In April 1662 the com- 
mittee in London finally and formally re- 
stored to him full control of his college. 

Langbaine took a prominent part in a 
quarrel between the town and university in 
1648. The citizens petitioned for the aboli- 
tion of their annual oath to the university 
and for their relief from other disabilities. 
The official 'Answer of the Chancellor, 
Masters, and Scholars ... to the Petition, 
Articles of Grievance, and reasons for the City 
of Oxon, presented to the Committee for 
regulating the University, 24 July 1649/ Ox- 
ford, 1649, 4to, is assigned to Langbaine. It 
was reprinted in 1678 and also in James 
Harrington's ' Defence of the Rights of the 
University/ Oxford, 1690. In 1661 he pub- 
lished ' The Foundation of the University of 
Oxford, with a Catalogue of the principal 
Founders and special Benefactors of all the 
Colleges, and total number of Students/ and 
a similar work relating to Cambridge. Both 
were based on Scot's * Tables ' of Oxford and 
Cambridge (1622). In 1664 he energetically 
pressed on convocation the desirability of re- 
viving the study of civil law at Oxferd (ib. 



pn. 328, 406). He had shown his knowledge 
ol the subject by the aid that he rendered 
Arthur Duck [q. v.] in the preparation of 
his'De Usu et Authoritate Juris Civilis Ro- 
manorum in Dominiis Principum Christiano- 
rum/ London, 1663, 8vo. 

Langbaine died at Oxford 10 Feb. 1657-8, 
1 of an extreme cold taken sitting in the uni- 
versity library ' (MS. Marl. 6898, f. 291 ), and 
was buried in the inner chapel of Queen's 
College. He had just before settled a small 
annuity on the free school of Barton, his 
native place. 

Langbaine marriedJSlizabeth, eldest daugh- 
ter of Charles Sunnybank, D.D., canon of 
Windsor, and widow of Christopher Potter, 
D.D., his predecessor in the provostship of 
Queen's College. By her, who died 3 Dec. 
1692, aged 78, he had at least three children, 
of whom one died in September 1667 (cf. MS. 
Bawl. Misc. 398, f. 162). His elder son, 
William (1649-1672), proceeded B.A. from 
Queen's College in 1667, and M.A. from 
Magdalen College in 1670. He died at Long 
Crendon, Buckinghamshire, 3 June 1672, 
and was buried there (Wood, Life and Times, 
Oxf. Hist. Soc, i. 238; Foster, Alumni 
Oxon.) The younger son Gerard is noticed 



ngbaine left twenty-one volumes of 
collections of notes in manuscript to the 
Bodleian Library. Some additional volumes 
were presented by Wood. A detailed de- 
scription appears in Edward Bernard's ' Ca- 
talogus MSS. Angliae et Hibernicse/ Oxf. 
1697, fol. (vol. i. pt. i. p. 268). Hearne makes 
frequent quotation from them in his 'Collec- 
tions' (cf. vols, i-iii. publ. by Oxf. Hist. Soc.) 
According to Wood, Langbaine made 'seve- 
ral catalogues of manuscripts in various libra- 
ries, nay, and of printed books, too, in order, 
as we suppose, for a universal catalogue in all 
kinds of learning.' John Fell, dean of Christ 
Church, printed from Langbaine's notes ' Pla- 
tonicorum aliquot qui etiam num super- 
sunt, Authorum Gwecorum, imprimis, mox 
et Latinorum syllabus Alphabeticus/ and 
appended it to his ' Alcinoi in Platonicam 
Philo8ophiam Introduction In 1721 John 
Hudson [q. v.] edited ' Ethices Compendium 
a viro cl. Langbsenio (ut fertur) adornatum 
et nunc demum recognitum et emendatum. 
Accedit Methodus Argumentandi Aristo- 
telica ad cucpiftfiav matnematicam redacta' 
(London, 12mo, 1721). Hearne mentions a 
copy of Hesychius, elaborately annotated in 
manuscript by Langbaine (Coll. ii. 2-3). 
Fuller's statement that Langbaine planned 
a continuation of Brian Twyne's ' Apologia 
Antiq. Acad. Oxon.' is denied by Wood on 
the testimony of his friends Barlow and 



Langbaine 



93 



Langbaine 



Lamplugh, and he has heen credited on slight 
grounds with the authorship of Dugdale's 
< Short History of the Troubles 'fib. p. 6). 

An oil portrait of Langbaine in academic 
cap and falling collar is in the provost's lodg- 
ings at Queen's College, Oxford. 

[Information most kindly supplied by the Rev. 
Dr. Magrath, provost of Queen's College, Oxford ; 
Wood's Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 446 aj.; 
Wood's Hist, and Antiq. ed. Gutch, vol. ii. ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500-1714; BurroWs 
Visitation of Oxford University (Camd. Soc) ; 
Hearne's Coll. (Oxf . Hist. Soc.) ; Hunter's MS. 
Chorus Vatum, in Brit. Mus. MS. Addit. 24489, 
f. 537 ; Fuller's Worthies; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

8.X. 

LANGBAINE, GERARD, the younger 
(1656-1692), dramatic biographer and critic, 
born in the parish of St. Peter-in-the-East, 
Oxford, on 16 July 1656, was younger son 
of Gerard Langbaine the elder fq. v.] After 
attending a school kept by William Wild- 
goose (M.A. of Brasenose College, Oxford) 
at Denton, near Cuddesdon, Oxfordshire, he 
was apprenticed to Nevil Simmons, a book- 
seller in St. Paul's Churchyard, London ; but 
on the death of his elder brother William in 
1672, he was summoned home to Oxford by 
his widowed mother, and was entered as a 
gentleman-commoner of University College 
in the Michaelmas term of the same year. 
He was of a lively disposition — 'a great 
jockey/ Wood calls him — and idled away his 
time. He married young, apparently settled 
in London, and ran ' out of a good part of 
the estate that had descended to him. But 
' being a man of good parts/ he finally changed 
his mode of life, and retired successively to 
Wick and Headington, in the neighbourhood 
of Oxford. He had, in Wood's language, a 
' natural and gay geny to dramatic poetry,' 
and in his retirement he studied dramatic 
literature, and collected a valuable library. 
He dabbled in authorship, but at first ' only 
wrote little things, without his name set to 
them, which he would never own.' The sole 
production of this period which is traceable 
to him is a practical tract entitled 'The 
Hunter : a Discourse of Horsemanship ; ' this 
was printed at Oxford by Leonard Lichfield 
in 1686, and bound up with Nicholas Cox's 
' Gentleman's Recreation.' But it is quite 
possible that he did work for Francis Kirk- 
man, the London bookseller, who shared his 
interest in dramatic literature. It was cur- 
rently reported that Kirkman invited Lang- 
baine to write a continuation of ' The Eng- 
lish Rogue,' by Richard Head [a. v.], and 
that he declined the commission on tne ground 
of the disreputable character of Head's ori- 
ginal work. A translation of Chavigny's ' La 



Galante Hermaphrodite Nouvelle amoureuse,' 
Amsterdam , 1 688, is assigned to him by Wood, 
who describes it as published in London in 
octavo in 1687, but no copy is accessible. 

In November 1687 appeared a work by 
Langbaine called 'Momus Triumphans, or 
the Plagiaries of the English Stage exposed, 
in a Catalogue of Comedies, Tragedies,' and 
so forth. Two title-pages are met with, one 
bearing the name of Nicholas Cox of Oxford 
as publisher, the other that of Sam Holford 
of Pall Mall, London. In the preface Lang- 
baine describes himself as a persistent play- 
goer and an omnivorous reader and collector 
of plays. He owned, he writes, 980 English 
plays and masques, besides drolls and inter- 
ludes. Although he complained of the lack 
of originality in the construction of plots by 
English dramatists, he admitted that their 
plagiarisms were often innocent. A long 
catalogue of plays follows under the au- 
thors' names, alpnabetically arranged, and 
the sources of the plots, which he usually 
traces to a classical author, are stated in each 
case in a footnote. A list of the works of 
anonymous authors precedes a final alpha- 
betical list of titles. In December 1687 the 
work reappeared as ' A New Catalogue of 
English Plays,' London, 1688, and with an 
advertisement stating that Langbaine was 
not responsible for the title of the earlier 
edition, or for its uncorrected preface. Five 
hundred copies, he declared, had already been 
sold of the work in its spurious shape. For 
Dryden Langbaine had no regard, and he at- 
tributed the derisive title of the pirated edi- 
tion to Dryden's ingenuity. Dryden, he be- 
lieved, had heard before its publication that 
he was to be subjected to severe criticism in 
the preface to the ' Catalogue.' 

Enlarging the scope of his labours, Lang- 
baine in 1691 produced his best-known 
compilation, 'An Account of the English 
Dramatic Poets, or some Observations and 
Remarks on the Lives and Writings of all 
those that have published either Comedies, 
Tragedies, Tragicomedies, Pastorals, Masques, 
Interludes, Farces, or Operas, in the Eng- 
lish Tongue,' Oxford, 1691, 8vo. The dedi- 
cation is addressed to an Oxfordshire neigh- 
bour, James Bertie, earl of Abingdon. It 
is a valuable book of reference, with quaint 
criticisms, but it is weak in its bibliogra- 
phical details. Langbaine continued his war 
on Dryden, and a champion of the poet, 
writing in a weekly paper called ' The Mode- 
rator' on Thursday, 23 June 1692, explained 
that Dryden could ' not descend so far below 
himself to cope with Langbaine's porterly 
language and aisingenuity.' Langbaine's con- 
tinuous efforts to show that the dramatists 



Langbaine 



94 



Langdaile 



usually borrowed their plots from classical 
historians or modern romance-writers have 
exposed him to needlessly severe censure. Sir 
"Walter Scott writes of 'the malignant assi- 
duity' with which he levelled his charges of 
plagiarism (DarnEir, Works, ed. Scott, ii. 
292), and Disraeli in his ' Calamities of Au- 
thors ' declares that he ' read poetry only to 
detect plagiarisms.' But Langbaine's methods 
were scholarly, and betray no malice. A 
new edition of Langbaine's ' Account,' revised 
by Charles Gildon [q. v.], appeared in 1699, 
with the title, ' The Lives and Characters of 
the English Dramatick Poets. First begun 
by Mr. Langbaine, and continued down to* 
this time by a careful Hand ' (London, 8vo). 

Langbaine's work attained increased value 
from the attention bestowed on it by Wil- 
liam Oldys [q. v.], who embellished two 
copies of the 1691 edition with manuscript 
annotations, embodying much contemporary 
gossip. Oldys's first copy passed into the 
hands of Coxeter, and ultimately to Theo- 
philus Cibber [q. v.], who utilised portions 
of the manuscript notes in his ' Lives of the 
Poets,' 1758. A second copy, on which 
Oldys wrote, the date 1727, was once the 
property of Thomas Birch, but is now in the 
British Museum (C. 28, g. 1). The manu- 
script notes are written in this copy between 
the printed lines. Bishop Percy transcribed 
Oldys's notes in an interleaved copy bound 
in four volumes, and added comments of his 
own. The bishop's copy passed through the 
hands successively of Monck Mason ana Hal- 
liwell-Phillipps, gathering new additions on 
its way, and is now in the British Museum 
(C. 45 d. 14). Joseph Haslewood, E. V. 
Utterson, George Steevens, Malone, Isaac 
Eeed, and the Kev. Rogers Ruding also made 
transcripts of Oldys's notes in their copies of 
Langbaine, at the same time adding* original 
researches of their own. The British Mu- 
seum possesses Haslewood's, Utterson's, and 
Steevens's copies ; the Bodleian Library pos- 
sesses Malone's ; other copies of Oldys's notes 
are in private hands. Sir Egerton Brydges, 
who once owned Steevens's copy, printed a 
portion of Oldys's remarks in his memoirs of 
dramatists in his 'Censura Literaria,' but 
Oldys's notes have not been printed in their 
entirety (cf. Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. i. 
82-3). 

Langbaine was elected yeoman bedel in 
arts at Oxford on 14 Aug. 1690, 'in con- 
sideration of his ingenuity and loss of part 
of his estate,' and on 19 Jan. 1691 was pro- 
moted to the post of esquire bedel of law 
and architypographus. To Richard Peers's 
' Catalogue of [Oxford] Graduates,' 1691, he 
added an appendix of ' Proceeders in Div., 



Law, and Phvs.' from 14 July 1688, < where 
Peers left off,' to 6 Aug. 1690. Langbaine 
died on 23 June 1692, and was buried at Ox- 
ford, in the church of St. Peter-in-the-East. 
According to Wood, the maiden name of his 
wife was Greenwood (Wood, Life and Times, 
ed. Clark, Oxf. Hist. Soc, i. 238). A son 
William, born at Headington just before his 
father's death, was M.A. of New College, Ox- 
ford (1719), and vicar of Portsmouth from 
1739. 

[Wood's Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 364U8 ; 
authorities quoted above.] S. L. 

LANGDAILE or LANGDALE, AL- 
BAN (Jl. 1584), Roman catholic divine, 
a native of Yorkshire, was educated at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, and graduated 
B.A. in 1581-2 (Ooopeb, Athena Cantabr. i. 
509). On 26 March 1534 he was admitted 
a fellow of St. John's, and in 1535 he com- 
menced M.A. (Bakbb, Hist, of St. John's Col- 
lege, ed. Mayor, i. 283). He was one of the 
proctors of the university in 1539, and pro- 
ceeded B.D. in 1544. He took a part on 
the Roman catholic side in the disputations 
concerning transubstantiation, held in the 
philosophy schools before the royal com- 
missioners for the visitation of the university 
and the Marquis of Northampton, in June 
1549 (Coopbk, Annals of Cambridge, ii. 81). 
Before 1551 he left the university (Aschajt, 
English Works, ed. Bennet, p. 898). Re- 
turning on the accession of Queen Mary, he 
was created D.D. in 1554, and was incor- 
porated in that degree at Oxford on 14 April 
the same year, on the occasion of his going 
thither with other catholic divines to dispute 
with Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer (Wood, 
Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 146). He was rector 
of Buxted, Sussex, and on 26 Mav of that 
year was made prebendary of Ampleforth in 
the church of York. On 16 April 1555 he was 
installed archdeacon of Chichester. He re- 
fused an offer of the deanery of Chichester. 

Anthony Browne, first viscount Montague, 
to whom he was chaplain, writing to the queen 
on 17 May 1558, states that he had caused 
Langdaile to preach in places not well affected 
to religion (Col. State Papers, Dom. 1547- 
1580, p. 102). On 19 Jan. 1558-9 he was 
collated to the prebend of Alrewas in the 
church of Lichfield, and in the following 
month was admitted chancellor of that 
church (Plowdbn, Reports, p. 526). He 
was one of the eight catholic divines ap- 
pointed to argue against the same number 
of protestants in the disputation which began 
at Westminster on 81 March 1559 (Stbypb, 
Annals, i. 87, folio). On his refusal to take 
the oath of supremacy he was soon after- 
wards deprived of all his preferments. 



Langdale 



95 



Langdale 



In a list made in 1561 of popish recusants 
who were at large, but restricted to certain 
places, he is described as ' learned and very 
earnest in papistry/ He was ordered to re- 
main with Lord Montagu, or where his lord- 
ship should appoint, and to appear before 
the commissioners ' within twelve days after 
monition given to Lord Montagu or his 
officers' (Ual. State Papers, Dom. Addenda, 
1601-3, p. 623). Subsequently he withdrew 
to the continent, where he spent the re- 
mainder of his life. He was living in 1684. 
He must not be confounded with Thomas 
Langdale who entered the Society of Jesus 
in 1662 and served on the English mission 
(Dodd, Ckureh Hist. ii. 141). 

His works are: 1. 'Disputation on the 
Eucharist at Cambridge, June 1649;' in 
Foxe's ' Acts and Monuments.' 2. ' Catholics 
Confutatio impi» cuiusdam Determinationis 
D. Nicolai Ridlei, post disputationem de 
Eucharistia, in Acidemia Cantabrigiensi 
habit®/ Paris, 1556, 4to. Dedicated to An- 
thony, viscount Montague. The ' privilegium 
regium ' of Henry II of France to authorise 
the printing of the book is dated 7 March 
1663. 8. ' Colloquy with Richard Wood- 
man, 12 May 1667 ; ' in Foxe's ' Acts and 
Monuments.' 4. ' Tetrastichon,' at the end 
of Seton's « Diabetica,' 1574. 

[Addit. MS. 5875, f. 22 ; Baker's Hist, of St. 
John's Coll. pp. 116, 137, 462; Davies's Athene 
Britannia*, ii. 200; Lansdowne MS. 980, f. 260 ; 
Lower's Worthies of Sussex, p. 70; Ridley's 
Works (Christmas), p. 169; Rymer's Fcedera, 
xv. 382, 543, 544; Strype's Works (general 
index) ; Wood's Athena Oxon. (Bliss), i. 228. ii. 
821 ; authorities quoted.] T. C. 

LANGDALE, CHARLES (1787-1868), 
Roman catholic layman and biographer of 
Mrs. Fitzherbert, born in 1787, was the third 
son of Charles Philip, sixteenth lord Stour- 
ton, by a sister of Marmaduke, last lord Lang- 
dale, a title which became extinct in 1777. 
In 1815 he assumed his mother's maiden 
name instead of Stourton by royal license, 
in pursuance of a testamentary injunction of 
a Kinsman, Philip Langdale of Houghton, 
Yorkshire. He was a Roman catholic, and 
as a young man he appeared on the platform 
in London at the meetings held by his co-reli- 
gionists at the Freemasons' tavern and at the 
Crown and Anchor ; and stood side by side 
with the Howards, the Talbots, the Arun- 
dells, the Petres, and the Cliffords, to claim on 
behalf of English catholics the right of poli- 
tical emancipation. After the passing or the 
Relief Act he was one of the first English 
catholics to enter parliament, and he took his 
seat as member for Beverley at the opening 
of the parliament of 1833-4. He was not re- 



turned to the next parliament, but from 1837 
to 1841 he held one of the seats for Knares- 
borouph, near which the property of his father 
was situated. 

Throughout his life he took a leading part 
in all matters relating to the interests of 
Roman catholics ; and he exerted himself in 
an especial manner, as chairman of the poor 
schools committee, to promote the education 
of poor children belonging to that communion. 
He died on 1 Dec. 1868 at 5 Queen Street, 
Mayfair, London, having been admitted on 
his deathbed a temporal coadjutor of the 
Society of Jesus (Foley, Records, vii. 433). 
He was buried at Houghton, the family seat. 
Dr. Manning, archbishop of Westminster, in 
a funeral sermon, preached in London, de- 
scribed him as having been for fifty years the 
foremost man among the Roman catholic 
laity in England. 

He married, first, in 1815, Charlotte Mary, 
fifth daughter of Charles, seventh lord Clif- 
ford of Chudleigh — she died in 1818; se- 
condly, in 1821, Mary, daughter of Mar- 
maduke William Haggerstone Constable- 
Maxwell of Everingham Park, Yorkshire, 
and sister of Lord Hemes — she died in 1857. 
His eldest son, Charles, succeeded to the- 
family estates. 

As a young man Langdale was intimate 
with Mrs. Fitzherbert, whom he frequently 
visited at her house on the Old Steyne at 
Brighton. With a view to the vindication 
of her character he published ' Memoirs of 
Mrs. Fitzherbert ; with an Account of her 
Marriage with H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, 
afterwards King George the Fourth/London, 
1856, 8vo. He undertook this work at the 
request of his brother, Lord Stourton, one of 
the trustees named in Mrs. Fitzherbert's will 
(the others being the Duke of Wellington 
and the Earl of Albemarle), in reply to the 
attack on the lady's character in the ' Memoirs 
of Lord Holland.' He was prevented by the 
two surviving trustees from making use of the 
contents of the sealed box, which had in 1833 
been entrusted to their care, but he was en- 
abled to use the narrative drawn up by Lord 
Stourton and based upon the documents 
therein contained [see Fitzhubbekt, Maria 
Atob], 

[Funeral Discourse, by Father P. Gallwey, 
London, 1868, 8vo; Gallwey's Salvage from the 
Wreck, 1890, with portrait; Register, L 110, 
368 ; Oscotian, new ser. iii. 4.] T. C. 

LANGDALE, Bakon (1783-1851), mas- 
ter of the rolls. [See Bickbbstbth, Hbitbt.] 

LANGDALE, MARMADUKE, first 
Lord Langdale (1598 P-1661), was the son 
of Peter Langdale of Pighill, near Beverley, 



Langdale 



96 



Langdale 



by Anne, daughter of Michael Wharton of 
Beverley Park (Burke, Hctinct Peerage, 
1883, p. 314). He was knighted by Charles I 
at Whitehall on 5 Feb. 1627-8 (Metcalfe, 
Book of Knights, p. 188). His family were 
Roman catholics, and are returned as still re- 
cusants in the list of 1716 (CosiN, List of 
Roman Catholics, &c. ed. 1862, p. 699). In 
1639 he opposed the levy of ship-money on 
Yorkshire. ' I hear/ writes Strafford, ' my old 
friend Sir Marmaduke Langdale appears in 
the head of this business ; that gentleman I 
fear carries an itch about with him, that will 
never let him take rest, till at one time or 
other he happen to be thoroughly clawed in- 
deed J (Strafford Letters, ii. 308; cf. Co/. 
State Papers, Dom. 1640, p. 222). Never- 
theless, when the civil war began, Langdale, 
no doubt because of the seventy of the par- 
liament against catholics, adopted the king's 
cause with the greatest devotion. He was 
sent by the Yorkshire royalists in September 
1642 to the Earl of Newcastle, to engage him 
to march into Yorkshire to their assistance, 
and was one of the committee appointed to 
arrange terms with him (Life of the Duke of 
Newcastle, ed. Firth, pp. 333, 386). About 
February 1648 he raised a regiment of foot 
in the East Biding, but he was chiefly distin- 
guished as a cavalry commander (Slingsby, 
Memoirs, ed. Parsons, p. 93). Newcastle em- 
ployed him as an intermediary in his suc- 
cessful attempt to gain over the Hothams, 
and in his unsuccessful overtures to Colonel 
Hutchinson (Sanford, Studies and Illustra- 
tions of the Great Rebellion, p. 663 ; Life of 
Colonel Hutchinson,ed.¥\rth,i.377). Bebels, 
he wrote to Hutchinson, might be successful 
for a time, but generally had cause to repent 
in the end, and neither the law of the land 
nor any religion publicly professed in Eng- 
land allowed subjects to take uparms against 
their natural prince. ' I will go on/ he con- 
cluded, ' in that way that I doubt not shall 
gain the king his right forth of the usurper's 
hand wherever I find it.' When the Scots 
army invaded England, Langdale defeated 
their cavalry at Corbridge, Northumberland, 
19 Feb. 1644 (Life of the Duke of New- 
castle, p. 360; Rushwobth, v. 614). At 
Marston Moor he probably fought on the 
left wing with the northern horse under 
the command of General Goring. After the 
battle this division retreated through Cum- 
berland, Westmoreland, and Lancashire, to 
Chester, and were defeated on the way at 
Ormskirk (21 Aug.) and Malpas (26 Aug.), 
Langdale commanding in both actions (Civil 
War Tracts of Lancashire, ed. Ormerod, p. 
204 ; Phillips, Civil War in Wales, ii. 200). 
He joined the king's main army at the be- 



ginning of November 1644,just after the se- 
cond battle of Newbury (Walker, Histori- 
cal Discourses, p. 116). Langdale's northern 
horsemen were anxious to return to the relief 
of their friends. ' I beseech your highness/ 
wrote Langdale to Rupert, 'let not our 
countrymen upbraid us with ungratefulness 
in deserting them, but rather give us leave 
to try what we can do; it will be some satis- 
faction to us that we die amongst them in 
revenge of their quarrells ' (12 Jan. 1645 ; 
Rupert MSS.) Langdale was allowed to try, 
marched north, defeated Colonel Rossiter at 
Melton Mowbray on 26 Feb., and raised the 
siege of Pontefract on 1 March (Surtees So- 
ciety Miscellanea, 1861, ' Siege of Pontefract,' 
p. 14 ; Warburton, Prince Rupert, Hi. 68 ; 
mercurius AuUcus, 8 March 1645). This was 
his most brilliant piece of soldiership during 
the war. He rejoined the king's army at Stow- 
on-the- Wold, Gloucestershire, on 8 May 1645, 
and took part in the capture of Leicester 
(Diary of Richard Symonds,j>. 166). At the 
battle of Naseby (14 June 1645) Langdale 
commanded the king's left wing, but after a 
gallant resistance it was completely broken by 
Cromwell (Sprigge, Anglia Rediviva, p. 39). 
He was equally unfortunate in his encounter 
with Major-general Poyntz at Rowton Heath, 
near Chester (Symonds, p. 242; Walker, 
pp.130, 139). On 13 Oct. Langdale and some 
fifteen hundred horse, under the command 
of Lord Digby, started from Newark to join 
Montrose in Scotland, but were defeated on 
15 Oct. at Sherburn in Yorkshire. Langdale 
in antique fashion made a speech to his sol- 
diers before the fight, telling them that some 
people 'scandalised their gallantry for the 
loss of Naseby field/ and that now was the 
time to redeem their reputation. A second 
defeat from Sir John Browne at Carlisle 
sands completely scattered the little army, 
and Langdale, Digby, and a few officers 'fled 
over to the Isle of Man in a cock-boat' 
(Vicars, Burning Bush, pp. 297, 308 ; Cla- 
rendon MSS. 1992, 2003). He landed in 
France in May 1646 (Cary, Memorials of 
the Civil War, i. 33). 

On the approach of the second civil war 
Langdale was despatched to Scotland with 
a commission from Charles H, directing him 
to observe the orders of the Earls of Lauder- 
dale and Lanark (February 1648 ; Burnet, 
Lives of the Hamiltons, 1852, n. 426). On 
28 April he surprised Berwick, quickly 
raised a body of northern royalists, and pub- 
lished a ' Declaration for the King ' (Gar- 
diner, Great Civil War, iii. 370). Lambert, 
who commanded the parliamentary forces 
in the north, forced him to retire into Car- 
lisle, and he joined the Scots with three 



Langdale 



97 



Langdon 



thousand foot and six hundred horse when 
they advanced into Lancashire about 15 Aug. 
1648. At the battle of Preston on 17 Aug. 
his division was exposed almost entirely un- 
supported to the attack of Cromwell's army, 
ana was routed after a severe struggle. 
Friends and enemies alike admitted that 
they fought like heroes, though some Scottish 
authorities attribute the defeat to the in- 
efficiency of Langdale'8 scouts (ib. j)p. 434, 
436, 442 ; Clabendon, xi. 48, 75 ; Btjbnet, 
p. 453 ; Langdale'8 own narrative is printed 
in Lancashire Civil War Tracts, p. 267). 
Langdale accompanied Hamilton's march as 
far as Uttoxeter, fled with a few officers to 
avoid surrendering, and was captured on 
23 Aug. near Nottingham {Life of Colonel 
Hutchinson, ii. 385). On 21 Nov. parlia- 
ment voted that he should be one of the 
seven persons absolutely excepted from par- 
don, but he had escaped from Nottingham 
Castle about the beginning of the month, 
and found his way to the continent (Gab- 
duteb, iii. 510; RirsHWOBTH,vii. 1326). In 
June 1649 Charles II sent Langdale and Sir 
Lewis Dives to assist the Earl of Derby in 
the defence of the Isle of Man (A Declara- 
tion of Sir Marmaduke Langdale . . . in 
vindication of James, Earl of Derby, 4to, 
1649). 

According to the newspapers Langdale 
next entered the Venetian service, and dis- 
tinguished himself in the defence of Candia 
against the Turks (The Perfect Account, 
5-12 May 1652). When war broke out be- 
tween the Dutch and the English republic, 
Langdale came to Holland, and made a pro- 
posal for seizing Newcastle and Tynemouth 
with the aid of the Dutch, giving them in 
return the right of selling the coal (CW. Cla- 
rendon Papers, ii. 149). Hyde now came into 
collision with Langdale, whom he describes 
as ' a man hard to please, and of a very weak 
understanding, yet proud, and much in love 
with his own judgment, and very eager to 
forward the interests of the catholics (Cla- 
rendon State Papers, iii. 185, 181 ; Nicholas 
Papers, ii. 3). Though a large party in the 
north of England desired his presence to head 
a rising, he was not employed by the king 
in the attempted insurrection of 1655, ana 
complained of this neglect. He was con- 
cerned, however, in the plot discovered in 
the spring of 1658 (Thurloe Papers, i. 716). 
Charles ft created nim a peer at Bruges, 
4 Feb. 1658, by the title of Baron Langdale 
of Holme in Spaldingmore, Yorkshire (Dug- 
dale, Baronage, u. 475 ; Burke, Extinct 
Peerage, 1883, p. 314). Langdale's estates, 
however, had been wholly confiscated by the 
parliament, and he had been reduced to great 

vol. xxxn. 



poverty during his stay in the Low Countries. 
According to Lloyd his losses in the king's 
cause amounted to 160,000/. (Memoirs of Ex- 
cellent Personages, &c, 1668, p. 549). In 
April 1660 Hyde described him to Barwick 
as ' retired to a monastery in Germany to live 
with more frugality' (Life of John Barwick, 
p. 508). In April 1661 he begged to be ex- 
cused attendance at the king's coronation on 
the ground that he was too poor (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1660-1, p. 564). He died at 
his house at Holme on 5 Aug. 1661, and was 
buried at Sancton in the neighbourhood 
(Dugdale, Baronage, ii. 476). A painting 
of Langdale was in 1868 in the possession of 
the Hon. Mrs. Stourton. An engraved por- 
trait, with an autograph, is in 'Thane's 
Series.' 

By his wife Lenox, daughter of John 
Rodes of Barlborough, Derbyshire, he left 
a son, Marmaduke (d. 1703), who succeeded 
him in the title, and was governor of Hull 
in the interest of James II when the town 
was surprised by Colonel Copley in 1688 
(Reresby, Memoirs, ed. Cartwright, p. 420). 
The title became extinct on the death 
of the fifth Lord Langdale in 1777 (Col- 
lins, ix. 423 ; Burke, Extinct Peerages, p. 
314). 

[Letters of Langdale are to be found among the 
Clarendon MSS., the Nicholas MSS. f and in Cor- 
respondence of Prince Rupert. For pedigrees 
see Foster's Visitations of Yorkshire in 1584 
and 1612, p. 129, and Poulson's Holderness, ii. 
254.] C. H. F. 

LANGDON, JOHN (d. 1434), bishop of 
Rochester, a native of Kent, and perhaps of 
Langdon, was admitted a monk of Christ 
Church, Canterbury, in 1398. Afterwards he 
studied at Oxford, and graduated B.D. in 
1400 ; according to his epitaph he was D.D. 
He is said to have belonged to Gloucester 
Hall, now Worcester College (Wood, City 
of Oxford, ii. 269, Oxf. Hist. Soc.) Accord- 
ing to another account he was warden of 
Canterbury College, which was connected 
with his monastery ; but this may be an error, 
due to the fact that a John Langdon was 
warden in 1478 (ib. ii. 288). He was one of 
twelve Oxford scholars appointed at the sug- 
gestion of convocation in 1411 to inquire into 
the doctrines of Wycliffe (Wood, Hist and 
Antiq. Univ. Oxf. i. 651). Their report is 
printed in Wilkins's ' Concilia/ iii. 339-49. 
Langdon became sub-prior of his monastery 
before 1411, when he preached a sermon 
against the lollards in a synod at London 
(Habpsfeld, Hist. Eccl. Angl. p. 619). On 
17 Nov. 1421 he was appointed by papal pro- 
vision to the see of Rochester, and was conse- 

H 



Langdon 



9 8 



Langford 



crated on 7 June 1422 at Canterbury by Arch- 
bishop Chichelev (Stubbs, Reg. Sacr. Angl. 
p. 65). After his consecration he appears 
among the royal councillors (Nicolas, Proc. 
Privy Council, iii. 6), and after 1430 his name 
constantly occurs among those present at the 
meetings. He was a trier of petitions for 
Gascony in the parliament of January 1431, 
and for England, Ireland, Wales, and Scot- 
land in that of May 1432 (Rot. Par/.iv. 368 a, 
388). In February 1432 he was engaged on 
an embassy to Charles VTI of France (Fosdera, 
x. 500, 614). In July following he was ap- 
pointed one of the English representatives at 
the council of Basle, whither he was intend- 
ing to set out at the end of the year ; he was 
at the same time entrusted with a further 
mission to Charles VII (to. x. 624, 527, 630). 
Langdon was, however, in England in March 
1433, and for some months of 1434 (Nicolas, 
Proc. Privy Council, iv. 154, 177, 196, 221). 
On 18 Feb. 1434 he had license to absent 
himself from the council if sent on a mission 
by the pope or cardinals, and on 3 Nov. of 
that year was appointed to treat for the refor- 
mation of the church and peace with France 
(Fcedera, x. 57 1 , 589). Langdon had, however, 
died at Basle on 30 Sept. It is commonly 
alleged that his body was brought home for 
burial at the Charterhouse, London, but in 
reality he was interred in the choir of the 
Carthusian monastery at Basle (see epitaph 
printed in Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. ix. 274). 
His will, dated 2 March 1433-4, was proved 
27 June 1437. 

Langdon is said to have been a man of 
great erudition, and to have written: 1. 'An- 

florum Chronicon.' 2. 'Sermones.' Thomas 
tudborne, in his preface to his ' Historia 
Minor/ says that he had made use of Lang- 
don's writings (Wharton, Anglia Sacra, L 
287). 

[Bale, vii. 68; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 
466 ; Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 380 ; Rymers 
Foedera, orifc. ed. ; Godwin's De Prsesulibus, p. 
534, ed. Richardson ; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. 
ii. 566 ; authorities quoted.] C. L. K. 

LANGDON, RICHARD(I730-1803),or- 
ganist and composer, son of Charles Langdon 
of Exeter, and grandson of Tobias Langdon 
(d. 1712), priest-vicar of Exeter, was born at 
Exeter in 1730. An uncle, Richard Lang- 
don,with whom he is sometimes confused,was 
born in 1686. The younger Richard Langdon 
was appointed organist of Exeter Cathedral 
on 23 June 1753 (Cathedral Records). He 
graduated Mus.Bac. at Exeter College, Ox- 
ford, 13 July 1 761, aged 31 (Oxford Register). 
On 25 Nov. 1777 he was elected organist 
of Ely, but seems not to have entered on 



his duties there, having been made organist 
of Bristol Cathedral, 3 Dec. 1777. His last 
appointment was as organist of Armagh 
Cathedral, 1782-94. He died at Exeter on 
8 Sept. 1803 (Gent. Mag. 1803, pt. ii. p. 888, 
and memorial tablet). Langdon's works in- 
clude, besides several anthems, 'Twelve Songs 
and Two Cantatas/ opus 4 (London, n.d.) ; 
and ' T welv e Glees for Three and Four Voices * 
(London, 1770). In 1774 he published ' Di- 
vine Harmony, being a Collection in score 
of Psalms and Anthems.' At the end of 
this work are twenty chants by various 
authors, all printed anonymouslv; the first, 
a double chant in F, has usually been as- 
signed to Langdon himself, and has long* 
been popular. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, where the date of his 
appointment to Exeter is wrongly set down as 
1770; Parr's Church of England Psalmody; 
Jenkins's Hist, of Exeter; Foster'sAlumniOxon.; 
notes from Exeter, Ely, and Bristol Cathedral 
Records, as privately supplied.] J. C. H. 

LANGFORD, ABRAHAM (1711- 
1774), auctioneer and plavwright, was born 
in the parish of St. Paul s, Covent Garden, 
in 1711. When quite a young man he began 
to write for the stage, and was responsible, 
according to the ' Biographia Dramatica/for 
an ' entertainment ' called 'The Judgement 
of Paris/ which was produced in 1 730. In 
1736 appeared a ballad-opera by him en- 
titled 'The Lover his own Rival, as per- 
formed at the New Theatre at Goodman's 
Fields/ Though it was received indifferently, 
it was reprinted at London in 1753, and at 
Dublin in 1759. In 1748 Langford succeeded 
'the great Mr. Cock/ i.e. Christopher or 'Auc- 
tioneer' Cock (d. 1748; see 'Gentleman's 
Magazine/ s.a., p. 572), at the auction-rooms 
in the north-eastern corner of the Piazza, 
Covent Garden. These rooms formed part of 
the house where Sir Dudley North died in 
1691, and are now occupied by the Tavistock 
Hotel. Before his deatn Langford seems to 
have occupied the foremost place among the 
auctioneers of the period. He died on 17 Sept. 
1774, and was buried in St. Pancras church- 
yard, where a long and grandiloquent epitaph 
is inscribed on both sides of his tomb (Lysons, 
iii. 357). 

A mezzotint portrait of the auctioneer, 
without painters or engraver's name, is 
noticed in Bromley's ' Engraved Portraits ' 
(p. 407). He left a numerous family, one of 
whom, Abraham Langford, was a governor of 
Highgute Chapel and school in 1811 (Lysoks, 
Suppf. p. 200). Langford's successor at the 
Covent Garden auction-rooms was another 
well-known auctioneer, George Robins. 



Langford 



99 



Langham 



[Biographia Dramatics, 1812, vol. i. pt. ii. 
p. 444; Nichols's lit. Anecdotes, passim ; Daily 
Advertiser, 19 Sept. 1774; Wheatley and Cun- 
ningham's London, iii. 84.] T. S. 

LANGFORD, THOMAS (Jl. 1420), his- 
torian, was a native of Essex and Dominican 
friar at Chelmsford. He is said to have heen 
a D.D. of Cambridge, and to have written : 
1. 'Cbronicon Universale ab orbecondito ad 
sua temporal 2. ' Sermones.' 3. ' Disputa- 
tiones.' 4. 'Postilla super Job.' None of i 
these works seem to have survived. 

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 466 ; Quetif and ' 
Echard's Script Ord. Pried, i. 623 ; Nouvelle ' 
Biographie Generate.] C. L. K. i 

LANGHAM, SIMON (d. 1376), arch- ' 
bishop of Canterbury, chancellor of England, 
and cardinal, was born at Langham in Rut- j 
land. To judge from the wealth which he 
seems to have possessed, he was probably ! 
a man of good birth. He became a monk ' 
at St. Peter's, Westminster, possibly about , 
1335, but is not mentioned until 1346, when < 
he represented his house in the triennial 
chapter of the Benedictines held at North- i 
ampton. In April 1349 he was made prior ' 
of Westminster, and on the death of Al)bot j 
Byrcheston on 15 May following succeeded | 
him as abbot. He paid his first visit to 
Avignon when he went to obtain the papal | 
confirmation of his election. He refused the j 
customary presents to a new abbot from the : 
monks, and discharged out of his own means < 
the debts which his predecessors had incurred. t 
In conjunction with Nicholas Littlington | 
[q. v.], nis successor as prior and afterwards • 
as abbot, he carried out various important I 
works in the abbey, the chief of which was I 
the completion or the cloisters. The skill I 
which Langham displayed in the rule of his j 
abbey led to his appointment as treasurer of | 
England on 21 Nov. 1360. At the end of 
June 1361 the bishopric of Ely fell vacant, 
and Langham was elected to it ; but before 
the appointment was completed London like- 
wise fell vacant, and he was elected to this see 
also. Langham, however, refused to change, 
and was appointed to Ely by a papal bull on 
10 Jan. 1362. He was consecrated accord- 
ingly on 20 March at St. Paul's Cathedral by 
William Edendon, bishop of Winchester. 
Although active in his diocese, Langham 
did not abandon his position in the royal ser- 
vice, and in 1363 was promoted to be chan- 
cellor. He attested the treaty with Castile 
on 1 Feb., but did not take the oath or re- 
ceive the seal till the 19th (Fatdera, iii. 687, 
689). As chancellor he opened the parlia- 
ments of 1363, 1365, and 1367; his speeches 
on the two former occasions were the first of 



their kind delivered in English (Rot. Pari. 
ii. 275, 283). Langham's period of ofiice 
was marked by stricter legislation against 
the papal jurisdiction, in the shape of the 
new act oi praemunire in 1365, and by the 
repudiation of the papal tribute in the fol- 
lowing year. On 24 July 1366 Langham 
was chosen archbishop of Canterbury, and on 
4 Nov. received the pall at St. Stephen's, 
Westminster. He was enthroned at Canter- 
bury on 25 March 1367. He had resigned 
the seals shortly after his nomination as arch- 
bishop and before 16 Sept. 1366. 

As primate Langham exerted himself in 
correcting the abuses of pluralities. Other 
constitutions ascribed to nim are also pre- 
served ; in one he settled a dispute between 
the London clergy and their parishioners as 
to the payment of tithe (Wilxins, Concilia, 
iii. 62). He also found occasion to censure 
the teaching of the notorious John Ball (ib. p. 
65). He condemned certain propositions of 
theology which had been maintained at Ox- 
ford, and prohibited friars from officiating 
unless by special licenses of the pope or arch- 
bishop (ib. pp. 75, 64). One incident of his 
primacy which has gained considerable pro- 
minence was his removal of John Wiclif from 
the headship of Canterbury Hall, which 
his predecessor, Simon Islip, had founded at 
Oxford. Dr. Shirley (Fasciculi Zixaniorum, 
pp. 518-28) and others have argued that this 
was not the famous reformer, but his name- 
sake, John Wycliffe of Mayfield ; the con- 
trary opinion is, however, now generally ac- 
cepted, but the evidence does not seem abso- 
lutely conclusive (Lbchleb, Life of Wicltf, 
i. 160-81, 191-2; see also under Wiolif, 
John). On 27 Sept. 1368 Pope Urban V 
created Langham cardinal-priest by the title 
of St. Sixtus. Edward III was offended at 
Langham's acceptance of the preferment with- 
outtne royal permission, and, arguing that the 
see of Canterbury was consequently void, took 
the revenues into his own hands. Langham for- 
mally resigned his archbishopric on 27 Nov., 
and after some trouble obtained permission 
to leave the country, which he did on 28 Feb. 
1369. He went to the papal court at Avi- 

Saon, where he was styled the cardinal of 
anterbury. Langham soon recovered what- 
ever royal favour he had lost, and was allowed 
to hold a variety of preferments in England. 
He became treasurer of Wells in 1368, was 
archdeacon of Wells from 21 Feb. 1369 to 
1374, and afterwards archdeacon of Taunton. 
He also received the prebends of Wistow 
at York, 11 Feb. 1370, and Brampton at Lin- 
coln, 19 Aug. 1372 ; and was archdeacon of 
the West Riding from 1874 to 1376. In 1372 
he was appointed by Gregory XI, together 

h2 



Langham 



IOO 



Langhorne 



with the cardinal of Beauvais, to mediate 
between France and England, and with this 

Surpose visited both courts. The mission 
id not achieve its immediate object, but 
Langham arranged a peace between the Eng- 
lish king and the Count of Flanders (F&dera, 
iii. 953). In July 1373 he was made cardi- 
nal-bishop of Praeneste. Next year, on the 
death of Whittlesey, the chapter of Canter- 
bury chose Langham for archbishop, but the 
court desired the post for Simon Sudbury, 
and the pope refused to confirm the election 
by the cnapter on the ground that Langham 
could not oe spared from Avignon ; Lang- 
ham thereon agreed to waive his rights 
(Euloff. Hist iii. 339). When in 1376 the 
return of the papal court to Rome was pro- 
posed, Langham obtained permission to go 
back to England, but died before effecting 
his purpose on 22 July. His body was at 
first interred in the church of the Carthu- 
sians at Avignon ; three years later it was 
transferred to St. Benet's Chapel in West- 
minster Abbey. His tomb is the oldest and 
most remarkable ecclesiastical monument in 
the abbey. Widmore quotes a poetical epi- 
taph from John Flete's manuscript history of 
the abbey. 

Langham was plainly a man of remark- 
able ability, and a skilful administrator. But 
his rule was so stern, that he inspired little 
affection. An epigram on his translation to 
Canterbury runs : 

Exultent cceli, quia Simon transit ab Ely, 
Cujus in adventum dent in Kent millia centum. 

Nevertheless, the Monk of Ely praises him 
with some warmth as a discreet and prudent 
pastor (Anglia Sacra, i. 663). To Westmin- 
ster Abbey he was a most munificent bene- 
factor, and has been called, not unjustly, its 
second founder. In addition to considerable 
presents in his lifetime, he bequeathed to the 
abbey his residuary estate ; altogether, his 
benefactions amounted to 10,800/., or nearly 
200,000/. in modern reckoning. Out of this 
money Littlington rebuilt the abbot's house 
(now the deanery), together with the south- 
ern and western cloisters and other parts of 
the conventual buildings which have now 
perished. His will, dated 28 June 1375, is 
printed by Widmore (Appendix, pp. 184-91). 
It contains a number oi bequests to friends 
and servants, and to various churches with 
which he had been connected, including 
those of Langham and Ely. 

„ [Walsingham's Hist. Angl. and Murimuth's 
CSpon. in Rolls Ser. ; Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 
i. 4&-8 ; Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl. ed. Hardy ; 
Dugdule's Monasticon, i. 274 ; Widmore's Hist, 
of the Church of St. Peter, pp. 91-101 ; Stan- 



ley's Memorials of Westminster j). 354 ; Foss's 
Judges of England, iii. 463-6 ; Hook's Lives of 
the Archbishops of Canterbury, iv. 163-220 ; 
authorities quoted.] C. L. K. 

LANGHORNE, DANIEL (d. 1681), 
Antiquary, a native of London, was admitted 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, 23 Oct. 1649, 
became a scholar of that house, and gra- 
duated B.A. in 1663-4, and M.A. in 1667. 
He became curate of Holy Trinity, Ely, and 
on 17 March 1662 the bishop granted him a 
license to preach in that church and through- 
out the aiocese (Kbnotbtt, Register and 
Chron. p. 884). He was elected a fellow of 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, in 1663, 
and proceeded to the degree of B J), in 1664, 
when he was appointed one of the univer- 
sity preachers. On 3 Sept. 1670 he was in- 
stituted to the vicarage of Layston, with 
the chapel of Alswyk, Hertfordshire, and 
consequently vacated his fellowship in the 
following year (Cltttteebuck, Hertford- 
shire, iii. 434). He held his benefice till his 
death on 10 Aug. 1681 (Baker MSS. xxii. 
318). 

His works are : 1. ' Elenchus Antiquitatum 
Albionensium, Britannorum, Scotorum, Da- 
norum, Anglosaxonum, etc. : Origines et 
Gesta usque ad annum 449, quo Angli in 
Britanniam immigrarunt, explicans,' London, 
1673, 8vo, dedicated to William Montacute, 
attorney-general to Queen Catherine. 2. 'Ap- 
pendix ad Elenchum Antiquitatum Albio- 
nensium : Res Saxonum et Suevorum vetus- 
tissimas exhibens,' London, 1674, 8vo. 3. 'An 
Introduction to the History of England, 
comprising the principal affairs of this land 
from its first planting to the coming of the 
English Saxons. Together with a Catalogue 
of British and Pictish Kings,' London, lw6, 
8vo. 4. * Chronicon Regum Anglorum, in- 
signia omnia eorum gesta . . . ao Hengisto 
Rege primo, usque ad Hept&rchiae finem, 
chronologic^ exhibens,' London, 1679, 8vo, 
dedicated to Sir Joseph Williamson, secretary 
of state. A beautifully written manuscript 
by Langhorne, entitled 'Chronici Regum 
Anglorum Continuatio, a rege Egberto usque 
ad annum 1007 deducta,' belonged to Dawson 
Turner (Cat of DamonTurner'sMSS. 1869, 
p. 107). 

[Addit. MS. 5875, f. 42 ; Masters's Hist, of 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, p. 329 ; Ni- 
coleon'8 English Historical Library.] T. C. 

LANGHORNE, JOHN Q735-1779), 
poet, the younger son of the Rev. Josepn 
Langhorne of Winton in the parish of Kirkby 
Stephen, Westmoreland, and Isabel his wife, 
was born at Winton in March 1786. He 
was first educated at a school in his native 



\ 



Langhorne 



IOI 



Langhorne 



village, and afterwards at Appleby. In his 
eighteenth year he became a private tutor in 
a family near Ripon, and during his residence 
there commenced writing verses. ' Studley 
Park ' and a few other of his early efforts 
have been preserved (Chalmers, English 
Poets, xvi. 416-19). He was afterwards an 
usher in the free school at Wakefield, and 
while there took deacon's orders, and eked 
out his scanty income by taking Edmund 
Cartwright [a- v.] as a pupil during the vaca- 
tions. In 1759 he went to Hackthorn, near 
Lincoln, as tutor to the sons of Robert Cra- 
croft, and in the following year matriculated 
at Clare Hall, Cambridge, with the inten- 
tion of taking the degree of bachelor of di- 
vinity as a ten-year man. He, however, left 
the university without taking any degree. 
Leaving Hackthorn in 1761, he went to 
Dagenham, Essex, where he officiated as 
curate to the Rev. Abraham Blackburn. In 
1764 he was appointed curate and lecturer 
at St. John's, Clerkenwell, and soon after- 
wards commenced writing for the ' Monthly 
Review,' then under the editorship of Ralph 
Griffiths Tq. v.] In December 1765 he was 
appointed assistant preacher at Lincoln's Inn 
by the preacher Dr. Richard Hurd, after- 
wards bishop of Worcester fa. v.] In the fol- 
lowing year Langhorne published a small col- 
lection of ' Poetical Works ' (London, 1766, 
12mo, 2 vols.), which contained, among other 
pieces, 'The Fatal Prophecy: a dramatic 
poem,' written in 1765. In the same year 
(1766) he became rector of Blagdon, Somer- 
set, and the university of Edinburgh is said 
to have granted him the honorary degree of 
D.D. in return for his ' Genius and Valour : 
a Scotch pastoral ' (2nd edit. London, 1764, 
4to), written in defence of the Scotch against 
the aspersions of Churchill in his ' Prophecy 
of Famine ; ' there is, however, no evidence 
of any such grant in the university registers. 
In January 1767, after a courtship of five 
years, he married Ann Cracroft, the sister of 
Lis old pupils, who died in giving birth to a 
son on 4 May 1768, aged 32, and was buried 
in the chancel of Blagdon Church. At her 
desire he published after her death his cor- 
respondence with her before marriage, under 
the title of ' Letters to Eleanora.' Leaving 
Blagdon shortly after his wife's death he went 
to reside with his elder brother William [see 
infra] at Folkestone, where they made their 
joint translation of ' Plutarch's Lives . . . 
from the original Greek, with Notes Critical 
and Historical, and a new Life of Plutarch ' 
(London, 1770, 8vo, 6 vols.) Though dull 
and commonplace, it was much more correct 
than North's spirited translation from the 
French of Amyot, or the unequal production 



known as Dryden's version, and though writ- 
ten more than 120 years ago, it still holds the 
field. Another edition was published in 1778, 
8vo, 6 vols. ; the fifth edition corrected, Lon- 
don, 1792, and many others have followed 
down to 1879. Francis Wrangham edited 
four editions of this translation in 1810 
(London, 12mo, 8 vols.), in 1813 (London, 
8vo, 6 volsA in 1819 (London, 8vo, 6 vols.), 
and in 1826 (London, 8vo, 6 vols.) It has 
also been published in Warne's ' Chandos 
Classics,' Ward and Lock's ' World Library 
of Standard Works,' Routledge's •' Excelsior 
Series,' and in Cassell's ' National Library.' 
On 12 Feb. 1772 Langhorne married, secondly, 
the daughter of a Mr. Thompson, a magis- 
trate near Brough, Westmoreland. After a 
tour through France and Flanders he and 
his wife returned to Blagdon, where he was 
made a justice of the peace. His second wife 
died in giving birth to an only daughter in 
February 1776. He was installed a pre- 
bendary of Wells Cathedral in October 1777. 
His domestic misfortunes are said to have 
led him into intemperate habits. He died 
at Blagdon House on 1 April 1779, in the 
forty-nfth year of his age, and was buried 
at Blagdon. 

Langhorne was a popular writer in his day, 
but his sentimental tales and his pretty verses 
have long ceased to please, and he is now 
best remembered as the joint translator of 
'Plutarch's Lives.' His 'Poetical Works' 
were collected by his son, the Rev. John 
Theodo8ius Langhorne, vicar of Harmonds- 
worth and Drayton, Middlesex (London, 
1804, 8vo, 2 vols.) They will also be found 
in Chalmers's ' English Poets,' xvi. 415-75, 
and in several other poetical collections. A 
few of his letters to Hannah More are pre- 
served in Roberts's ' Memoirs of Mrs. Hannah 
More,' 1835, i. 19-29. Besides editing a col- 
lection of his brother's sermons and publish- 
ing two separate sermons of his own, Lang- 
horne was also the author of the following 
works : 1. ' The Death of Adonis, a pastoral 
elegy, from the Greek of Bion,' London, 
1759, 4to. 2. ' The Tears of Music: a poem 
to the Memory of Mr. Handel, with an Ode 
to the River Eden,' London, 1760, 4to. 3. 'A 
Hymn to Hope,' London, 1761 , 4to. 4. ' Soly- 
man and Almena : an Oriental tale,' London, 
1762, 12mo ; another edition, London, 1781, 
8vo ; Cooke's edition, London, 1800, 12mo : 
reprinted with i The Correspondence of Theo- 
dosius and Constantia,' in Walker's ' British 
Classics ' (London, 1817, 8vo) : appended to 
i Elizabeth, or the Exiles or Siberia,' &c., 
London [1821 P], 8vo. 5. l The Viceroy : a 
poem, addressed to the Earl of Halifax,' anon., 
London, 1762, 4to. 6. i Letters on Religious 



Langhorne 



I02 



Langhorne 



Retirement, Melancholy, and Enthusiasm/ 
London, 1762, 8vo ; another edition, London, 
1772, 8vo. 7. 'The Visions of Fancy, in 
four elegies/ London, 1762, 4to. 8. ' The 
Effusions of Friendship and Fancy, in several 
letters to and from select friends/ anon., 
London, 1768, 8vo, 2 vols. ; 2nd edit., with 
additions, &c., London, 1766, 8vo, 2 vols. 
9. ' The Enlargement of the Mind. Epistle I, 
to General Craufurd [epistle to W. Lang- 
horne]/ 2 parts, London, 1763-6, 4to. 10. 'The 
Letters that passed between Theodosius and 
Constantia after she had taken the Veil, 
now first published from the original manu- 
scripts/ London, 1763, 8vo ; 2nd edit. Lon- 
don, 1764. 8vo ; 4th edit. London, 1766, 8vo. 
11. 'The Correspondence between Theodosius 
and Constantia from their first acquaintance 
to the departure of Theodosius, now first 
published from the original manuscripts, by 
the Editor of " The Letters that passed be- 
tween Theodosius and Constantia after she 
had taken the Veil,"' London, 1764, 12mo. 
The whole of the correspondence both before 
and after taking the veil was frequently pub- 
lished together; 'a new edition/ London, 
1770, 8vo, 2 vols.; London, 1778, 16mo, 
2 vols. ; London, 1782, 8vo ; with the life of 
the author, London, 1807, 12mo ; reprinted 
with the ' History of Solyman and Almena/ 
in Walker's ' British Classics/ London, 1817, 
12mo, and in Dove's ' English Classics/ Lon- 
don, 1826, 12mo. 12. 'Sermons, by the 
Editor of " Letters between Theodosius and 
Constantia," ' London, 1764, 8vo, 2 vols. 

13. ' Letters on the Eloquence of the Pulpit, 
by the Editor of the " Letters between Theo- 
dosius and Constantia/* ' London, 1766, 8vo. 

14. ' The Poetical Works of William Collins, 
with Memoirs of the Author, and Observa- 
tions on his Genius and Writings/ London, 

1766, 8vo; a new edition, London, 1781, 
16mo. 16. ' Sermons preached before the 
Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn . . . 
Second edition/ London, 1767, 12 mo, 2 vols. ; 
3rd edit. London, 1773, 8vo, 2 vols. 16. 'Pre- 
cepts of Conjugal Happiness, addressed to a 
Lady on her Marriage [in verse], London, 

1767, 4to ; 2nd edit. London, 1769, 4to. 

17. ' Verses in Memory of a Lady, written 
at Sandgate Castle/ London, 1768, 4to. 

18. ' Letters supposed to have passed be- 
tween M. De St. Evremond and Mr. Waller, 
by the Editor of the " Letters between Theo- 
dosius and Constantia/' ' London, 1769, 8vo. 

19. ' Frederic and Pharamond, or the Conso- 
lations of Human Life/ London, 1769, 8vo. 
20. ' The Fables of Flora/ London, 1771,4to; 
6th edit. London, 1778, 4to; another edi- 
tion, London, 1794, 12mo ; appended to Ed- 
ward Moore's 'Fables for the Ladies/ Phila- 



delphia, 1787, 12mo. 21. ' A Dissertation, 
Historical and Political, on the Ancient Re- 
publics of Italy [translated], from the Italian 
of Carlo Denina, with original Notes/ &c., 
London, 1773, 8vo. 22. 'The Origin of the 
Veil : a poem/ London, 1778, 4to. 2S. ' The 
Country Justice: a poem, by one of Her 
Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the county 
of Somerset/ 3 parts, London, 1774-7, 4to. 
24. ' Milton's Italian Poems, translated and 
addressed to a gentleman of Italy/ London, 
1776, 4to. 26. ' Owen of Carron : a poem/ 
London, 1778, 4to. 

William Langhoknb (1721-1772), poet 
and translator, born in 1721, elder brother 
of the above, was presented by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, on 26 Feb. 1764, to the 
rectory of Hawkinge and the perpetual curacy 
of Folkestone, Kent, and on 19 May 1766 
received the Lambeth degree of MA. ( Gent. 
Mao. 1864, 3rd ser. xvi. 637). He died on 
17 Feb. 1772, and was buried in the chancel 
of Folkestone Church, where a monument 
was erected to his memory. Besides assist- 
ing his brother in the translation of ' Plut- 
arch's Lives,' he wrote the following works : 
1. 'Job : a poem, in three books [a paraphrase]/ 
London, 1760, 4to. 2. 'A Poetical Para- 

Shrase on part of the Book of Isaiah/ Lon- 
on, 1761, 4to. 8. 'Sermons on Practical 
Subjects and the most useful Points of Di- 
vinity/ London, 1778, 8vo, 2 vols. These 
volumes were published after his death, and 
were seen through the press by his brother, 
by whom the ' advertisement ' is signed ' J. L. ; ' 
2nd edit. 1778, 12mo, 2 vols. 

[Memoirs of the Author, prefixed to J. T. 
Langhorne'8 edition of John Langhorne's Poeti- 
cal Works, 1804, pp. 5-25 ; Life, prefixed to 
Cooke's edition of John Langhorne s Poetical 
Works (1789 ?) and to Jones's edition of the Cor 
respondence of Theodosius and Constantia, 1 807 ; 
Chalmers's English Poets, 1810, xvi. 407-13 ; 
Memoir of Dr. Edmund Cartwright, 1843, pp 
6, 7, 12, 13, 19-21 ; Chalmers's Biog. Diet. 1815, 
xix. 515-24; Baker's Biog. Dramatica, 1812, 
l i. 444; Georgian Era, 1834, iii. 552-8; Nicol- 
1 son and Burn's Hist, of Westmorland and Cum- 
berland, 1777, i. 549-50; Collinson's Hist, of 
Somerset, 1791, iii. 570 ; Hasted's Hist, of Kent, 
1790, iii. 368, 388; Notes and Queries, 7th ser. 
x. 209, 267, 287, 333, 368, 377 ; Gent. Ma*. 
1766 xxxvi. 392, 1768 xxxviii. 247, 1772 xlii. 
94, 95 ; Lowndes's Bibl. Manual (Bonn's edit.) ; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit. 1824 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

G. F. B. B. 
LANGHORNE, RICHARD (d. 1679), 
one of Titus Oates's victims, was admitted a 
member of the Inner Temple in November 
1646, and was called to the bar in 1654 
(Cooke, Members admitted to the Inner 
Temple, p. 824). He was a Roman catholic. 



Langhorne 



103 



Langhorne 



Shortly before the Restoration he engaged a 
half-witted person to manage elections for 
him in Kent, and admitted to Tillotson (after- 
wards archbishop of Canterbury) that if the 
agent should turn informer it would be easy 
to invalidate his evidence by representing him 
as a madman. Langhorne was accused by 
Oates and his associates with being a ring- 
leader in the pretended 'Popish plot, and was 
among the first who were apprehended. He 
was committed to Newgate on 7 Oct. 1678, 
and after more than eight months' close im- 
prisonment was tried at the Old Bailey on 
14 June 1679. Oates gave evidence against 
Langhorne, and Bedloe corroborated him. 
Langhorne called witnesses to rebut their 
statements, and pointed out glaring discre- 
pancies, but in vain. He was condemned with 
five Jesuits who had been tried on the previous 
day, and was reprieved for some time in the 
hope that he would make discoveries, but he 
persisted in affirming that he could make none, 
and that all that had been sworn against 
him was false. He was executed on 14 July 
1679 at Tyburn, where he delivered a speech, 
which he desired might be published. A 
portrait of him in mezzotint has been en- 
graved by E. Lutterel. It is reproduced in 
SichardsonV Collection of Portraits in illus- 
tration of Granger/ vol. ii. 

His works are: 1. 'Mr. Langhorn's Me- 
moires, with some Meditations and Devotions 
of his during his imprisonment : as also his 
Petition to his Majesty, and his Speech at 
his Execution,' London, 1679, fol. 2. 'Con- 
siderations touching the great question of 
the King's right in dispensing with the Penal 
Laws, written on the occasion of his late 
blessed Majesties granting Free Toleration 
and Indulgence,' London, 1687, fol. Dedi- 
cated to the king by the author's son, Richard 
Langhorne. 

[The following publications have reference to 
his trial and execution : (a) The Petition and 
Declaration of R. Langhorne, the notorious 
Papist, now in Newgate condemned for treason, 
presented to his Majesty in Council ... in which 
he avowedly owneth several Popish principles 
{London, 1679], fol. ; (ft) Tryal of R. Langhorne 
. . . London, 1679, fol. ; (c) An Account of the 
Deportment and last Words of ... R. Lang- 
horne, London, 1679, fol. ; (d) The Confession 
and Execution of ... R. Langhorne . . . [London, 
1679], fol. ; (e) The Speech of R. Langhorne at 
his Execution, 14 July 1679. Being left in 
writing by him [London, 1679], fol. Printed in 
French the same year by Thomas White, alias 
Whitebread, Jesuit, in Harangues des cinq Peres 
de la Compagnie de Jesus, executes a Loodres, 
le §§ juin 1679, sine loco, 4 to. See also Burnet's 
Hist, of his own Time,i. 230, 427, 430, 431,466, 
466; Challoner's Missionary Priests, No. 200; 



Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 263 ; Granger's Biog. 
Hist, of England, 5th edit. t. 129, 130 ; Howelfs 
State Trials, vii. 417 ; Jones's Popery Tracts, i. 
90 ; North's Lives, 1826, i. 38.] T. C. 

LANGHORNE, Sir WILLIAM (1629- 
1715), governor of Madras, son of William 
Langhorne, an East India merchant, of Lon- 
don, was born in the city in 1629. He was 
probably a brother of the Captain Langhorne 
of the royal navy who is frequently men- 
tioned in the ' State Papers ' during the reign 
of Charles II (Dom. Ser. 1666-7, passim). He 
was admitted to the Inner Temple on 6 Aug. 
1664, but does not appear to have practised 
at the bar (Inner Temple Register). He suc- 
ceeded to his father's East India trade, made 
money, and was in 1668 created a baronet. 
In 1670 he was appointed to investigate a 
charge of fiscal malpractice which had been 
brought against Sir fidward Winter, East 
India Company agent and governor of Madras, 
with the result that Langhorne himself was 
made governor in Winter's stead in the course 
of the year. His appointment coincided with 
a critical period in the history of the settle- 
ment. Colbert had in 1665 projected the 
French East India Company, and in 1672 
the French admiral, De la Haye, landed 
troops and guns at St. Thome, on the Coro- 
mandel coast. Langhorne maintained a dis- 
creetly neutral position between the French, 
who were at that moment the nominal allies 
of England, and the Dutch, with whom Eng- 
land was at war. When in 1674 the Dutch 
stormed and took possession of St. Thom6, 
he contented himself with expressing sym- 
pathy with the French, at the same time 
strengthening the defences of Fort St. George. 
In the same year the English settlement 
was visited by Dr. John Fryer (d. 1783) 
[q. v.] the traveller, who spoke highly of 
Langhorne. ' The true masters of Madras/ 
he says, ' are the English Company, whose 
agent here is Sir William Langham [«b] t a 
gentleman of indefatigable industry and 
worth. He is superintendent over all the 
factories on the coast of Coromandel as far 
as the Bay of Bengala and up Huygly river. 
. . . He has his Mint . . . moreover he has 
his justiciaries, but not on life and death to 
the king's liege people of England ; though 
over the rest they may. His personal guard 
consists of three hundred or four hundred 
blacks, besides a band of fifteen hundred men 
ready on summons; he never goes abroad 
without fifes, drums, trumpets, and a flag 
with two balls in a red field, accompanied 
with his Council and Factors on horseback, 
with their ladies in palankeens' (Fktbb, 
yew Account, p. 38). 

In 1675 he successfully resisted an attempt 



Langhorne 



104 



Langland 



at extortion by one Lingapa, the naik of the 
Poonamalee district, but only at the unlooked- 
for expense of what might have proved a 
perilous misunderstanding with the king of 
Golconda (see Wheeleb, Madras, p. 86), 
In 1676 he showed his tolerant spirit by 
firing a salute upon the consecration of 
a Roman catholic church in Madras, and 
thereby drew upon himself a rebuke from 
the directors at home. A strict discipli- 
narian, he drew up as governor a code of by- 
laws which helps us to picture the contem- 
porary social life of the settlement. Among 
Lis regulations it was enacted that no per- 
son was to drink above half a pint of arrack 
or brandy or a quart of wine at a time; 
to such practices as blaspheming, duelling, 
being absent from prayers, or being outside 
the walls after eight o'clock, strict penalties 
were allotted. 

An over-shrewd man of business, Lang- 
horne fell a victim, like his predecessor, to 
charges of private trading, by which he was 
said to have realised the too obviously large 
sum of 7,000/. per annum, in addition to the 
300/. allowed him by the company. He left 
Madras in 1677, and was succeeded by 
Streynsham Master, uncle of Captain Streyn- 
sham Master, R.N. [a. v.l 

On arriving in England Langhorne bought 
from the executors of William Ducie, vis- 
count Downe, the estate and manor-house of 
Charlton in Kent (Lysons, iv. 326). Here 
he settled, became a J.P., and commissioner 
of the court of requests for the Hundred of 
Blackheath (1689), endowed a school and 
some almshouses, and died with the reputa- 
tion of a rich and beneficent ' nabob ' on 
26 Feb. 1714-15; he was buried in Charlton 
Church. By his will he left a considerable 
sum to be applied, after the manner of Queen 
Anne's Bounty, in augmenting poor benefices 
(Hasted, Kent, ii. 263, 285). His first wife, 
tf race, second daughter of John, eighth earl 
of Rutland, and widow of Patricius, third 
viscount Chaworth, having died within a 
year of their marriage, on 15 Feb. 1700, 
Langhorne remarried Mary Aston, who, after 
his decease, married George Jones of Twicken- 
ham. Leaving no issue by either marriage he 
was succeeded in his estate by his sister's son, 
Sir John Conyers, bart., of Horden, Durham, 
and Langhorne's baronetcy became extinct. 

[Burke's Extinct Baronetage, p. 298 ; Burke's 
Extinct Peerage, p. 112; London Gazettes, Nos. 
3416, 3453; Hasteds Kent, i. 35 ; Lysons's En- 
virons of London, vols. ii. and iv. ; Hist. MSS. 
Comm. 12th Rep. App. pt. v. pp. 80, 124, pt. vi. 
p. 409, where his name is misspelt Langborne ; 
John Fryer's New Account of East India and 
Persia, 1698; J. Talboys Wheeler's Madras in 



the Olden Time, from the company's original 
records, i. 68-93 (with fecsimile of Langhorne's 
autograph) ; the same writer's Early Records of 
British India, pp. 56, 62, 72, and Handbook 
to the Madras Kecords ; Bird wood's India Office- 
Records, pp< 23, 64.] T. S. 

LANGLAND, JOHN (1473-1547), bi- 
shop of Lincoln. [See Longlaih).] 

LANGLAND, WILLIAM (1330 P- 
1400 P), poet, is not mentioned in any known 
contemporary document. The first recorded 
notice is in notes found in two manuscripts- 
of ' Piers Plowman.' The Ashburnham MS. 
says that ' Robert or William Langland made 
pers ploughman/ The manuscript now at 
Dublin (D. 4. V) has a note in Latin, said to 
be in a handwriting of the fifteenth century,, 
to the effect that the poet Langland's father 
was of gentle birth, was called ' Stacy do 
Rokayle,' dwelt in Shipton-under-Wych- 
wood, and was a tenant of Lord ' le Spenser 
in comitatu Oxon.' About the middle of 
the sixteenth century Bale, in his 'Scrip- 
tores Illustres Majoris Britannia,' wrote that 
'Robertus [P] Langelande, a priest, as it 
seems [P], was born in the county of Shrop- 
shire, at a place commonly known as Morty- 
mers Clibery [i.e. Cleobury Mortimer], in & 
poor district eight miles from the Malvern 
hills. I cannot say with certainty whether 
he was educated until his maturity in that 
remote and rural locality, or whether he 
studied at Oxford or Cambridge, though it 
was a time when learning notably flourished: 
among the masters in those places. This is at 
all events certain, that he was one of the first 
followers [P] of JohnWiclif ; and further, that 
in his spiritual fervour in opposition to the 
open blasphemies of the papists against God 
and his Christ he put forth a pious work 
worthy the reading of good men, written in 
the English tongue, and adorned by pleasing* 
fashions and figures, which he called " The 
Vision of Peter the Ploughman." There is 
no other work by him. In this learned book 
he introduced, besides varied and attractive 
imagery, many predictions which in our time 
we have seen fulfilled. He finished his work 
a.d. 1369, when John of Chichester was mayor 
of London.' There is no other external au- 
thority of importance, but some details maybe 
supplied from passages in ' Piers Plowman.' 

Several manuscripts mention that his chris- 
tian name was William, as appears also from 
his poem. Thus, in the B text, xv. 148 : 

' I hane lyued in lande,' quod I ; ( my name 
is Long Wille.' 

In three manuscripts — the Hchester, the 
Douce, and the Digby — a W. follows the 



Langland 



105 



Langland 



William : * Explicit visio Willelmi W. de 
Petro le Plowman/ W. may stand for Wych- 
wood, or more probably denotes Wigornensis, 
i.e. of Worcester, for with Worcestershire 
the poet was beyond doubt closely con- 
nected. As it is fairly certain that Langland 
belonged to the midlands, and as his sur- 
name seems to be of local origin, the proper 
form would naturally be Langley rather than 
Langland j for no place called Langland ap- 
pears to be in the midland district, whereas 
the name Langley is found both in Oxford- 
shire and in Shropshire. The manuscript note 
quoted above informs us that the poet's father 
was Stacy de Rokayle. Professor Pearson has 
pointed out (see North British Review, April 
1870) that there is a hamlet called Ruckley 
in Shropshire, near Acton Burnell. There is 
another in the same county not far from Bos- 
cobel. From one of these places ' Stacey ' 
probably took his surname. But near Ship- 
ton-under-Wychwood there is a hamlet called 
Langley, and near the Ruckley which adjoins 
Acton Burnell there is a hamlet called Lang- 
ley, and it has been plausibly suggested that 
from one or other of tnese two places Stacey's 
son took his surname. These suggestions, 
however, ignore Bale's statement that the 
poet was born at Cleobury Mortimer, and it 
seems not to have been pointed out that, 
close by Cleobury Mortimer, there is a hamlet 
called Langley. As Bale probably had some 
grounds for his statement, it may reasonably 
be believed that the poet was born in south 
Shropshire, and that the commemoration of 
him — lately inserted in a window in Cleobury 
Church — may be fairly defended. Thus by 
birth both Stacey and his distinguished son 
probably belong to Shropshire, though at one 
time Stacy lived at Shipton-under-Wych- 
wood in Oxfordshire. Professor Pearson has 
pointed out a certain connection between 
Acton Burnell and Shipton, viz. an intermar- 
riage between the Burnells of Acton Burnell 
* and the De Despensers of Shipton. Also he 

Stints out a certain connection between one 
enry de Rokesley, who may possibly have 
1 been an ancestor of ' Stacy de Kokayle ' and 
( the De Mortimers; viz. that Henry de Rokes- 
ley claimed to be descended from Robert 
Paytevin, and 'one of the few Paytevins 
who can be traced was a follower of Roger 
de Mortimer.' Some light is perhaps thus 
cast upon Stacy's migrations to Cleobury 
Mortimer and to Shipton. Thus Langley, 
rather than Langland, seems to be the more 
accurate form of the name. On the other 
hand, the earliest authorities give Langland, 
and possibly in the line quoted above the 
4 lande ' refers to this surname. 

Beyond question the poet is to be asso- 



ciated with the western midlands. He par- 
ticularly connects his vision with the Mal- 
vern Hills : — 

Ac on a May morninge on Maluerne huUes 
Me byfel a ferly, of feiry me thou3te. 

C text, i. 6-7 (see also i. 163) ; vi. 109-10 ; 

x. 295-6). 

And several allusions indicate the same 
quarter of England, as, for instance, ' Bi the 
Rode of Chestre ' (B, v. 467) ; « Then was ther 
a Walishman ... He highte ^pxsji 5©ld- 
ajeyn/ &c. (C, vii. 809) ; ' Grifiyn the Walish ' 
(C, vii. 373). Nor is the mention of ' rymes 
of Robyn Hood/ along with rimes of Randolf 
erle of Chestre/ inconsistent with this loca- 
lisation; for a bishop of Hereford plays a 
part in the Robin Hood cycle of ballads, and 
there are Robin Hood legends connected with 
Ludlow. Langland also writes in a west 
midland dialect. ' There are many traces of 
west of England speech also/ writes Dr. 
Skeat, ' and even some of northern, but the 
latter may possibly be rightly considered as 
common to both north and west.' Such a 
description leads us to Worcestershire and 
Shropshire. A careful examination both of 
Langland's words and his word-forms cer- 
tainly confirms it. Thus, e.g., the scarce word 
' fisketh' = wanders (C, x. 153) is recorded in 
Miss Jackson's 'Shropshire Wordbook;' and 
it will be found that tne poems of John Aud- 
lav of Haughmond Monastery, Shropshire, 
which do not seem to have been studied in 
relation with 'Piers Plowman/ afford not 
only many illustrations of Langland's ideas, 
but many also of his dialect. 

In the second edition of his chief poem, 
Imaginative, addressing the poet, says he has 
followed him ' this five and forty winters/ 
Now the B text was written about 1 377. We 
may thus infer that the poet was born about 
1332. From a passage in the sixth passus of 
the C text, we learn that he was free-born and 
born in wedlock (C, vi. 64). He was duly sent 
to school. In the sixth passus of the third 
chief edition of ' Piers the Plowman ' he says : 
' When I was young many years ago, my 
father and my friends found me [i.e. sup- 
ported me] at school, till I knew truly what 
Holy Writ meant, and what is best for the 
body, as that Book tells us, and safest for the 
soul, if only I live accordingly. And yet as- 
suredly found I never, since my friends died, 
a life that pleased me, except in these long 
clothes/ i.e. except as an ecclesiastic. Pro- 
bably he received his earlier education at 
some monastery, possibly at Great Malvern. 
He seems to be remembering wasted oppor- 
tunities when, in the midst of a reproachful 
speech to him by Holy Church — ' Thou foolish 



Langland 



106 



Langland 



dolt/ quoth she, 'dull are thy wits; I believe 
thou learnedest too little Latin in thy youth ' 
— he inserts the line : 
Hei michi,quod sterilem duzi vitam juvenilem! 

It is certain that sooner or later Lang- 
land's literary acquirements were consider- 
able. His poems refer to Wycliffe, the 
Vulgate, Ruteboeuf, Peter Comestor, Grosse- 
t6te, Dionysius Cato, Huon de Meri, 'Le- 
genda Sanctorum/ Isidore, Cicero, Vincent 
of Beauvais, ' Guy of Warwick/ Boethius, 
Seneca, and many others. Stow, who oddly 
calls him John of Malvern, says he was a 
fellow of Oriel College. But the evidence on 
this point is insufficient. 

'Wnen asked by Reason what work he can 
do, whether he could lend a hand in farming 
operations, or knew any other kind of craft 
that the community needs, he replies that 
the only life that attracted him was the 
priestly. He seems to have taken 'minor 
orders ; ' to have been licensed to act as an 
acolyte, exorcist, reader, and porter, or ostia- 
riu8. It does not appear why he never took 
the ' greater ' or the ' sacred orders.' His un- 
compromising character may have rendered 
him unwilling to bind himself, or he may have 
married early. He speaks of * Ky tte my Wy f, 
and Kalotte [Nicolette] my daughter.' He 
made what living he could as a ' singer.' 
< Singers (hypoboleis, psalmists, monitors)/ 
says Walcott (Sacred Archaeology, s.v. 
' Singer ') ' . . . formed a distinct order. . . . 
They were at length called canonical or re- 
gistered singers ; though, s.v. ' Orders/ he 
states 'that the singer was regarded as a 
clerk only in a large sense.' Langland, as 
we know from his own testimony, had drifted 
up to London, and in London he resided pro- 
bably for most of his adult life. He ' woned ' 
in Cornhill, he tells us, ' Kytte ' and he in a 
cottage, dressed shabbily (' clothed as a lol- 
lere/ i.e. as a vagrant, as we should say), and 
was little thought of even among the vulgar 
society that surrounded him, even ' among 
lollares of London & lewede heremytes ;' for 
I ' made of tho men as reson me tauhte/ i.e. I 
did not treat them with over much respect. 
I rated them at their proper worth ; or per- 
haps, I composed verses on those men such as 
reason suggested. 'And I live in London and 
<m London as well. The tools I labour with 
and earn my living are Paternoster and my 
primer Placebo and Dirige, and my Psalter 
sometimes and my Seven Psalms. Thus I 
sing for the souls of such as help me ; and 
those that find me my food guarantee, I trow, 
that I shall be welcome when I come occa- 
sionally in a month, now at some gentleman's 
bouse, and now at some lady's ; and in this 



wise I beg without bag or bottle, but my 
stomach only. And also, it seems to me men 
should not force clerks to common men's 
work ; for by the Levitical law, which Our 
Lord confirmed, clerks that are crowned [i.e. 
tonsured], by a natural understanding [i.e. 
as nature would dictate], should neither swink 
nor sweat, nor swear at inquests, nor fight 
in the vanward, nor harass their foe; for 
they are heirs of heaven, are all that are 
tonsured, and in quire and churches are 
Christ's own ministers' (C text, vi. init.) 
Elsewhere he speaks of himself as walking 
in the manner of a ' mendinaunt ' (mendi- 
cant) (tfc. xvi. 3) ; of his ' roming about robed 
in russet ; ' of the poverty that perpetually 
assailed him. He evidently knew London 
well ; he specially mentions Cheapside,Cock 
Lane, Shoreditch, Garlickhithe, Southwark, 
Tyburn, Stratford, Westminster, and its law 
courts, besides the Cornhill where he lived, 
or starved. He tells us how at one time ' my 
wit waxed and waned till I was a fool ; and 
some blamed my life, but few approved 
it; and they took me for a lorel, and one 
loathe to reverence lords or ladies, or any 
soul else, such as persons [perhaps our ' par- 
sons '] in velvet with pendants of silver. To 
Serjeants [great lawyers] and to such did 
I not once say " Heaven keep you, gen- 
tlemen," nor did I bow to them civilly, so 
that folks held me a fool, and in that folly 
I raved/ &c. 

All this time Langland was seeing won- 
derful visions, which, when written down, 
were to give him a high place among the 
poets of the time, and perhaps the highest 
among its prophets. Besides the ' Vision of 
Piers rlowman/ there is good reason for be- 
lieving that Langland wrote at least one 
other extant poem, viz. one on the misrule of 
Richard II ; but the ' Vision ' was the great 
work of his life. He was engaged on it, more 
or less, from 1362 to 1392, revising, rewrit- 
ing, omitting, adding. He produced it in at 
least three notably distinct forms, or editions, 
to say nothing of intermediate versions, all 
showing with what keen and what unwearied 
interest he was watching the course of events, 
and proving by their number how great were 
the popularity and the influence of this poem 
addressed to the people by one of themselves. 
He was recognised as the people's spokesman. 
No less than forty-five manuscripts of his work 
are known to be now extant ; in the sixteenth 
century there were certainly two more ; ad- 
ditional ones may yet be discovered. Signs 
of its circulation and acceptance are abun- 
dant. Not the least interesting occurs in 
connection with the great rising of the pea- 
santry in 1381, in a letter addressed by John 



Langland 



107 



Langland 



Ball (d. 1381) [q. v.] to the commons of 

EsS6X. 

The first edition consisted of only twelve 
passus or cantos, the second contained twenty, 
the third twenty-three. All the versions can 
be dated with considerable precision. In one 
set of manuscripts are found no allusions be- 
yond the year 1362, though there are several — 
e.g. that to the peace of Bretigny — that be- 
long to 1360 and thereabouts. A mention 
of ' this south-westerne wynt cm a Saturday 
at euen ' (A text, v. 18) obviously alludes, as 
Tyrwhitt first noted, to a violent storm on 
Saturday, 16 Jan. 1862, of which an account 
is given by Thorn, by Walsingham, and by 
thecontinuatorofAdamMurimuth. A second 
group of manuscripts connects itself with 
1377 and thereabouts. The decisive allusion 
is to the time between the death of the Black 
Prince and the accession of Richard II, and 
the perils of the crown and the kingdom at 
that time, especially from John of Gaunt (see 
B text, prol. 87-209). A third group of ma- 
nuscripts carries us on another fifteen years 
to 1392 and thereabouts. In 1392, as Profes- 
sor Skeat points out, the city of London re- 
fused the king a loan of 1,000/., and a Lom- 
bard who lent it him was beaten by the 
Londoners nearly to death. Now, in a line, 
not occurring in the ' A ' and the ' B ' groups, 
Conscience, addressing the king, declares that 
unseemly tolerance [vnsittynge sufirance] (of 
bad men) has almost brought it about, ' bote 
Marie the help ' [unless the Virgin succours 
him] that no land loves him, ana least of all 
his own (C text, iv. 210} ; and in another 
passage, also additional, Reason assures him 
that if he will rule wisely, and not let 'un- 
seemly tolerance' 'seal his privy letters/ 
Love will lend him silver 

To wage thy ne, & help wynne that thow wilnest 

after, 
More than al thy merchauns other thy mytrede 

bisshops 
Other Lumbardes of Lukes thatlyuen by lone as 

Jewes. 

A more complete indication of the various 
dates of * Piers Plowman,' and for a minute 
account of the differences between the three 
chief texts, is given in Dr. Skeat's (2 vols. 
8vo) edition published by the Clarendon 
press in 1886. j 

Langland nut into his poem all that from 
time to time he had to say on the questions ' 
of the day and on the great questions of life. 
He thought eagerly on these things, and all 
the thoughts of his heart ' sodatibus olim > 
credebat Boris ; ' and these books his con tern- I 

Siraries read with scarcely less eagerness, 
e was not only a keen observer and thinker, I 



but also an effective writer. His intense 
feeling for his fellow-men, his profound pity 
for their sad plight, unshepherded and £iude- 
less as he beheld them, were made effective by 
his imaginative power and his masterly gift 
of language and expression. He sees vividly 
the objects and the sights he describes, 
and makes his readers see them vividly. 
He is as exact and realistic as Dante, how- 
ever inferior in the greatness of his concep- 
tions or in nobleness of poetic form. In this 
last respect Langland is connected with the 
past rather than with what was the metrical 
fashion of his own day ; he is the representa- 
tive of the Teutonic revival in England which 
completed itself in the fourteenth century. 
He adopts the old English metre, the unrimed 
alliterative line of most usually four accents. 
Even Layamon [q. v.] had a century and a 
half before largely admitted rime into his 
verses, though they, too, are chiefly of the 
Anglo-Saxon style. Langland in this matter 
was probably somewhat retrogressive, though 
we must remember that he knew his audience 
better than his modern critics can know it. 
In the more cultivated circles certainly the 
taste for the old metrical form was wellnigh 
extinct. But Langland went pretty much 
his own way. 

Near the close of the fourteenth century 
Langland seems to have returned to the 
west. In 1399, if the poem written in the 
September of that year to remonstrate with 
Richard II — the poem well entitled by Dr. 
Skeat ' Richard the Redeless ' — is his compo- 
sition, he was residing at Bristol ; and, though 
there is no manuscript authority for ascrib- 
ing it to him, the language, the style, the 
thought, all seem thoroughly to justify the 
judgment of Mr. T. Wright and Dr. gkeat. 
Years before, the poet had been offended by 
Richard's misgovernment. He makes one 
last appeal to this unworthy king, or was 
making it, when it would seem the news of 
his unthroning reached him. The poem ends 
in the middle of a paragraph. 

[Skeat's editions of the A, the B, and the C 
texts, published by the Early English Text Soc. ; 
his edition of all three texts together, with a vo- 
lume of introductions and notes, published by the 
Clarendon press; his edition of the first seven 
passus, with prologue, B text, in a volume of the 
Clarendon press series; The Vision of Piers 
Ploughman, with the Creed of Piers Ploughman, 
by a different but unknown author, who probably 
wrote about 1394, ed. by T. Wright, 2 vols. 12mo, 
2nd ed. 1856 ; Ten Brink's Early English Lite- 
rature, tr. H. M. Kennedy, 1883 ; Milman's 
Latin Christianity, vol. vi. ed. 1855; Marsh's 
Origin and Hist, of the English Language; 
Wright's Political Songs of England from the 



Langley 



1 08 



Langley 



Reign of John to that of Edward II, published 
bv the Camden Society ; Observations sur la Vi- 
sion de Piers Plowman, &c., par J. J. Jusserand, 
1870 ; Rosenthal on Langland's metre in Anglia, 
i. 414 et seq ; National Review, October 1861.] 

J. W. H. 

LANGLEY, BATTY (1696-1751), archi- 
tectural writer, son of Daniel and Elizabeth 
Langley, was born at Twickenham in Middle- 
sex, and baptised at the parish church there 
on 14 Sept. 1696 (par. reg. at Twickenham). 
His father was a gardener in the neighbour- 
hood, and he seems first to have occupied him- 
self as a landscape gardener(see Langley, 
Practical Geometry, p. 35). He resided first 
at Twickenham, removed to Parliament | 
Stairs, Westminster, about 1736, and to | 
Meard's Court, Dean Street, Soho, with his 
brother Thomas about 1740. His taste in I 
architectural design has been much censured, 
but he did some good work in the mechanical ; 
branches of his art. His strange attempt to 
remodel Gothic architecture by the inven- 
tion of five orders for that style in imitation 
of those of classical architecture has made 
* Batty Langley's Gothic ' almost a by-word. | 
He established a school or academy of archi- 
tectural drawing, in which he was assisted , 
by his brother Thomas, an engraver. Elmes ' 
(Lectures, p. 390) states that all his pupils 
were carpenters, and gives him credit for | 
having trained many useful workmen. He 
had a large surveying connection, and was 
a valuer of timber (advertisement in Lang- 
ley, London Prices, 1748}. He also supplied 
pumps, and acted as builaer in the execution 
of some of his designs. 

In 1735 he published a design for the pro- 
posed Mansion House in London, which was 
engraved by himself. Malcolm (Lond. Rediv. 
iv. 172) quotes from the ' St. James's Evening 
Post ' the description of ' a curious grotesque 1 
temple, in a taste entirely new/ erected by 
Lanffley in Parliament Stairs, for Nathaniel ' 
Blackerby, son-in-law of Nicholas Hawks- 
moor [q. v.] the architect. Langley died ! 
at his nouse in Soho on 3 March 1751, | 
aged 55. A quarto mezzotint portrait of 
him by J. Carwithan, who acted as engraver 
to several of his works, was published in 
1741. 

His numerous publications include : 1. ' An 
Accurate Account of Newgate . . . together ' 
with a faithful account of the Impositions of 
Bailiffs . . . by B. L. of Twickenham/ 1724. 
2. 'Practical Geometry applied to . . . Build- 
ing, Surveying, Gardening, and Mensuration/ 
London, 1726, 1728, 1729. 3. ' The Builder's 
Chest Book, or a Compleat Key to the Five 
Orders of Columns in Architecture/ London, 
1727 (in dialogue form). 4. ' New Principles 



of Gardening. . . . With Experimental Direc- 
tions for raising the several kinds of Fruit 
Trees, Forest Trees, E ver-greens, and Flower- 
ing Shrubs/ &c, London, 1728. Langley de- 
nounced the practice of mutilating the natural 
shapes of trees. 5. ' A Sure Method of Im- 
proving Estates by Plantations of Oak, Elm. 
Ash, Beech, &c./ London, 1728 ; republished 
in 1741 as 'The Landed Gentleman's Useful 
Companion.' 6. ' A Sure Guide to Builders, 
or the Principles and Practice of Architec- 
ture Geometrically Demonstrated/ London, 
1729. 7. 'Pomona, or the Fruit Garden 
Illustrated/ London, 1729. Many of the 
plates were drawn by himself. 8. 'The 
Young Builder's Rudiments/ London, 1780, 
1736. 9. 'Ancient Masonry, both in the 
Theory and Practice/ London, 1734 or 1735, 
1736. This elaborate work contains short 
descriptions of the 466 plates, with examples 
from AJberti, Palladio, C. Wren, Ini^o Jones, 
and others. Plates cccix. and cccx. in vol. ii. 
illustrate an 'English order' composed by 
Langley. 10. ' A Design for the Bridge at 
New Palace Yard, Westminster/ London, 
1736. 11. ' A Reply to Mr. John James's Re- 
view of the several Pamphlets and Schemes 
... for the Building of a Bridge at West- 
minster/ London, 1737. 12. 'The Builder's 
Compleat Assistant/ 2nd edit. London, 
(1738?); a 4th edit, appeared after 1788. 
13. 'The City and Country Builder's and 
Workman's Treasury of Designs/ London, 
1740 (fourteen plates were added in 1741), 
1750, and again in 1756. 14. ' The Builder's 
Jewel, or the Youth's Instructor and Work- 
man's Remembrancer/ London, 1741, 1757 ; 
11th edit. 1768, 1787, 1808. 15. 'Ancient 
Architecture, restored and improved, by a 
(?reat variety of Grand and Useful Designs ' 
(1st part), London, plates dated 1741. The 
whole work, with a dissertation ' On the An- 
cient Buildings in this Kingdom/ and en- 
titled 'Gothic Architecture/ 1747. Some 
examples of these ' Gothic orders of my own 
invention ' were actually erected by Langley 
in London. The original drawings for the 
work are preserved in Sir John Soane's Mu- 
seum, lo. ' The Measurer's Jewell/ London, 
1742. 17. 'The Present State of Westminster 
Bridge/ London, 1743. 18. ' Plan of Windsor 
Castle/ London, 1743. 19. ' The Builder's 
Director, or Bench-Mate/ London, 1746, 
1751, 1767. 20. ' A Survey of Westminster 
Bridge, as 'tis now Sinking into Ruin/ Lon- 
don, 1748. 21. 'The Workman's Golden Rule 
for Drawing and Working the Five Orders 
in Architecture/ London 1757. 

Thomas Langley (Jt. 1745), engraver of 
antiquities, &c, brother of the above, was 
born at Twickenham in March 1702, and for 



Langley 



109 



Langley 



some years of his life resided at Salisbury. 
He engraved ' A Plan of St. Thomas's Church 
in the City of New Sarum/ north-west and 
south-east views of the church drawn by 
John Lyons, 1746, and 'The Sacrifice of 
Matthews to Jupiter/ drawn by Lyons, 1752. 
He both drew and engraved many of the 
plates for his brother's books, and taught 
architectural drawing to his pupils. 

[Langley's works as above ; Redgrave's Diet, 
of Artists ; Diet, of . Architecture ; Civil En- 
gineer for 1847. p. 270 ; Elmes's Lectures on 
Architecture, p. 390; Walpole'sAnecdotes(Dalla- 
way and Wornum), p. 770 ; Lysons's Environs, 
iii. 594; Gent. Mag. 1742 p. 608, 1751 p. 139; 
London Daily Advertiser and Literary Gazette, 
<5 March 1751 ; Bromle/s Cat. of Engraved Por- 
traits, p. 300 ; Cat. of Prints and Drawings in 
King's Library, Brit. Mus. ; Gongh's Brit. Topog. 
i. 635, ii. 364, 378 ; Dodd's Memorials of En- 
gravers, Addit. MS. 33402; London Cat. of 
Books, 1700-1811; Lowndes's Bibl. Man.; Watt's 
Bibl.Brit.; Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Cat. of Library of 
Trin. Coll. Dublin ; Cat. of Library in Sir John 
Soane's Museum; Cat. of Library of R.I.B.A.; 
Univ. Cat. of Books on Art; Cat. of Bodleian 
Library.] B. P. 

LANGLEY, EDMUND de. first Duke 
op Yobk (1341-1402), was fifth son of Ed- 
ward III by Philippa of Hainault. He was 
born at King's liangley, Hertfordshire, on 
6 June 1341. In 1347 he received a grant 
of the lands beyond Trent formerly belonging 
to John de Warren, earl of Surrey. In the 
autumn of 1359 he accompanied his father on 
the great expedition into France which im- 
mediately preceded the treaty of Bretigny 
in the following year. Edmund was one of 
those who swore to the alliance with France 
on 21 Oct. 1860. Next year, probably in 
April, he was made a knight of the Garter. 
On 13 Nov. 1362 he was created Earl of Cam- 
bridge ; a week later he had a grant for the 
repair of his castles in Yorkshire (Fcedera, 
vi. 395). In the previous February proposals 
had been made tor a marriage between Ed- 
mund and Margaret, daughter of Louis, 
count of Flanders (ib. vi. 349) ; the business 
did not proceed further at this time, but two 
years later Edmund and his brother, John of 
Gaunt, made a visit to the count at Bruges, 
and a treaty of marriage was agreed upon in 
October 1364 (ib. vi. 445). The pope, how- 
ever, under the influence of the French king, 
refused to grant a dispensation, and the pro- 
ject was finally abandoned in 1369 (Fbois- 
sabt, vii. 129, ed. Luce). There was another 
matrimonial proposal in 1366, when nego- 
tiations were opened for a marriage between 
Edmund or his brother Lionel and Violanta, 
daughter of Galeazzo Visconti,duke of Milan 



(Fcedera, vi. 509 ; see under Lionel, Duke 
op Claebnoe). 

At the beginning of 1367 Edmund joined 
his eldest brother in Aquitaine, and accom- 
panied him on his expedition into Spain. 
After the return of the Black Prince Ed- 
mund came back to England, but in January 
1369 was once more sent out in company of 
John Hastings, second earl of Pembroke 
[q. v.], in command of four hundred men-at- 
arms and four hundred archers. They landed 
at St. Malo, and marched through Brittany 
to Angouleme, where the Prince of Wales 
then held his court. In April the two earls 
were sent on a raid into JPerigord, where, 
after plundering the open country, they laid 
siege to Bourdeilles. After eleven weeks the 
town was taken by stratagem, and the expe- 
dition returned to Angouleme. In July Ed- 
1 mund accompanied Sir John Chandos to the 
I siege of Roche-sur-Yon, and was present till 
I its capture in August. In January and 
I February 1370 Edmund was employed once 
J more, in the company of Pembroke, in effect- 
ing the relief of Belle Perche. Later in the 
year he shared in the great raid which cul- 
minated in the sack of Limoges. When the 
Prince of Wales went home next year, Ed- 
mund was left behind in Gascony ( W alsikg- 
HAM f Hi8tAn0l.LS12). In 1372 he returned 
to England, and shortly afterwards married 
i Isabel of Castile, the second daughter of Pedro 
the Cruel. 

On 24 Nov. 1374 Edmund was appointed, 
conjointly with John de Montfort, duke of 
Brittany, to be the king's lieutenant in that 
duchy (Fadera, vii. 49). Early next year 
they sailed from Southampton in command 
of a strong force, with the intention of at- 
tacking the French fleet before St. Sauveur- 
le-Vicomte. Contrary winds, however, com- 
pelled them to disembark near St. Mathieu. 
This town captured and its garrison put to 
the sword, the English marched against St. 
Pol de Leon, which they took by storm. Then 
they laid siege to St. Brieuc ; but they soon 
departed to assist Sir John Devereux [q. v.], 
who was besieged by Oliver de Clisson in the 
new fort near Quimperl6. The fort was re- 
lieved, and the French in their turn besieged 
at Quimperlg. Operations, however, were 
soon afterwards terminated by a truce, con- 
cluded at Bruges on 27 June. Edmund then 
returned home with the English fleet. On 
1 Sept. he was one of the commissioners to 
treat with France (ib. iii. 1039, Record ed.), 
and on 12 June 1376 was appointed con- 
stable of Dover, an office which he held till 
February 1381. On the accession of his 
nephew as Richard II, Edmund became one 
of the council of regency. In June 1378 he 



Langley 



no 



Langley 



joined his brother John in an expedition to 
Brittany. After crossing the Channel they 
laid siege to St. Malo. Du Guesclin marched 
to its rescue, but would not be induced to 
risk an engagement, though Edmund endea- 
voured to provoke him to one. Eventually 
the Englisn went home without effecting 
anything. 

Early in May 1380 a Portuguese embassy 
came to appeal for aid against the king of 
Castile, and as a result Edmund was des- 
patched at the head of five hundred lances 
and as many archers. Accompanied by his 
wife and son, he sailed from Plymouth in 
July 1381, having hastened his departure, so 



iii. 205). In the troubles of his nephew's 
reign, Edmund, who cared little for state 
affairs, only played a small part. He was 
content to follow the lead of his brother 
John, duke of Lancaster, or in his absence that 
of Thomas, duke of Gloucester. In 1386 he 
was at Dover, waiting to repel a threatened 
French invasion, and he was also one of the 
fourteen commissioners appointed by parlia- 
ment to receive the crown revenues (ib. iii. 
221). At this time Edmund supported Glou- 
cester in his opposition to the king's favourite, 
Robert de Vere, and was with Gloucester 
when he defeated De Vere near Oxford in 
1387 and when he met the king at Brent- 



it is said, for fear~the rising under tV at Tyler i ford. Three years later his elder brother 
should prevent his going (Froissabt, viii. 29, J was back in England, and Edmund now fol- 
ed. Buchon). Sir Matthew de Gournay [q. v.l, lowed his guidance in seeking for peace with 
the Canon of Robertsart, and others, took | France, against the wishes of Gloucester, 
part in the expedition. The English reached I Consequently, in March 1391, the dukes of 
Lisbon after a stormy voyage of three weeks' j Lancaster and York went to Amiens to con- 
duration. In accordance witn a treaty already ! duct the negotiations for peace, 
concluded, Edmund's young son Edward was ] When Richard went to Ireland in Sep- 
married to Beatrice, the daughter of King { tember 1394, Edmund was appointed regent, 
Ferdinand of Portugal. Edmund then went to and in this capacity held the parliament of 
Estremoz, but most of the English were under 
the Canon of Robertsart at Villa Viciosa, 
whence during the winter they made an attack 
on Higueras against the wishes of the king of 
Portugal. In April 1382 the English, weary 
of inaction, remonstrated with Eamund, who 
could only reply that he must wait for his 
brother John. Shortly afterwards the Eng- 



January 1395 '(ib. "iii. 330). In September 
1396 he was again regent during the king's 
absence on his visit to France to wed the 
Princess Isabella. During these years Ed- 
mund was under the guidance of his elder 
brother. Thomas of Gloucester, however, as 
Froissart says, made no account of him during 
his intrigues, and Edmund took no part in 
lishmade afresh raid, and captured Elvas and the events which attended his younger bro- 



Zafra. Thereupon Edmund came to Villa 
Viciosa; but the English, now thoroughly 
discontented, threatened to turn free-lances, 
and fight on their own account, unless some 
action was taken. Under pressure from his 
followers, Edmund then went to Lisbon to 
remonstrate with the king, and obtained 



ther's death in 1397. When Richard went to 
Ireland in March 1399, Edmund was for the 
third time made regent. Personally, no 
doubt, he was loyal to his nephew, but it was 
his lack of vigour which made the success of 
Henry of Lancaster so easy. Edmund, indeed, 
prepared to oppose Lancaster, but finding 



from him a promise to take the field. But ' little support, shortly went over to his side, 



Ferdinand was now, as previously, intriguing 
with the Spaniards, and presently, before any 
fighting took place, made peace without re- 
ference to his English allies. Edmund would 
have attacked the king of Portugal if he had 
felt strong enough, but as it was he had no 
choice except to return to England, where 
he arrived in October 1382 (Foedera, iv. 166, 
Record ed.) The king of Portugal soon after 
remarried his daughter to the infant of Cas- 
tile. Nevertheless, Edmund did not give up 
his hopes of securing a footing in that coun- 
try, and in 1384 opposed the Scottish war 
for fear that it would interfere with his pro- 
jects. In the summer of 1385 he took part 
in the king's expedition to Scotland, and was 
rewarded for his services by a grant of 1,000/. 
(ib. vii. 474, 482). On 6 Aug. of the same 
year he was created Duke of York (Hot Pari. 



and accompanied him in his progress to Bris- 
tol. Afterwards Edmund came forward for 
once as a statesman, and he has the credit of 
having suggested that Richard should be in- 
duced to execute a formal resignation of the 
crown previous to the meeting of parlia- 
ment. After the coronation of the new king 
Edmund retired from the court, and the only 
other incident of interest in his life was his 
discovery of his son Rutland's plot in January 
1400. He died at Langley on 1 Aug. 1402, 
and was buried in the church of the Domi- 
nicans there by the side of his first wife. 
His tomb was removed to King's Langley 
Church about 1574, and since 1877 has 
stood in a memorial chapel in the north 
aisle. 

Edmund was the least remarkable of his 
father's sons. He was an easy-going man of 



Langley 



in 



Langley 



pleasure, who had no care to be a' lord of 
great worldly riches.' 

When all the lordes to councell and parlyament 
Went, he wolde to hunte and also to hawekyng. 

But he was a kindly man, and ' lived of his 
own 'without oppression. In appearance he 
was ' as fayre a person as a man might see 
anywhere '(Haedyng, pp. 19, 340-1). There 
is a portrait of him in Harleian MS. 1319, 
which is engraved in Doyle's ' Official Baron- 
age.' His will, dated 25 Nov. 1400, is printed 
in Nichols's « Royal Wills,' p. 187. 

Edmund was twice married : (1) in 1372 
to Isabel of Castile, who died 3 Nov. 1393 ; 
and (2) in 1895 to Joan, daughter of Thomas 
Holland, earl of Kent [q. v.], who, surviving, 
married three other husbands, and died in 
1434. By his first wife he had two sons : 
Edward, who during his father's life was 
earl of Rutland and duke of Aumale, and 
succeeded as second duke of York; and 
Richard, earl of Cambridge (d. 1 415), through 
whom he was great-grandfather of Ed- 
ward IV. He had also a daughter, Constance, 
wife of Thomas le Despenser, earl of Glou- 
cester [q. v.], a woman of an evil reputation, 
who died on 28 Nov. 1416. 

[Froissart, ed. Luce, vols, vi-viii. (Soc de 
l'Hist. de France), and Buchon, vols, vii-xiv. 
(Collection des Chroniques); Walsingham's Hist. 
Anglic. (Rolls Ser.); Chron. Angli*, 1328-88 
(Rolls Ser.); Chronique de la Traison et la Mort 
de Richart Deux (Engl. Hist. Soc.); Trokelowe, 
Blaneford, &c. (Rolls Ser.) ; Chron. du BA. de 
St.-Denys (Documents ineclits sur l'Histoire de 
la France); Hardyng's Chronicle, ed. 1812; 
Rymer's Feeders,, original edition, except when 
otherwise stated ; Dagdale's Baronage ; Doyle's 
Official Baronage, Hi. 741-2; Archseologia, xlvi. 
297-328, giving an account of the opening of 
his tomb in 1877; Stubbs's Const. Hist. vol. ii.; 
other authorities as quoted.] C. L. K. 

LANGLEY, HENRY (1611-1679), puri- 
tan divine, born in 1611, was son of Thomas 
Langley, a shoemaker, of Abingdon, Berk- 
shire. He was elected a chorister of Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford, in 1627, and on 6 Nov. 
1629 matriculated from Pembroke College, 
of which he subsequently became fellow, gra- 
duating B.A. in 1632, and proceeding M.A. 
in 1636, B.D. in 1648, and D.D. in 1649. 
He is doubtless the Henry Langley, M.A., 
appointed rector of St. Mary, Newington, 
Surrey, by a parliamentary order of 20 June 
1643. By a parliamentary order of 10 Sept. 
1646 he was named one of the seven presby- 
terian ministers chosen to ' prepare the way ' 
for the reformation of the university by the 
parliamentary visitors, and was authorised 
to preach in any church in Oxford he might 



| choose for the purpose of winning the loyal 
scholars' submission to the parliamentary in- 
I novations. On the death, on 10 July 1647, 
i of Thomas Clayton, master of Pembroke, the 
| fellows elected Henry Wightwick to the 
I vacant post, but their choice was overruled 
, by the parliament. Langley was nominated 
on 26 Aug. 1647, and his appointment waa 
confirmed by the parliamentary visitors on 
8 Oct. following. He became a delegate to 
the visitors on 30 Sept. in the same year, 
served as one of the twenty delegates ap- 
pointed by the nroctors (19 May 1648) to 
answer and act in all things pertaining to 
the public good of the university, and on 
5 July following was constituted member of 
the committee appointed for the examination 
of candidates for fellowships, scholarships, 
&c. He was nominated a canon of Christ 
! Church by a parliamentary order of 2 March 
1648, and held this dignity with the master- 
ship of Pembroke till his ejection at the Re- 
storation, when he retired to Tubney, near 
Abingdon, and according to Wood ' took so- 
journers (fanatick's sons) into his house . . . 
taught them logic and philosophy, and ad- 
mitted them to degrees.' It is said that on 
the appearance in March 1671-2 of the ' de- 
ciaration of indulgence 1 to dissenters, he was 
chosen with three others to continue a course 
of preaching within the city of Oxford, in 
direct opposition to the will of the university 
authorities. Wood says that he was a con- 
stant preacher at Tom Pun's house in Broken 
Hayes. He died on or about 10 Sept. 1679, 
and was buried in St. Helen's Church, Abing- 
don. 

[Wood's Athens* Oxon. ed. Bliss, iv. 10, 592 ; 
Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, pt. ii. pp. 1 13, 157 ; 
Wood's Life and Times, ed. Clark (Oxf. Hist. 
Soc), i. 130 sqq., ii. 1 sqq.; Foster's Alumni 
Oxonienses, 1 st ser. iii. 878 ; Blozam's Magd. Coll. 
Reg. i. 38 ; Borrows* Reg. Oxf. Visitors, pp. 4, 
6, 102, 141 ; Lords' Journals, viii. 486, ix. 387, 
407, x. 87 ; Commons' Journals, iii. 136, v. 277, 
284 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1660-1, pp. 85, 
174 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. p. 192 ; Eger- 
ton MS. (Brit. Mus.) 2618, foL 83.] D. H-l. 

LANGLEY, JOHN (d. 1657}, pam- 
marian, born near Banbury, Oxfordshire, 
subscribed to the articles, &c. at Oxford on 
23 April 1613,graduatedB.A. from Magdalen 
Hall in 1616, and proceeded M.A. in 1619. 
On 9 March 1617 ne was appointed high- 
master of the college school, Gloucester, re- 
signed his office in 1627, was readmitted on 
11 Aug. 1628, and finally resigned in or about 
1635 ( Gloucester Chapter Act Book, i. 21, 61). 
It is said that he held a prebend in Gloucester 
Cathedral. On 7 Jan. 1640 he succeeded Dr. 
Alexander Gill the younger [q. v.] as high- 



Langley 



112 



Langley 



master of St. Paul's School, where, as at Glou- 
cester, he educated many who were after- 
wards serviceable in church and state. In 
recognition of his scholastic attainments he 
was appointed by a parliamentary order of 
20 June 1643 one of the licensers of the press 
for 'books of philosophy, history, poetry, 
morality, and arts/ but appears by a petition 
(of 20 Dec. 1648) from the stationers and 
printers of London to have been latterly re- 
miss in the performance of his duties. Having 
been sworn at the lords' bar on 12 Jan. 1644, 
Langley appeared on 6 June following as a 
witness before the lords' committees appointed 
to take examinations in the cause of Arch- 
bishop Laud, and deposed to sundry innova- 
tions in the conduct of the cathedral services 
introduced by Laud when dean of Gloucester. 

Langley was not only an able schoolmaster, 
but a general scholar, an excellent theologian 
of the puritan stamp, and a distinguished an- 
tiquary. Fuller calls him the ' able and reli- 
gious schoolmaster.' He was highly esteemed 
by Selden and other learned men. 

He published : ' Totius Rhetoricse Adum- 
bratio in usum Paulinas ScholsB,' 1644, 2nd 
edit. Cambridge, 1660, and an * Introduction 
to Grammar,' ' several times printed.' Wood 
credits him with a translation of Polydore 
Vergil's ' De Inventoribus Rerum,' and im- 
plies that this translation was new. The 
only edition which bears Langley's name is 
that of 1663, and it cannot claim to be a 
new translation, or even a new edition. It 
is simply the remainder, with a new title- 
page, of the 1659 edition, which is itself a 
reprint of that of 1546, the work of Thomas 
Langley [q. v.], canon of Winchester. 

Langley died unmarried at his house in 
St. Paul's Churchyard on 13 Sept. 1657, and 
was buried on 21 Sept. in Mercers' Chapel, 
when a funeral sermon, subsequently printed 

Son Acts vii. 22), touching the ' Use of Human 
^earning,' was preached by his friend Dr. j 
Edward Reynolds, sometime dean of Christ J 
Church, and afterwards bishop of Norwich. 
The preacher warmly eulogises Langley's 
learning and character, and states that he 
was so much honoured by the governors that 
they accepted his recommendation of Samuel 
Cromleholme [q. v J as his successor at St. 
Paul's. His will bears date 9 Sept. 1657, 
and was proved on 29 Sept. following (Reg. 
in P. C. C. 343, Ruthen). 

He is not to be confounded with John 
Langley, M.A., instituted to the rectory of 
West Tytherley or Tuderley, Hampshire, on 
24 July 1641, and nominated a member of 
the Westminster Assembly of Divines by a 
parliamentary order of 12 June 1643 (Lords' 
Journals, vi. 93). 



[Foster's Alumni Oxonienses, 1st ser. p. 878 ; 
Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 434 ; Knight's 
Life of Dr.Colet, 1724, p. 379 ; Prynne's Canter- 
buries Doome, 1646, p. 75 ; Fuller's Church Hist, 
of Britain, 1655, pt. v. p. 168 ; Hist, of the 
Troubles and Tryal of Archbishop Laud, 1695, p. 
332 ; Stew's Survey, ed. Strype, 1720, pt. i. p. 
168; Gardiner's Keg. St. Paul's School, p. 41; 
Professor John Ferguson's Bibliographical Notes 
on the English translation of Polydore Vergil's 
De Inventoribus Rerum, p. 30 ; Lords' Journals, 
vi. 377 ; Commons' Journals, iii. 138 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1644, p. 4 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 7th 
Rep. p. 67; Mercers' Company Minute-book; 
transcript of Mercers' Chapel Reg. at Somerset 
House.l D. H-l. 

LANGLEY, THOMAS (ft. 1320?), 
■writer on poetry, was a monk of S. Benet 
Hulme, Norfolk, and author of ' Liber de Va- 
rietate carminum in capitulis xviii distinctus 
cum prologo.' Ten chapters are preserved in 
Digby MS. 100, f. 178, at the Bodleian Library. 
The prologue consists of an epigram begin- 
ning ' Dudum conflictu vexatus rithimachie,' 
which seems to be Bale's only authority for 
ascribing to Langley a book of epigrams. 
The treatise is dedicated to a bishop of Nor- 
wich, but in the Digby MS., which, is evi- 
dently a copy and not the original, the bishop's 
name is omitted. Tanner gives the bishop's 
name as John, and Langley's date as 1430, 
which would suit John W akeryng, who was 
bishop from 1416 to 1426. But the Digby 
copy is probably not much later than 1400, 
and if the bishop's name was really John, 
John Salmon must be meant, who was bishop 
from 1299 to 1335. 

[Bale, xi. 43 ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. p. 
465 ; Cat. of Digby MSS. ; information kindly 
supplied by F. Madan, esq., of the Bodleian 
Library.] C. L. K. 

LANGLEY or LONGLEY, THOMAS 

(d. 1437), bishop of Durham, cardinal, and 
chancellor, is said to have been second son 
of Thomas Langley of Langley, Yorkshire 
(Ditgdalb, Visit, of Yorkshire, Surtees Soc, 
p. 300). He was educated at Cambridge, and 
was in his youth attached to the family of 
John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster [q. v.] 
The accession of Henry IV insured his pro- 
motion ; in 1400 he was 'a canon of York, and 
on 20 July 1401 was made dean of York. In 
1403 he was keeper of the privy seal. Bishop 
Henry Beaufort [q. v.] having resigned the 
chancellorship, the great seal was committed 
to Langley on or about 28 Feb. 1406, and on 
8 Aug. he was elected by the chapter of York 
to the archbishopric, then vacant by the exe- 
cution of Scrope on 8 June. The king wrote 
to Innocent VII recommending Langley, but 
the pope was offended at the execution of 



Langley 



"3 



Langley 



Scrope, and the election was annulled. 
Nevertheless the pope appointed Langley to 
the see of Durham by provision, he was 
•elected on 17 May 1406, and, the see of York 
being still vacant, was consecrated on 8 Aug. 
in St. Paul's by Thomas Arundel [q. v.], 
archbishop of Canterbury. He received au- 
thority from Gregory ill to reconcile all 
who had taken part in Scrope's death. On 
SO Jan. 1407 he resigned the great seal. 
Langley was an able and prudent statesman, 
and is said to have been a good canonist, 
and otherwise well educated. He seems to 
have belonged to the party of the Beauforts 
and the Prince of Wales, and to have so far 
at least remained constant to the policy of 
his old master John of Gaunt {Constitutional 
History , ill. 69). Having in March 1409 re- 
ceived letters of protection from the king, he 
set out with great magnificence to attend 
the general council at Pisa, and on 7 May 
presented himself at the council as proctor 
for several English bishops, abbots, and priors 
(Faderay viii. 579; Eulogium, iii. 414 ; Labbe, 
Concilia, xxvii. col. 348). In 1410 he was 
appointed to hold a conference with the Scots 
commissioners on the border. John XXIII, 
being anxious to obtain the support of Eng- 
land, appointed him a cardinal on 6 June 
1411, but in common with Robert Hallam 
[q. v.], bishop of Salisbury, and for the same 
reason, he did not receive a title from one of 
the Roman churches (CiACOin,ii. 803, where 
will be found an engraving of Langley's 
arms). By Italian writers he is said to have 
borne the sobriquet of Armellinus (? armel- 
lino, ermine). In August 1414 he was sent by 
Henry V, with the Bishop of Norwich and 
others, on an embassy to Paris, and returned 
thither again early the next year, and con- 
cluded a truce [see under Coxtrtenay, Ri- 
chard; J. J.DEsURSiN8,pp.'500,503). On 
23 June 1417 he again succeeded Beaufort 
as chancellor, and opened parliament in No- 
vember, taking as his text ' Confortamini, 
viriliter agitis, et gloriosi eritis,' which he 
applied byrecalling to his hearers the suc- 
cesses of Henry from the battle of Shrews- 
bury to his victory at Agincourt, and remind- 
ing them of the necessity of keeping peace at 
home, and granting supplies for the war, for 
the guardianship of the seas, and for the de- 
fence of the border. He assisted at the coro- 
nation of Catherine of Valois [q. v.] in Fe- 
bruary 1421. On the death of Henry V, as 
a measure of precaution, he surrendered the 
great seal to the council on 28 Sept. 1422, 
and received it again as from the new king 
in parliament on 16 Nov. (Rot, Pari. iv. 171). 
He also exhibited to the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury the king's last will, of whicn he was 

VOL. XXXII. 



a supervisor. On 6 July 1424 he retired from 
the chancellorship, and was succeeded by 
Beaufort (Constitutional History, iii. 100). 
In that year he assisted at the conclusion of 
the treaty of Durham, and entertained James I 
of Scotland and his queen. Having been 
appointed on the council in the parliament 
held at Leicester in February 142o, he wrote 
to excuse his non-attendance, on the pleas of 
age and infirmity and the duties of his epi- 
scopal office. Before long, however, he re- 
sumed his attendance {Ordinances of the 
Privy Council, iii. 197, 200 sqq.) In Fe- 
bruary 1429 he was appointed to treat with 
James of Scotland, and at the coronation of 
Henry VI [q. v.], on 6 Nov., he and the 
Bishop of Bath led the young king up the 
church. When the parliament of 1431 met 
he was engaged in guarding the border. In 
1436 he was again employed to treat with the 
Scots. He died on 20 Nov. 1437, and was 
buried in the galilee of his cathedral church, 
where his marble altar-tomb still remains. He 
left benefactions to the libraries of Oxford 
and Cambridge, Durham House at Oxford, St. 
Mary's at Leicester, and the college at Man- 
chester (Sitrtees), and his executors are said 
to have erected the magnificent window on 
the south side of the choir of York Minster. 
At Durham he repaired and finished the 
galilee of his church, founded a chantry there 
rDuGDALE), and obtained license to place a 
font there for the baptism of the children of 
excommunicate persons, assisted the prior 
and convent to repair the cloisters, and 
founded two schools on the palace green, 
one forgrammar and the other for plain- 
song. He also built a western gateway at 
Howden, where the manor belonged to Dur- 
ham. In 1407 he obtained from Henry IV 
a charter confirming the privileges and pos- 
sessions formerly granted to his church, 
which was given to him in recognition of 
the faithful service rendered by him to the 
king's father and the king himself for many 
years. As lord of the Palatinate he held 
seven commissions of array, levied a subsidy 
for the war with France, and did other acts 
belonging to his office (Surtebs). He em- 
ployed as suffragans Oswald, bishop of 
Whithern, in 1416, to whom he paid a fee of 
14/. 6s. Sd. (ib.), and in 1426 Robert Forster, 
bishop of Elphm (Stitbbs). 

[Surtees's Durham, i. 55 ; Foss's Judges, iv. 
338; Le Neve's Fasti, iii. 109, 291 (Hardy); 
Stubbs's Registr. Sacr. Anglic, pp. 63, 149, Con- 
stitutional Hist. iii. 48, 59, 89, 96, 97, 100 ; Ordi- 
nances of Privy Council, i. 381, vols. ii. iii. iv. 
passim; Rot. Pari. iv. 106, 171,209; Rymer's 
Fcedera, viii. 579, 686, ix. 141, x. 410 (ed. 1710) ; 
Labbe's Concilia, xxvii. col. 348 ; Ciaconi's 

I 



Langley 



114 



Langley 



Vitse Romanorum Pontiff, ii. col. 803 ; Nomen- j 
clator S. R. Eccl. Cardinalium, p. 78 ; Creigh- 
ton's Papacy, i. 246 ; Juvenal des Urains (Mi- | 
chaud), ii. 500, 503 ; Eulogium, iii. 414 (Rolls : 
Ser.) ; Amundesham, i. 58 (Rolls Ser.) ; Hist, j 
Collect., Gregory, pp. 140, 168 (Camden Soc.); 
Dugdale s Monasticon, i. 228, 240.] W. H. | 

LANGLEY, THOMAS (d. 1581), canon j 
of Winchester, was educated at Cambridge, 
and graduated B. A., in 1537-8. He was chap- 
lain to Archbishop Cranmer, and vicar of 
Headcorn, Kent, in 1548, and may be iden- | 
tical with the Thomas Langley, protestant j 
reformer and exile, who was admitted, into the 
English church and congregation at Geneva 
in 1556. Langley was rector of Boughton 
Malherbe, Kent, from 1557 to 6 Oct. 1559, 
when Queen Elizabeth presented him to a 
canonry at Winchester. He was installed on 
15 Oct. following. On 7 Dec. 1559 he was I 
presented by the crown to the rectory of Wel- 
ford, Berkshire. After twelve years' study 
he was admitted B.D. at Oxford on 15 July | 
1560, without having previously taken his 
mester's degree. In 1563 Langley was insti- 
tuted to the vicarage of Wanborouffh, Wilt- 
shire, on the presentation of the aean and 
chapter of Winchester, and held this bene- 
fice until his death, which took place before 
31 Dec. 1581 . In his will, dated 22 Dec. 1581, 
and proved 30 Jan. 1581-2 (Reg. in P. C. C, 
Tirwbite, fol. 1), he expresses a wish to 
be buried in the chancel of Wanborough 
Church. 

He published : 1. * An Abridgement of the 
notable Woorke of Polidore Vergile, con- 
teignyng the deuisers ... of Artes, Minis- 
teries, Feactes, & Ciuill Ordinaunces, as of 
Rites and Ceremonies commoly vsed in the 
Churche,' London, by R. Grafton (black let- 
ter), 16 April 1546 ; other editions are dated 
25 Jan. 1546T-7], 1551, [1570], and 1659, 8yo. 
Copies of all the editions are in the British 
Museum. This is an abridged English version 
of Vergil's ' De Inventoribus Rerum.' Lang- 
ley worked on one of the late Latin editions, 
and abridged his original by about two-thirds. 
2. ' Of the Christian Sabboth, a Godlye Trea- 
tise of Mayster Julius of Milayne, translated 
out of Italian into English by Thomas Lang- 
ley/ London (William Reddell), black letter, 
1552, 12mo. A copy is in the Lambeth Li- 
brary. 3. Latin verses in praise of the author 
and his work prefixed to W T illiam Cuning- 
ham's i Cosmographical Glasse,' 1559. 

[Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. i. 447 ; Oxf. Univ. 
Reg. (Oxf. Hist. Soc.), i. 242 ; Foster's Alumni 
Oxon. 1st ser. iii. 879 ; Strype's Cranmer, 1694, 
p. 179 ; Rymer's Fcedera, xv. 543, 563 ; Le Neve's 
Fasti Eccl. Anglicanae, ed. Hardy, iii. 33 ; Mait- 
land's Index of Early English Books in the 



Lambeth Library, 1845, p. 62 ; Professor John 
Ferguson's Bibliographical Notes on the English 
Translation of Polydore Vergil's work, De Inven- 
toribus Rerum. 1888, pp. 17 et seq. ; Sir Thoma* 
Phillipps's Institntiones Clericorum in Comitate 
Wiltnniae, 1825, pt. i. pp. 221, 231 ; Brit. Mns. 
Lansdowne MS. 443, f. 11 ; Burn's Hist. Par. 
Reg. 1862, p. 278.] D. H-l. 

LANGLEY, THOMAS (1769-1801), 
topographer, only son of Thomas Langley 
(d. 1801), by Mary, daughter of John Hig- 
ginson, was born at Great Marlow, Bucking- 
hamshire, on 10 May 1769, and baptised on 
8 June following. He entered Eton College 
in 1780, and matriculated from Hertford 
College, Oxford, on 17 May 1787, proceeding 
B.A. on 9 July 1791, and M.A. on 5 June 
1794. Having taken orders he was in 1793 
licensed to the curacies of Bradenham and 
Taplow, Buckinghamshire, and was insti- 
tuted on 2 Oct. 1800 to the rectory of Whis- 
ton, Northamptonshire, on the presentation 
of Frederick, second lord Boston, but appears 
to have been non-resident. 

Langley was a careful collector of the an- 
tiquities of Buckinghamshire, and gave a good 
specimen of his literary capacity in * The His- 
tory and Antiquities of the Hundred of Des- 
borough and Deanery of Wycombe in Buck- 
inghamshire,' 1797, 4to, a work abounding- 
in picturesque descriptions, but deficient in 
scholarly method. A large-paper copy of 
'The History of Desborough,' containing the 
author's manuscript additions and original 
letters to him from the principal persons in 
the county, is among the Stowe MSS. in the 
British Museum. In 1799 Langleywas con- 
templating the publication of a ' History of 
Burnham Hundred,' with the addition of 

Elates, a feature which had been wanting in 
is former work. 

In February 1800 Langley had completed 
a religious poem of some length, which he did 
not print. He died unmarried on 30 July 
1801 , and was interred on 6 Aug. in the family 
vault at Great Marlow, and is commemorated 
by a monumental tablet in the church. His 
will, dated 8 Feb. 1794, was proved on 9 Oct. 
1801 (Reg. in P. C. C. 681, Abercrombie). 

Another Thomas Langley, B. A., curate of 
Snelston, Derbyshire, was author of ' A Short 
but Serious Appeal to the Head and Heart 
of every unbiassed Christian,' 1799, 8vo. 

[Lipscomb's Hist, of Buckinghamshire, iii. 602 ; 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ix. 227 ; Lysons's Magna 
Britannia, v. 218 ; Hist. MSS. Comm. 8th Rep. 
pt. iii. p. 31 ; Cat. Stowe MSS. 1849, p. 132 ; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715-1886, iii. 817 ; Oxf. 
Cat. Grad. 1851, p. 395 ; Gent. Mag. 1796 ii. 736, 
1797i.491, 1801 ii. 768 ; Institution Book,Ser.C, 
i. 459, in Public Record Office; Great Marlow 



Langmead 



"5 



Langrishe 



parish registers ; information from diocesan re- 
gistrar, Lincoln, General Sir George Higginson, 
K.C.B., and Mr. H. W. Badger, Great Marlow.] 

D. H-l. 
LANGMEAD. afterwards TASWELL- 
LANGMEAD, THOMAS PITT (1840- 
1882), writer on constitutional law and his- 
tory, born in 1840, was son of Thomas Lang- 
mead, by Elizabeth, daughter of Stephen Cock 
Taswelf, a descendant of an old family for- 
merly settled at Limington, Somerset. He 
was educated at King's College, London, the 
inns of court, and St. Mary Hall, Oxford. He 
entered on 9 May 1860 the Inner Temple, 
and 9 July 1862 Lincoln's Inn, where he 
took the Tancred studentship, and in Easter 
term 1868 was called to the bar. At Oxford 
he graduated B.A. in 1866, taking first class 
honours in law and modern history. The 
same year he was awarded the Stanhope 

firize for an essay on the reign of Richard II 
printed Oxford 1868), and in 1867 the Vine- 
nan scholarship. 

Langmead practised as a conveyancer, and 
was appointed in 1873 tutor in constitutional 
law and legal history at the inns of court. He 
also held the post of revising barrister under 
the River Lea €onservancy Acts, and for 
seven years preceding his death was joint 
editor of the ' Law Magazine and Review/ 
In 1882 he was appointed professor of Eng- 
lish constitutional law ana legal history at 
University College, London, and died unmar- 
ried at Brighton on 8 Dec. the same year. He 
was buriedat Nnnhead cemetery. Langmead 
assumed in 1864 the name of Taswell as 
an additional surname, and was thenceforth 
known as TasweU-Langmead. 

In 1858 Langmead edited for the Camden 
Society ' Sir Edward Lake's Account of his 
Interviews with Charles I, on being created 
a Baronet ' ( Camden Miscell. vol. i v.), and con- 
tributed to ' Notes and Queries/ 2nd ser. vi. 
380, the outline of a scheme for the better 
preservation of parochial records, which he 
long afterwards developed in a pamphlet en- 
titled ' Parish Registers : a Flea for tneir Pre- 
servation/ 1872. He contributed an article 
on the same topic to the ' Law Magazine and 
Review' in May 1878, and drafted Mr. W. C. 
Borlase's abortive Parish Registers Bill of 
1882. His only other important contribution 
to the ' Law Magazine and Review ' was an 
article on 'The Representative Peerage of 
Scotland and Ireland/ May 1876. In 1875 he 
published ' English Constitutional History : a 
Text-book for Students and others/ London, 
8vo, a valuable manual, evincing some original 
research, of which a second edition appeared 
in 1880, a third in 1886 f revised by C. H. E. 
Carmichael), and a fourth in 1890. 



[Solicitors' Journal, xxvii. 134 ; Law Journal, 
xvii. 700; Law Times, lxxiv. 218; Law Mag. 
and Review, 4th ser. viii. 141 ; Cal. Univ. Ox- 
ford, 1892, pp. 38, 59, 175; Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. vi. 380, 6th ser. vi. 500 ; Misc. Gen. 
et Herald, new ser. i. 255 ; Inns of Court Cal. 
1878.] J. M. R. 

LANGRISH, BROWNE, M.D. (d. 1759), 
physician, born in Hampshire, was edu- 
cated as a surgeon. In 1733 he was in 
practice at Petersfield, Hampshire, and pub- 
lished ' A New Essay on Muscular Motion/ 
in which the structure of muscles and the 
phenomena of muscular contraction are dis- 
cussed with much ingenuity, but with no 
more satisfactory conclusion than that mus- 
cular motion arises from the influence of the 
animal spirits over the muscular fibres. On 
25 July 1734 he became an extra licentiate of 
the College of Physicians, and began practice 
as a physician. He was elected a fellow of 
the Royal Society on 16 May 1734, and in 
1735 published l The Modern Theory and 
t Practice of Physic/ in which he displays con- 
I siderable originality in clinical research, and 
| describes experiments in the analysis of ex- 
I creta and the examination of the blood. A 
second edition appeared in 1764. He prac- 
tised in Winchester, and in 1746 published 
' Physical Experiments on Brutes, in order 
to discover a safe and easy Method of dis- 
solving Stone in the Bladder/ Experiments 
on cherry laurel water are added, and he 
concludes that this poisonous liquid may be 
used in medicine with advantage. He deli- 
vered the Oroonian lectures on muscular 
motion before the Royal Society in 1747, 
and they were published in 1748. In the 
same year he graduated M.D., and published 
also ' Plain Directions in regard to the Small- 
pox/ a sensible and interesting quarto of 
thirty-five pages, showing extensive reading 
as well as acute clinical observation. He died 
at Basingstoke, Hampshire, on 29 Nov. 1759. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 130; Thomson's 
Hist, of the Royal Soc. 1812 ; Works.] N. M. 

LANGRISHE, Sir HERCULES (1738- 
1811), Irish politician, born in 1738, was the 
only son of Robert Langrishe, esq., of Knock- 
topher, co. Kilkenny, and Anne, daughter of 
Jonathan Whitby of Kilcregan in the same 
county. He was educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin, where he graduated B.A. in 1753. 
From 1761 until the union he represented the 
borough of Enocktopher, of wnich he was 
virtually sole proprietor, in the Irish parlia- 
ment. He was a commissioner of barracks 
1766-74, supervisor of accounts 1767-75, 
commissioner of revenue 1774-1801, and 
commissioner of excise 1780-1801. He was 

12 



Langrishe 



116 



Langrishe 



a man of culture and great social qualities, and 
his political views were broad and generous. 
Though professedly a supporter of govern- 
ment, he was one of the most independent 
politicians in the Irish House of Commons. 

At an early period he formed a friendship 
with Burke, "and his intimacy with him no 
doubt coloured his political opinions. He 
consistently opposed every effort to reform 
the Irish parliament, but indignantly rebutted 
the charge that in doing so he was actuated 
by mercenary motives. His advocacy of the 
catholic claims at a time when the penal 
laws were in full force entitles him to remem- 
brance. In 1766 he supported Flood's pro- 
posal to establish a militia. In April and 
May 1771 he published anonymously, in the 
' Freeman's Journal/ a covert attack on the 
government of Lord Townshend under the 
title of * The History of Barataria continued,' 
subsequently republished, along with a num- 
ber of letters by Flood, Grattan, and himself, 
in a little volume entitled * Baratariana.' In 
1772 he made a liberal and temperate speech 
in favour of a bill ' to enable papists to take 
building leases.' On the outbreak of the war 
with America he advocated a conciliatory 
policy, and voted in favour of an amend- 
ment to the address urging the adoption of 
' healing measures for the removal of the dis- 
content that prevails in the colonies.' On 
24 Jan. 1777 he was created a baronet and a 
privy councillor. He played a quiet but 
patriotic part in the matter of the declara- 
tion of Irish independence, speaking at some 
length on the address to the Duke of Port- 
land in May 1782. In 1783 he opposed 
Flood's motion for a reform of parliament. 
He supported the chief measures of govern- 
ment m 1786-8, voting against the reduction 
of pensions, and in favour of the Police Bill 
and the bill to suppress tumultuous risings. 
On the regency question in 1789 he spoKe 
and voted in favour of the address to the 
Prince of Wales. 

The growth of republican notions among 
the dissenters in the north of Ireland, and the 
cordial relations established between them 
and the Roman catholics, seem to have sug- 
gested to Langrishe the advisability of learn- 
X Burke's views on the proposal to further 
the penal statutes against the Roman 
catholics. * General principles,' he wrote, ' are 
not changed, but times and circumstances 
are altered.' Burke replied with his famous 
1 Letter to Sir H. Langrishe,' advocating a 
complete or almost complete removal of dis- 
abilities, ' leisurely, by degrees, and portion 
by portion.' Acting on this advice Langrishe, 
on 25 Jan. 1792, introduced his Catholic Re- 
lief Bill, and in February of the following 



year supported Secretary Hobart's measure 
for conferring the elective franchise on the 
Roman catholics. In 1794 he opposed Pon- 
sonby's motion for a reform of parliament, 
and in 1796 a motion for the complete re- 
moval of the catholic disabilities, though he 
had supported the same measure in the pre- 
vious year, on the ground that the time was 
inopportune, and that ' what little of con- 
cession still remains behind (which is little 
more than pride and punctillio) must be the 
work of conciliation and not contention.' 
His attitude towards the union scheme was 
at first doubtful, but on 5 Jan. 1799 Castle- 
reagh reported that he would support the 
government. By the Compensation Act he 
received 13,862/. for his interest in the bo- 
rough of Knocktopher. After the union he 
ceased to take any active interest in politics, 
and died at his residence in Stephen's Green, 
Dublin, on 1 Feb. 1811. 

He married Hannah, daughter and coheir 
of Robert Myhill, esq., of Killerney, co. Kil- 
kenny, and sister of Jane, wife of Charles, 
first marquis of Ely, by whom he had two 
sons and three daughters, Mary Jane, Eliza- 
beth, and Hannah. The elder son Robert 
succeeded as second baronet, and died in 
1835, having sat in the Irish parliament as 
M.P. for Knocktopher from 1796 to 1800. 
The second son James was archdeacon of 
Glendalough, dean of Achonry, and rector of 
Newcastle, Lyons, and Killishin, co. Carlow; 
he died 17 May 1847. 

All efforts to trace Langrishe's correspond- 
ence have as yet ended in failure. Digests 
of his speeches between 1782 and 1796 will 
be found in the 'Irish Parliamentary Re- 
gister.' Several, viz. on allowing fpapists 
to take building leases, 1772, on parliamen- 
tary reform in 1783 and 1794, were published 
separately. A pamphlet entitled ' Considera- 
tions on the Dependencies of Great Britain/ 
published anonymously in London in 1769, 
and reprinted in Dublin in the same year, is 
ascribed to him by Mr. Lecky {England in 
the Eighteenth Century, iv. 315. 375) on the 
strength of a contemporary manuscript note 
on a copy in the Halliday collection in the 
Royal Irish Academy. 

[Burke's Baronetage ; Grattan's Life of Grat- 
tan ; Pari. Register (Ireland) ; Barrington's 
Sketches of his own Times, vol. iii. ; Cornwallis's 
Correspondence; Liber Hibernise, pt.iii. ; Hardy's 
Life of Charlemont ; Charlemont MSS. (Hist 
MSS. Comm. xii. App. pt. x.); Addit. MS. 
33101, f. 27; Gent Mag. 1811, pt i. pp. 194, 
289; Burke's Works; Hist MSS. Comm. i. 128, 
xii. App. ix. p. 325 ; Willis's Irish Nation, iii. 
372 ; information kindly furnished by Mr. W. E. H. 
Lecky and the Rev. W. Reynell.] R. D. 



Langshaw 



117 



Langtoft 



LANGSHAW, JOHN (1718-1798), or- 
ganist, born in 1718, was employed about 
1761 with John Christopher Smith ' in ar- 
ranging music for some barrels belonging to 
a large organ, the property of the Earl of 
Bute? The ' barrels were set, by an ingenious 
artist of the name of Langshaw, in so masterly 
a manner that the effect was equal to that 
produced by the most finished player.' In 
1772 Langshaw quitted London, and was ap- 
pointed organist of the parish church, Lan- 
caster. He died there in 1798. 

His son, John Langshaw (jl. 1798), born 
in London in 1763, was educated chiefly in 
Lancaster until in 1779 he went to London 
to study under Charles Wesley, from whom 
and also from Samuel Wesley he received 
much kindness. He finally settled down as 
a teacher of music in the metropolis. On 
his father's death in 1798 he was appointed 
organist at Lancaster, where he also fre- 
quently appeared in concerts as a pianist. He 
published a number of compositions, includ- 
ing hymns, chants, songs, pianoforte concerti, 
and a theme with variations for piano or harp, 
written for the Countess of Dromore. A large 
number of unpublished compositions by Lang- 
shaw is said to be extant* 

[Grove's Diet, of Music ; Diet, of Music, 1824 ; 
Registers.] R. H. L. 

LANGSTON, JOHN (1641 P-1704\ in- 
dependent divine, was born about 1641, ac- 
cording to Calamy. He went from the 
Worcester grammar school to Pembroke 
College, Oxford, where he was matriculated 
as a servitor in Michaelmas term 1665, and 
studied for some years. Wood does not men- 
tion his graduation. At the Restoration in 
1660 (when, if Calamy is right, he had not 
completed his twentieth year) he held the 
sequestered perpetual curacy of Ashchurch, 
Gloucestershire, from which he was displaced 
by the return of the incumbent. He went 
to London, and kept a private school near 
Spitalfields. On the coming into force of the 
Uniformity Act (24 Aug. 1662) he crossed 
over to Ireland as chaplain and tutor to Cap- 
tain Blackwell, but returned to London and 
to school-keeping in 1 663. Under the indul- 
gence of 1672 he took out a license, in concert 
with William Hooke (d. March 1677, aged 77), 
formerly master of the Savoy, ' to preach in 
Richard Loton's house in Spittle-yard.' Some 
time after 1679 he removed into Bedfordshire, 
where he ministered till, in 1686, he received 
an invitation from a newly separated con- 
gregation of independents, who had hired a 
building in Green Yard, St. Peter's parish, 
Ipswich. Under his preaching a congrega- 
tional church of seventeen persons was 



formed on 12 Oct. 1686. Langston, his 
wife, and thirty others were admitted to 
membership on 22 Oct., when a call to the 
pastorate was given him ; he accepted it on 
29 Oct., and was set apart by four elders at 
a solemn fast on 2 Nov. A ' new chappeU ' 
in Green Yard was opened on 26 June 1687, 
and the church membership was raised to 
123 persons, many of them from neighbour- 
ing villages. Calamy says he was driven out 
of his house, was forced to remove to Lon- 
don, and was there accused of being a Jesuit, 
whereupon he published a successful ' Vin- 
dication.' The publication is unknown, and 
Calamy gives no date; the year 1697 has 
been suggested. Langston's church-book 
gives no hint of any persecution, but shows 
that he was in the habit of paying an an- 
nual visit of about three weeks' duration 
to London with his wife. He notices the 
engagement with the French fleet at La 
Hogue on 19 May 1692, 'for ye defeat of 
w h blessed be God,' and the earthquake on 
8 Sept. in the same year. The tone of his 
ministry was conciliatory ' towards people of 
different perswasions/ In November 1702 
Benjamin Glandfield (d. 10 Sept. 1720) was 
appointed as his assistant. Langston died 
on 12 Jan. 1704, « eetat. 64.' His portrait 
hangs in the vestry of Tacket Street Chapel, 
Ipswich; an engraving from it is in the 
' Evangelical Magazine, 1801. He published 
nothing of a religious nature, but issued the 
following for school purposes : 1. ' Lusus 
Poeticus Latino- Anglicanus,' &c, 1675, 8vo ; 
2nd edition, 1679, 8vo: 3rd edition, 1688, 
12mo (intended as an aid to capping verses). 
2. ' 'Ey veiptdW ttoiijtikov. Sive Poesear 
Grsecce Medulla, cum versione Latina,' &c, 
1679, 8vo. 

[Calamy 's Account, 1 7 1 3, pp. 660 sq. ; Browne's 
Hist. Congr. Norf. and Suff. 1877, pp. 369 sq. ; 
information from the master of Pembroke Col- 
lege, Oxford.] A. G. 

LANGTOFT, PETER of (d. 1307?), 
rhyming chronicler, took his name from the 
village of Langtoft in the East Riding of 
Yorkshire, where he may have been born. 
We learn from Robert Mannvng[q. v."], the 
translator of his ' Chronicle ' (Robert op 
Bbttnot, p. 579, ed. Furaivall), that he was 
a canon of the Augustinian priory of Brid- 
lington, a town only a few miles from Lang- 
toft. He wrote a history of England up to 
the death of Edward I in French verse, and 
Mannyn£ tells us that he invoked St. Breda 
to aid him in his historical composition (ib. 
p. 580). It has been inferred by Hearne, with 
some probability, that he died about 1307, the 
time when his history concludes. Additional 



Langtoft 



118 



Langton 



information hazarded by Leland, Pits, and 
Hearne is palpable guesswork. 

Langtoft's ' Chronicle ' is written in rough 
French verse. The language is very loose 
and ungrammatical, and is plainly the work 
of a foreigner little conversant with standard 
French. Its extensive circulation shows that 
there must have been classes in the north of 
England early in the fourteenth century who 
still spoke or understood Langtoft's barbarous 
Yorkshire French. The early part of Lang- 
toft's ' Chronicle ' is taken from Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, and the middle part is a compila- 
tion from various sources, and of no historical 
value. For the reign of Edward I Langtoft 
is a contemporary, and in some ways a valu- 
able authority. lie is specially interested in 
northern affairs and Edward Fs wars against 
Scotland. He dwells with great energy on 
the devastations of the Scots, and seeks to 
give a sort of popular justification of Edward's 
Scottish policy. Several curious fragments of 
English songs are imbedded in his narrative. 

Langtoft wrote his history of Edward I, 
at the request of a patron called ' Scaffold,' 
in one manuscript, though in another he is 
simply styled ' uns amis.' It circulated chiefly 
in the north, one of the best manuscripts 
(now preserved in the College of Arms) being 
written by a certain John, at the request of 
his master, Sir John, vicar of Adlingfleet in 
the West Riding of Yorkshire. It was held 
in great esteem in the north, and the latter 
part of it was translated into English by 
Robert Mannyng of Bourn in Lincolnshire, 
more commonly called Robert of Brunne. 
Mannyng regarded Langtoft as ' quaynte in 
his speech and wys/speaks of his ' mykel wyt/ 
and despairs of imitating his ' fair speche ' 
(ib. p. 580; cf. p. 6, * feyrere langage non ne 
redis '). But he blames him for ' overlap- 
ping ' too much of Geoffrey of Monmouth's 
Latin narrative, and prefers to translate 
Wace for the mythical part (ib. p. 5). He 
follows Langtoft, however, from the Saxon 
invasion onwards. 

Langtoft's ' Chronicle ' was published for 
the first time by Thomas Thorpe, in two 
volumes of the Rolls Series,in 1866 and 1868. 
The historical part of Mannyng's translation 
was published by Hearne in 1725, with the 
title, ' Peter of Langtoft's Chronicle, as illus- 
trated and improved by Robert of Brunne, 
from the Death of Cadwaladr to the end of 
King Edward the First's reign.' In the pre- 
face is a long but confused and inaccurate 
account of Langtoft. Pits (De Illxutr.Anglice 
Script, p. 800), who calls him Langatosta, 
actually makes Langtoft the author of the 
English version. Leland (Comm. de Script 
Brit p. 218) does not know Langtoft as an 



historian. Dr. Furnivall published in 1887 
the mythical part of Brunne's English version 
in the Rolls Series. Though this is mostly 
taken from Wace, Langtoft is occasionally 
used, and the preface and conclusion con- 
tain our only biographical information about 
him. 

Leland makes Langtoft the author of a 
French metrical version of Herbert of Bos- 
ham's ' Life of St. Thomas of Canterbury,' in 
which he is followed by Pits. Mr. Wright 
shows that this translation is earlier in date 
and purer in language than Langtoft's work, 
besides being assigned in the manuscript to 
one ' Frere Benet.' But two French poems, 
one a commonplace allegory, the other a 
lamentation of the Virgin over her Child, 
are found in one manuscript (Cotton MS. 
Julius, A. v.) of Langtoft's ' Chronicle ' in 
the same handwriting as the latter part of 
the history, and are expressly attributed by 
the copyist to Peter's authorship. Mr. Wright 
considers internal evidence makes this pro- 
bable in the case of the first poem, but unlikely 
in the second case. 

[Wright's preface to vol. i. of the Rolls Series 
edition collects all that is known of Langtoft, 
and corrects the guesses and misstatements of 
Leland, Pits, and Hearne ; some manuscripts that 
have escaped Mr. Wright's researches are noticed 
by M. Paul Meyer in Revue Critique, 1 867, ii- 
198 ; Bulletin de la Society des Anciens Teztes 
Francais, 1878, pp. 105, 140 ; and Romania, zv. 
813.] T. F. T. 

I LANGTON, BENNET (1737-1801), 
| friend of Br. Johnson, son of George Lang- 
ton, by his wife Diana, daughter of Edmund 
Turner of Stoke Rochford, Lincolnshire, and 
I descendant of the old family of the Langtons 
I of Langton, near Spilsby in Lincolnshire, was 
born apparently in the early part of 1737. 
Johnson calls him twenty-one on 9 Jan. 1759 
(Boswbll, Hill, i. 324), and he was twenty 
at his matriculation on 7 July 1767 (Foster, 
Alumni Oxonienees). While still a lad he 
was so much interested by the ' Rambler ' 
(1750-2) that he obtained an introduction to 
Johnson, who at once took a liking to him. 
He entered Trinity College, Oxford, where 
he became intimate with Topham Beauclerk 
[q. v.], and where in the summer of 1759 he 
received a long visit from Johnson. He took 
the degrees of M.A. in 1769 and D.O.L. 1790. 
The two youths took Johnson afterwards for 
his famous 'frisk* to Billingsgate. Johnson 
visited the Langtons in 1 764, and declined the 
offer of a good living from Langton's father. 
Langton was an original member of the Lite- 
rary Club (about 1764). Johnson, however, 
was provoked to the laughter which echoed 
from Fleet Ditch to Temple Bar by Langton's 



Langton 



119 



Langton 



will in 1773, and soon afterwards caused 
& quarrel, which apparently lasted for some 
months, by censuring Langton for introduc- 
ing religious questions in a mixed company. 
Langton became a captain, and ultimately 
major, in the Lincolnshire militia. Johnson 
visited him in camp at Warley Common in 
1778, and in 1783 at Rochester, where Lang- 
ton was quartered for some time. Johnson 
once requested Langton to tell him in what 
his life was faulty, and was a good deal 
vexed when Langton brought him some 
texts enjoining mildness of speech. His 
permanent feeling, however, was expressed 
in the words, ' Sit anima mea cum Langtono' 
(Boswbll, iv. 280). During Johnson s last 
illness Langton came to attend his friend ; 
Johnson left him a book, and Langton under- 
took to pay an annuity to Barber, Johnson's 
black servant, in consideration of a sum of 
750/. left in his hands. Langton was famous 
for his Greek scholarship, but wrote nothing 
■except some anecdotes about Johnson, pub- 
lished in! Boswell under the year 1 780. John- 
.son and Boswell frequently discussed his in- 
capacity for properly managing his estates. 
He was too indolent, it appears, to keep 
Accounts, in spite of exhortations from his 
mentor. His gentle and amiable nature 
made him universally popular. He was a 
favourite at the ' blue-stocking ' meetings, 
where, accordingto Burke, the ladies gathered 
round him like maids round a maypole (ib. v. 
32, n. 3). He was very tall and thin, and is 
compared by Best to the stork on one leg in 
Raphael's cartoon of the miraculous draught 
of fishes. He was appointed in April 1?88 
to succeed Johnson as professor of ancient 
literature at the Royal Academy. He died 
at Southampton 18 Dec. 1801. A portrait 
by Reynolds was in 1867 the property of 
J. H. Holloway, esq. 

On 24 May 1770 {Annual Register, p. 180) 
he married Mary, widow of John, eighth earl 
of Rothes, by whom he had four sons and 
five daughters. According to Johnson, he 
rather spoilt them (DAeblay, Diary, i. 73). 
His eldest son, George, succeeded him in his 
•estate ; Peregrine, the second, married Miss 
Massingberd of Gunby, and took her name. 
His second daughter, Jane (Boswell, iii. 
210), was Johnson's goddaughter. Johnson 
wrote her a letter in May 1784, which she 
showed to Croker in 1847. She died 12 Aug. 
1854, in her seventy-ninth year, having al- 
ways worn a ' beautiful miniature ' of Johnson 
{Gent Mag. 1864, ii. 403). 

[Boswell's Johnson; Birkbeck Hill's Br. 
Johnson, his Friends and his Critics, pp. 248-79 
(where all the anecdotes are collected) ; Best's 
Memorials, 1829, pp. 62-8 ; Miss Hawkins's Me- 



moirs; Anecdotes, &c, 1824, i. 144, 276; Hay- 
ward's Piozzi, ii. 203 ; Gent. Mag. 1801, ii. 1207 ; 
Burke's Landed Gentry; Douglas's Scottish 
Peerage (Wood), ii. 434 ; pedigree in J. H. Hill's 
History of Langton, p. 18.] L. S. 

LANGTON, CHRISTOPHER, M.D. 
(1521-1578), physician, born in 1521 at Ric- 
call in Yorkshire, was educated on the foun- 
dation at Eton, and went as a scholar 23 Aug. 
1538 to King's College, Cambridge. He was 
admitted a fellow of King's College a week 
later than all the other scholars of his year, 
2 Sept. 1541, and graduated B. A. 1542. He 
received his last quarterage as a fellow at 
Cambridge at Christmas 1544, and in 1547 
he describes himself as ' a lernar and as yet 
a yong student of physicke ' (Dedication of 
Brefe Treatise), and in 1549 he was study- 
ing ' Galen de Usu partium.' His copy of 
the Paris edition of 1528, with his name, the 
date, and notes in his handwriting on several 
pages, is in the Cambridge University Li- 
brary. He published, 10 April 1 547, in Lon- 
don, ' A very Brefe Treatise, orderly declaring 
the Principal Partes of Phisick, that is to say, 
thynges natural, thyngesnot naturall,thynges 
agaynst nature/ with a dedication to Edward, 
duke of Somerset. He describes the ancient 
sects in physic, and then treats of anatomy, 
pathology, and therapeutics according to the 
method of his age. He commends Pliny, 
quotes Hippocrates, ^Etius,Paulus^Egineta, 
Celsus and Galen, but of mediaeval writers 
only Avicenna. His English style is simple, 
and resembles that of More, being as full of 
idiomatic expressions, but much easier and 
more refined than that of the English trea- 
tises of the surgeons of his time. He shows 
a fair knowledge of Greek, and wrote a good 
Greek hand, as his copy of Galen proves. In 
1550 he published, through the same printer, 
i Edward Whitchurch, of Flete Street/ * An 
Introduction into Phisycke, wyth an Univer- 
sal Dyet.' It is dedicated to Sir Arthur Darcye, 
of whose favours he speaks, and begins with 
an address supposed to be spoken by Physic 
in person. Parts of it are mere alterations 
of his former treatise, and the additional 
matter is not important. He was admitted 
a fellow of the College of Physicians of 
London on 30 Sept. 1552, having taken his 
M.D. degree at Cambridge, but was expelled 
for breach of the statutes and profligate con- 
duct 17 July 1558, Dr. Caius being then 
S resident. On 16 June 1563, having been 
etected in an intrigue with two girls, he 
was punished by being carted to the Guild- 
hall and through the city. Machyn (Diary, 
Camden Soc), who saw him, describes his 
I appearance in the cart. His professional 
I ability must have been considerable, for in 



Langton 



1 20 



Langton 



gpite of this public disgrace he continued to 
have practice. Lord Monteagle gave him 
a pension, both Sir Thomas Smith [q. v.] 
and Sir Richard Gresham were his patients, 1 
and the latter left him a small legacy (will 
printed in Bubgon, Life and Times of Sir 
T. Gresham, ii. 493). He published one other 
book, a * Treatise or Urines, of all the Colours 
thereof, with the Medicines/ London, 1562. 
He died in 1578, and was buried in London 
at St. Botolph's Church, Bishopsgate. 

[Works ; College of Physicians' MS. Annals ; 
Hunk's Coll. of Phys. i. 51 ; Cooper's Athena 
Cantabr. ; Macbyn's Diary (Camden Society), p. 
309 ; Strype's Life of Sir T. Smith ; his copy of 
Galen de Usu partium, ed. Simon Colinaeus, £aris, 
1528, in Cambridge University Library; MS. 
Protocollum Book, King's College, Cambridge. 
The whole entry is scored out and the name in 
the margin.] N. M. 

LANGTON, JOHN de (d. 1337), bishop 
of Chichester and chancellor of England, 
was a clerk in the royal chancery. There is 
no authority for the statement that he was 
a fellow of Merton College (Brodrick, Me- 
morials of Merton College, p. 180). In 1286 
he is mentioned as keeper of the rolls, an office 
which probably devolved on the senior clerk. 
Langton is the first oerson whose tenure of 
the post can be distinctly traced. In the 
autumn of 1292 Langton, being then 'only a 
simple clerk in the chancery' (Ann.M0n.1ii. 
373), was appointed chancellor in succession 
to Robert Burnel [q. v.], and received the 
seal on 17 Dec. This promotion was shortly 
followed by ecclesiastical preferment, and in 
1294 Langton was acting as treasurer of 
"Wells, and was holding the prebend of Decern 
Librarum at Lincoln (Lb Neve, Fasti, i. 173, 
ii. 141). As chancellor he seems to have 
continued the wise policy of Burnel; the 
appeal of Macduff, earl of Fife, against John 
Baliol in 1294, and the i Confirmatio Carta- 
rum ' in 1297, were incidents in his tenure of 
office. In 1293 he warned Edward against 
assenting to the project under which Gascony 
was surrendered to Philip of France, to be 
received back as the dower of the French 
king's sister Blanche (Ann. Mon. iv. 515). 
In 1298, on a vacancy in the see of Ely, 
Langton was the candidate of a minority of 
the monks; Edward favoured his chancellor, 
who on 20 Feb. 1299 left England to plead 
his cause at Rome in person. Pope Boniface, 
however, quashed the election, but consoled 
Langton with the archdeaconry of Canter- 
bury (Wharton, Anglia Sacra, i. 639). 
Langton returned to England on 16 June, 
and at once resumed his duties as chancellor. 
On 12 Aug. 1302 he resigned his office, for 
what reason is not known. On 3 April 1305 



he was elected bishop of Chichester, and on 
19 Sent, was consecrated at Canterbury by 
Archbishop Winchelsea (Chron. Edw. I and 
II, i. 134). Shortly after the accession of 
Edward II Langton again became chancellor, 
probably in August 1807, certainly before* 
January 1808. He was present at the king's- 
coronation on 25 Feb. At Easter of the fol- 
lowing year, according to the 'Annales- 
Paulini/ he was removed from his office by 
the king (ib. i. 268), but Foes states, on the* 
authority of the Close Roll,that his resignation 
of the seal took place on 11 May. Probably 
his removal was due to his connection with 
the ordainers, for whose appointment he had 
joined in petitioning on 17 March, and of 
whom he was himself one (Rot.Parl. i. 443 a). 
During the rest of his life Langton waa 
chiefly occupied with his diocese. But he 
was one of those who received security for 
peace in 1312, and was a trier of petitions in 
the parliaments of 1315 and 1320. In April 
1318 he was one of the mediators between 
the king and Thomas of Lancaster, and was- 
appointed one of the royal councillors under 
the scheme of reconciliation (ib. i. 453 by In 
July 1321 he was again one of the bishops- 
who endeavoured to mediate between the 
king and the rebel earls. In January 1327 
he took the oath to the new king, Edward III,. 
I and his mother. In January 1329 he attended 
' the ecclesiastical council at St. Paul's. He 
I is said to have excommunicated John de 
I Warenne (1286-1347), earl of Surrey, for 
adultery in 1315, and when the earl threat- 
j ened him with violence to have cast him and 
his partisans into prison. He died on 19 July 
1337 (Ashmolean MS. 1146), but according to* 
another statement, on 17 June of that year. 
' His tomb, now much mutilated, stands in the 
south transept of the cathedral. Langton 
built the chapter-house (now used as a muni- 
ment room) at Chichester, and the fine deco- 
rated window in the south transept of the 
cathedral was also his work ; he bequeathed 
to the church 100/. and the furniture of hia 
chapel. He was likewise a benefactor of 
the university of Oxford, where in 1336 he 
founded a chest out of which loans might 
be made to deserving clerks (Munimenta 
^Academica, i. 183-40, Rolls Ser.) There 
does not seem to be any evidence as to a 
relationship between John de Langton and 
I Stephen Langton, or his own contemporary,. 
I Walter Langton. 

I [Annales Monastici, Flores Historiarum, Chro- 
I nicies of Edward I and H, all in the Rolls Series ; 
, Foss's Judges of England, iii. 272-6 ; Campbell's* 
Lives of the Chancellors, i. 173-8, 188-90 ; God- 
win, De Praesulibus, pp. 506-7, ed. Richardson ; 
Archaeologia, xiv. 158, 194-6; some unimportant 



Langton 



121 



Langton 



references to Langton are contained in the Cal. 
of Patent Bolls of Edward III.] C. L. K. 

LANGTON, JOHN (fl. 1390), Carmelite, 
was, according to Bale, a native of the west 
of England. De Villiers, however, describes 
him as a Londoner. He studied at Oxford, 
and was a bachelor of theology ( Fane. Ziz. 
358). He was present at the council of 
Stamford on 28 May 1392, when the lollard 
Henry Crump was tried, and drew up the 
account of the trial, which is printed in 
' Fasciculi Zizaniorum/ pp. 343-59. He is 
also credited with 'Qusestiones Ordinance' 
and ' Collectanea Dictorum.' Langton, owing 
to a confusion with John Langdon [q. v.], 
bishop of Rochester, is wrongly said Dy De 
Villiers to have preached before a synod at 
London in 1411, and to have attended the 
council of Basle in 1434 (cf. Harpsfbld, Hist. 
Eccl. Angl. p. 619). The ascription to him of 
a treatise, ' Ve Rebus Anglicis/ is due to the 
same error. 

[Bale's Heliades, Harleian MS. 3838, f. 72 6 ; 
Leland's Comment, de Scriptt. p. 407 ; Pits, 
p. 1420; Tanner's Bibi.Brit.-Hib. p. 466; De 
Villiers's Bibl. Carmel. ii. 25.] C. L. K. 

LANGTON, ROBERT (d. 1524), divine 
and traveller, nephew of Thomas Langton 
[q. v.], bishop of Winchester, was born at 
Appleby in Westmoreland. He was educated 
at Queen's College, Oxford, of which his 
uncle was then president, and proceeded 
D.C.L. in 1501. He held the prebend of 
Welton Westhall in the church of Lincoln 
from 10 Oct. 1483 till 1517, and became 
prebendary of Fordinjfton-with-Wridlington 
in the church of Salisbury in 1485. From 
25 Jan. 1486 till 1514 he was archdeacon of 
Dorset. In 1487 he received, probably by 
way of exchange, the prebend of Charminster 
and Bere at Salisbury. On 24 April 1509 
he was made treasurer of York Minster, 
holding office till 1514, and held the prebend 
of Weighton in York Minster from 2 June 
1514 till 1524. and that of North Muskham 
at Southwell from 13 July 1514 till January 
1516-17. Langton went at some time on a 
pilgrimage to the shrine of St. James of Com- 
postella. He was a benefactor to Queen's 
College, Oxford, and built the outer hall in 
1518. He died in London, June 1524, and 
was buried in the chapel of the Charterhouse. 
By his will he left 200/. to Queen's College 
wherewith to build a school-house at Appleby. 
Langton is said to have given an account of 
his wanderings in 'The Pilgrimage of Mr. 
Robert Langton, Clerk, to St. James of 
Compostell . . ./London, 1522, 4to, but no 
copy seems to be extant. A portrait of Lang- 
ton is described in ' Notes and Queries/ 2nd 
ser. vi. 347. 



[Wood's Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 7; Wood's Col- 
1 leges and Halls, ed. Gutch, pp. 163-6 ; Hut- 
■ chins's Dorset, i. xxviii; Testamenta Ebora- 
censia (Surtees Soc.), pp. 297, 306 ; Le Neve's 
I Fasti, ii. 236, 639, iii. 162, 224. 430 ; Tanner's 
I Bibl. Brit.] W. A. J. A. 

! LANGTON, SIMON (d. 1248), archdea- 
con of Canterbury, was son of Henry de 
Langton, and brother, probably younger 
brother, of Stephen Langton [q. v.j, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. He first appears, with 
the title of ' master/ during the struggle be- 
( tween King John and Innocent III, when he 
shared his brother's exile, and was actively 
1 employed in negotiation in his behalf. On 
12 March 1208 he had an interview with 
John for this purpose at Winchester, and in 
March 1209 he received a safe-conduct for 
three weeks, that he might go to England 
to confer on the same business with John's 
ministers. "With his brother he returned from 
exile in 1213. Early next year he was at 
Rome, defending the archbishop against the 
accusations of Pandulf ; by November he was 
home again, ready to be installed in the pre- 
bend of Strensall in Yorkshire ; and in June 
1215 his fellow-canons at York chose him for 
their primate, counting upon his * learning and 
| wisdom ' to secure his confirmation at Rome 
I as champion of their independence against 
the king and his nominee, Walter de Grey 
Tq. v.], brother of the John de Grey whom 
Innocent had once set aside to make Simon's 
brother Stephen archbishop of Canterbury. 
Now, however, Stephen was in political dis- 
grace at Rome, and Simon's election was 
therefore quashed by Innocent at the request 
of John. Thereupon Simon flung himself 
actively into the party of the barons against 
king and nope alike. He accepted the office 
of chancellor to Louis of France when that 
prince came to claim the English crown in 
1216. His preaching encouraged the barons 
and the citizens of London to disregard the 
pope's excommunication of Louis's partisans ; 
and Gualo, in consequence, specially men- 
tioned him by name when publishing the ex- 
communication on 29 May. As he refused 
to submit, he was excepted from the general 
absolution granted in 1217, and was again 
driven into exile. He seems to have been 
absolved next year, but the pope forbade him 
to return to England. In December 1 224 h is 
brother made peace for him with Henry III ; 
at the close of 1225 he was of sufficient im- 
portance to be invoked by Henry's envoys as 
an intercessor at the Irench court in the 
negotiations about Falkes de BreautS ; in 
May 1227 the pope, at Henry's request, gave 
him leave to go home. He was made arch- 
deacon of Canterbury, and soon rose into 



Langton 



122 



Langton 



f; 



high favour with both king and pope — favour 
which Matthew Paris seems to have regarded 
as bought by a desertion of the cause of 
which Simon had once been an extreme par- 
tisan. When Ralph Neville, bishop of Chi- 
chester, was elected to the see of Canter- 
bury, in 1231, Gregory IX consulted the 
archdeacon as to the character of the primate- 
elect, and quashed the election in consequence 
■of Simons reply, in which, according to 
Matthew Paris, the crowning charge against 
Ralph was a desire to carry out Stephen 
Langton's supposed design of freeing Eng- 
land from her tribute to Rome. Another 
election to Canterbury was set aside by Gre- 
ory on Simon's advice in 1 233. In January 
235 Simon was in Gaul on the king's busi- 
ness, endeavouring to negotiate a truce with 
France and La Marche. For the ' fidelity 
and prudence ' which he had already shown 
in this matter he received Henry's special 
thanks, which were repeated in April, with 
a request that he would continue his good 
offices, * as it is to be feared that the work 
which you have begun will fall to the ground 
if you leave it.* In 1238, when a dispute 
arose between the chapter of Canterbury and 
their new archbishop, Edmund [q. v.], Simon 
warmly espoused the archbishop s side. He 
accompanied him to Rome, denounced the 
monks as guilty of fraud and forgery, and 
published the sentences of suspension and 
-excommunication issued against them next 
year. After Edmund's death (November 
1240) they accused the archdeacon of usurp- 
ing functions which, during a vacancy of the 
see, belonged of right to the prior. Simon, 
according to their account, retorted with 
4 contumelious words and blasphemies/ tried 
to associate the clergy of the diocese in a 
conspiracy against them, and carried through 
his usurpation by force. Next year, when 
they were on the point of being absolved by 
the pope, Simon appealed against their abso- 
tion ; but a threat of the royal wrath, and a 
sense of being * too old to cross the Alps 
again/ deterred him from prosecuting his 
appeal. He died in 1248. Gervase of Can- 
terbury denounces his memory as ' accursed/ 
while Matthew Paris declares * it is no wonder 
if he was a persecutor and disturber of his 
own church of Canterbury, seeing that he was 
a stirrer-up of strife throughout the whole 
realms of England and France.' But the sole 
witnesses against him are Gervase and Mat- 
thew themselves, and their evidence is plainly 
coloured by party feeling. 

Of the writings which Bale attributes to 
Simon Langton, the only one now known is 
a treatise on the Book of Canticles (Bodl. 
MS. 706). 



[Roger of Wendover, vols. iii. iv. ; Matt. Paris, 
Chronica Majora, vols, iii- v., and Hist. Anglorura, 
vols. ii. iii. ; Gervase of Canterbury, vol. ii. ; 
Annals of Dunstaple, in Annales Monastics, voL 
iii. ; Royal Letters, vol. i M all in Rolls Series ; 
Rot. Litt. Pat. vol. i, and Rot.Litt. Claus.vol. i. 
Record Commission.] K. N. 

LANGTON, STEPHEN (d. 1228), arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and cardinal, was son 
of Henry de Langton, and certainly an Eng- 
lishman by birth, though from which of the 
many Langtons in England his family took 
its name there is no evidence to show. He 
studied at the university of Paris, became a 
doctor in the faculties of arts and theology, 
and acquired a reputation for learning and 
holiness which gained him a prebend in the 
cathedral church of Paris and another in that 
of York. He continued to live in Paris and 
to lecture on theology there till in 1206 
Pope Innocent HI called him to Rome and 
made him cardinal-priest of St. Chrysogonus. 
Walter of Coventry says that he taught 

■ theology at Rome also, and Roger of Wend- 
over declares that the Roman court had not 
his equal for learning and moral excellence. 
He had long been on intimate terms with 
the French King Philip Augustus, and King 
John of England now wrote to congratulate 
him on his promotion, saying that he had 
been on the point of inviting him to his own 
court. It is clear that Langton was already 
the most illustrious living churchman of 

i English birth when a struggle for the freedom 

I of the see of Canterbury opened, in July 1205, 
on the death of Hubert Walter [q. v.] An 

! irregular election of Reginald, the sub-prior, 



( made secretly by some ot the younger monks, 

and a more formal but equally uncanonical 

j election of John de Grey [q. v.], made under 



; pressure from the king, were both alike 
quashed on appeal at Kome in December 
1206. Sixteen monks of Christ Church were 
present, armed with full power to act for 
the whole chapter, and also with a promise 
of the king's assent to whatever they might 
do in its name ; this promise, however, had 
been given them only on a secret condition, 
unknown to the brotherhood whom they re- 
presented, that they should do nothing ex- 
cept re-elect John ae Grey. Innocent now 
bade them, as proctors for their convent, 
choose for primate whom they would, ' so he 
were but a fit man, and, above all, an Eng- 
lishman.* With Langton sitting in his place 
among the cardinals, the suggestion of his 
name followed as a matter or course. The 
monks were driven to confess their double- 
dealing and that of the king; Innocent scorn- 
fully absolved them from their shameful 
compact ; all save one elected Stephen Lang- 



Langton 



123 



Langton 



ton, and the pope wrote to demand from John 
the fulfilment of his promise to ratify their 
choice. John in a fury refused to have any- 
thing to do with a man whom, he now de- 
clared, he knew only as a dweller among his 
enemies. When Stephen was consecrated 
by the pope at Viterbo, 17 June 1207. John 
proclaimed that any one who acknowledged 
nim as archbishop should be accounted a pub- 
lic enemy ; the Canterbury monks, now unani- 
mous in adhering to Stephen as the represen- 
tative of their church's independence, were 
expelled 15 July, and the archbishop's father 
fled into exile at St. Andrews. To Inno- 
cent's threat of interdict (27 Aug.) John re- 
plied in November by giving to another man 
Stephen's prebend at York. In March 1208 
the interdict was proclaimed. 

Stephen's attitude thus far had been a 
passive one. To the announcement of his 
election he had replied that he was not his 
own master, but was entirely at the pope's 
disposal. After his consecration he appealed 
to his suffragans, in a tone of dignified mo- 
desty, for support under the burden laid 
upon him (Cant. Chron. pp. lxxv-vi), and 
at once set out for his see; all hope of reach- 
ing it was, however, precluded by the vio- 
lence of John. Pontigny for the second time 
opened its doors to an exiled archbishop of 
Canterbury (Maktbnb, Thesaur. Anecdot . iii. 
1246-7), and was probably his headquarters 
during the next five years ; a story of his 
having been chancellor of Paris during this 
period seems to rest upon a double conmsion 
of persons and of offices (Dv Bottlay, Hist 
Univ. Paris, iii. 711). Throughout those 
years his part in the struggle between Inno- 
cent and John was always that of peace- 
maker. At the first tidings of the expulsion 
of the monks he had addressed a letter to 
the English people, setting the main outlines 
of the case Driefly and temperately before 
them, warning them of the probable conse- 
quences, giving them advice and encourage- 
ment for the coming time of trial, and iden- 
tifying his own interests entirely with theirs ; 
of personal bitterness there is not a trace, 
and of personal grievances not a word (Cant 
Chron. pp. lxxviii-lxxxiii). The same note 
of mingled firmness ana moderation rings 
through a letter to the Bishop of London, 
empowering him to act in the primate's stead 
against the despoilers of Canterbury (ib. pp. 
lxxxiii-v), and another to the king, warning 
him of the evils he was bringing upon his 
realm, and offering an immediate relaxation 
ot the interdict if he would come to a better 
mind (D? Actuary, Spicilegium, iii. 568). In 
September 1208 John invited Stephen to a 
meeting in England, and sent him a safe- 



conduct for three weeks; he addressed it, 
however, not to the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, but to ' Stephen Langton, cardinal of 
the Roman see ; Stephen therefore could 
not accept it, as to do so would have been 
to acknowledge that his election was invalid. 
A mitigation of the interdict, granted early 
in 1209, was due to his intercession, and it 
seems to have been partly his reluctance that 
delayed the excommunication of John him- 
self. Towards the close of the year he sent 
his steward to John with overtures for re- 
conciliation ; this time the king responded 
by letters patent, inviting ' my lord of Can- 
terbury* to a meeting at Dover. Thither 
Stephen came (2 Oct.) with the Bishops of 
London and Ely ; John, however, would go 
no nearer to them than Chilham ; the jus- 
ticiar and the Bishop of Winchester, whom 
he sent to treat with them in his stead, re- 
fused to ratify the terms previously arranged ; 
and Stephen went back into exile. On 
20 Dec. be consecrated Hugh of Wells to 
the bishopric of Lincoln, Hugh having 
gone to him for that purpose in defiance 
of the king's order that he should be con- 
secrated by the Archbishop of Rouen. Next 
year (1210) John again tried to lure Ste- 

Ehen across the Channel. Stephen declared 
is readiness to go on three conditions : that 
he should have a safe-conduct in proper 
form ; that, once in England, he should be 
allowed to exercise his archiepiscopal func- 
tions there ; and that no terms should be re- 
quired of him, save those proposed on his 
last visit to Dover. He then proceeded to 
Wissant to await John's reply. It came in 
the shape of an irregular safe-conduct, not 
by letters patent according to custom, but by 
letters close, and accompanied by a warning 
from some of the English nobles which made 
him return to France. Envoys from John 
followed him thither, but failed to move him 
from his quiet adherence to the terms already 
laid down. What moved him at last was 
his country's growing misery. In the winter 
of 1212 he went with the bishops of London 
and Ely to Rome, to urge upon Innocent the 
necessity of taking energetic measures for 
putting an end to the state of affairs in Eng- 
land. In January 1213 the three prelates 
brought back to the French court a sentence 
of deposition against John, the execution of 
which was committed to Philip of France. 
In May John yielded all, and far more than 
all, that he had been refusing for the last six 
years, and issued letters patent proclaiming 
peace and restitution to the archbishop ana 
his fellow-exiles, and inviting them to return 
at once. At the end of June or beginning 
of July they landed at Dover; on 17 or 18 



Langton 



124 



Langton 



July John met them at Porchester, fell at the 
archbishop's feet with a ' Welcome, father 1 ' 
and kissea him. Langton's eagerness to for- 
give overleapt the bounds of the pope's in- 
structions and the usual forms of ecclesiasti- 
cal procedure, and without more ado he per- 
formed his first episcopal acts in Englana on 
Sunday 20 July, by absolving his sovereign 
in the chapter-house of Winchester Cathe- 
dral, and afterwards celebrating mass in his 
presence and giving him the kiss of peace. 

Stranger to his native land as he had been 
for so many years, intimate friend of a foreign 
and hostile sovereign as John charged him 
with being, faithful and submissive servant 
of a foreign pontiff as he undoubtedly was, 
Stephen nevertheless fell at once, as if by the 
mere course of nature, into the old constitu- 
tional position of the primate of all England, 
as keeper of the king^s conscience and guar- 
dian of the nation's safety, temporal as well 
as spiritual. On 4 Aug. 1213 he was present 
at a council at St. Albans, where the pro- 
mises of amendment with which John pur- 
chased absolution were renewed by the jus- 
ticiar in the king's name, and in a more 
definite form ; the standard of good govern- 
ment now set up being 'the laws of Henry 1/ 
in other words, the liberties which Henry 
had guaranteed by his charter. On 25 Aug. 
Stephen opened a council of churchmen at 
Westminster with a sermon on the text, 'My 
heart hath trusted in God, and I am helped ; 
therefore my flesh hath rejoiced.' ' Thou Lest,' 
cried one of the crowd ; ' thy heart never 
trusted in God, and thy flesh never rejoiced.' 
The man was seized by those who stood 
around him and beaten till he was rescued 
by the officers of justice, when the archbishop 
resumed his discourse. He had, it seems, 
specially invited certain lay barons to be pre- 
sent at the council ; at its close he brought 
forth and read out to them the text of Henry's 
charter, and exchanged with them a solemn 
promise of mutual support for the vindication 
of its principles, whenever a fitting time 
should come. The time was close at hand. 
John, having exasperated his already sorely 
aggrieved barons by demanding their services 
for an expedition to Poitou,was at that very 
moment on his way to punish by force of 
arms the refusal of the northern nobles. 
Stephen hurried after him, overtook him at 
Northampton, and remonstrated strongly, but 
in vain ; ne then followed him to IS otting- 
ham, and there, by threatening to excom- 
municate every man in the royal host save 
the king himself, compelled him to give up 
his lawless vengeance and promise the barons 
a day for the trial of their claims. The dis- 
pute, however, was no nearer settlement when 



the legate Nicolas of Tusculum came to raise 
the interdict and receive a repetition of John's 
homage to the pope. Stephen's attitude in this 
last matter is not quite clear. Matthew Paris 
represents him as strongly opposed to the 
whole transaction, stating that when Pandulf 
[q . v.], on his return to France in the spring* 
of 1213, trod under foot the money which haa 
been given him as earnest of the tribute, 
the archbishop 'sorrowfully remonstrated f 
(Citron. Mqj. li. 546), and that he not only 
'protested with deep sighing, both secretly 
and openly/ against Johirs homage to Nicolas, 
but even appealed against it publicly in St. 
Paul's (ib. lii. 208). But the writers of the 
day mention nothing of the kind, and Mat- 
thew's story probably represents rather his 
own view, coloured by the experiences of a 
later time, of what the archbishop's feelings 
and actions ought to have been than what 
they actually were. By the opening of next 
year, however, Stephen and thelegate differed 
upon another ground. Nicolas was using 
his legatine authority to support the king in 
filling up vacant abbacies according to his 
royal pleasure, without regard either to the 
general interests of the English church or to 
the diocesan and metropolitical rights of the 
bishops and their primate. They discussed 
the matter in a council at Dunstable in 
January 1214, and thence Stephen despatched 
to the legate a notice of appeal against his 
conduct. Nicolas, with tne king's concur- 
rence, sent Pandulf to oppose the appeal at 
Rome ; there the case was hotly argued be- 
tween Pandulf and Stephen's brother Simon 
[see Langton, Simon] ; and though for the 
moment Stephen's opponents seemed to have 
gained the pope's ear, his expostulations were 
probably not altogether useless, for in October 
Nicolas was recalled. 

At Epiphany 1215 the aggrieved barons 
went in a body to John and demanded the 
fulfilment of Henry's charter. Again Stephen 
took up the position of mediator ; he was one 
of three sureties for the redemption of the 
king's promises before the close of Easter. 
When at the end of that time the barons rose 
in arms he remained at the king's side, not 
as his partisan, but as the advocate of his 
subjects ; together with William Marshal, earl 
of Pembroke [q. v.], he carried overtures of 
reconciliation from John to the barons at 
Brackley (April), and it was he who brought 
back and read out to the king the articles 
which were at last formally embodied in the 
Great Charter (15 June). The Tower of 
London was then entrusted to him till a 
dispute about its rightful custody should be 
settled, and Rochester Castle, which was also 
in dispute between the see of Canterbury and 



Langton 



"5 



Langton 



the diocesan bishop, was likewise restored to I 
him. Some three months later John sum- I 
moned him to give up both fortresses, but ( 
Stephen refused to do so without legal war- ( 
rant. Meanwhile John had succeeded only 
too well in misrepresenting to Innocent III 
the actions and motives of the constitutional 
leaders, including the archbishop. On 16 Aug. 
Stephen and his suffragans, gathered at Ox- 
ford for a meeting with John, received a papal ' 
letter bidding them, on pain of suspension, ' 
cause all ' disturbers of king and kingdom ' 
to be publicly denounced as excommunicate 
throughout the country on every Sunday and 
holiday till peace was restored. As no names j 
were mentioned the application of the sen- ' 
tence was uncertain; the archbishop and ! 
bishop, therefore, after some hesitation, pub- j 
lished it at Staines on 26 Aug. Once pub- j 
lished, however, they took no further notice 
of it till the pope's commissioners, Pandulf 
and the Bishop of Winchester, summoned j 
Stephen to urge upon his suffragans and en- t 
force in his own diocese its public repetition 
on the appointed days. Stephen, on the 
point of setting out for a council at Rome, | 
answered that ne believed the sentence to > 
have been issued by the pope under a misap- j 

?>rehension, and that he would dp nothing 
urther in the matter till he had spoken ' 
about it with Innocent himself, whereupon j 
the commissioners suspended him from all 
ecclesiastical functions. Ralph of Coggeshall ' 
says that they shouted their sentence after 
him as he set sail, and Walter of Coventry 
that Pandulf followed him across the sea to 
deliver it. He accepted it without protest j 
he was, in fact, contemplating escape from a 
sphere in which all his efforts seemed doomed 
to failure, by withdrawal to a hermitage or 
a Carthusian cell. From this project he was 
warmly dissuaded bv Gerald of Wales (Gnu 
Oambr. Opp. i. 401 -fy ; but he seems to have 
still cherished it on his arrival at Rome. Con- 
fronted there bv two envoys from John, who 
charged him with complicity in a plot of the 
barons to dethrone the king, and contempt 
of the papal mandate for the excommunica- 
tion of tne rebels, he made no defence, but 
simply begged to be absolved from suspen- 
sion. Innocent, however, confirmed the sen- 
tence 4 Nov. Matthew Paris (Hist. Angl. 
ii. 468) adds that he even, at Jonn's instiga- 
tion, proposed to deprive the archbishop of 
his see, but was dissuaded by the unanimous 
remonstrances of the other cardinals. Reading 
this story by the light of Gerald's letter we 
may well suspect it to be but a distorted ac- 
count of a resignation voluntarily tendered 
by Stephen himself. Again he submitted in 
silence. He spent the winter at Rome, and 



in the spring was released from suspension, 
on condition of standing to the pope's judg- 
ment on the charges against him, and keeping 
out of England till peace was restored. The 
first condition expired with Innocent HI 
in July 1216; the second was fulfilled in 
September 1217, when the treaty of Lam- 
beth rallied all parties round the throne ot 
Henry ni ; and the primate came home once 
more, * with the favour of the Roman court,' 
in May 1218 (Ann. Wore, and Chron. Mail- 
ro8, ann. 1218). 

For nearly two years he was free to devote 
himself entirely to the ecclesiastical duties of 
his office. He at once began preparations for 
a translation of the relics or St. Thomas of 
Canterbury ; shortly afterwards Pope Hono- 
rius ni commissioned him to investigate, 
conjointly with the abbot of Fountains, the 
grounds of a proposal for the canonisation of. 
Bishop Hugh of Lincoln [q. v.] In the spring 
of 1220 Honorius ordered that the unavoid- 
able irregularities of the young king's first 
crowning [see Hbnby HI] should be set 
right by a second coronation, to be performed 
at Westminster, according to ancient prece- 
dent, by the Archbishop of Canterbury ; this 
order was joyfully obeyed by Stephen on 
Whitsunday, 17 May. On this occasion 
the primate gave an address to the people, 
exhorting them to take the cross, and pub- 
lished Honorius's bull for the canonisation 
of St. Hugh. On 7 July he presided over the 
most splendid ceremony that had ever taken 
place in his cathedral church, the translation 
of the relics of St. Thomas, amid a concourse 
of pilgrims of all ranks and all nations, such 
as nad never been seen in England before, 
for all of whom he provided entertainment 
at his own cost, in a temporary ' palace ' run 
up for the occasion on a scale and in a fashion 
so astonishing to his contemporaries that they 
* thought there could have been nothing like 
it since Solomon's time.' Immediately after 
Michaelmas he set out for Rome, ' on busi- 
ness of the realm and the church.' He car- 
ried with him a portion of the relics of St. 
Thomas, and at the pope's desire the first 
thing he did on his arrival was to deliver to 
the Roman people a sermon on the English 
martyr. He demanded of the pope three 
things : that all assumption of metropolitical 
dignity by the Archbishop of York in the 
southern province should be once more for- 
bidden; that the papal claim of provision 
should never be exercised twice for the same 
benefice ; and that during his own lifetime 
no resident legate should be apain sent to 
England. This last demand aimed at se- 
curing England's political, as well as eccle- 
siastical, independence against a continuance 



Langton 



126 



Langton 



of the dictation to which she was at present 
subject from Pandulf. Honorius not only 
granted all three requests, but at once de- 
sired Pandulf to resign his office as legate 
(Cont. Flok. Wig. ann. 1221 ; Matt. West. 
ann. 1221 ). Stephen did not return to England 
till August 1221, having stopped on the way 
in Paris, where he was commissioned by the 
pope to assist the bishops of Troyes and 
Lisieux in settling a dispute between the 
university and its diocesan (Denifle, Chart. 
Univ. Paris, pp. 98, 102). Early next year 
he met his fellow-primate of York on the 
borders of their respective provinces ; they 
failed to settle the questions of privilege in 
debate between their sees ; but in the hands 
of Stephen Langton and Walter de Grey 

tq. v.] the debate was a peaceful one, and 
raught with no danger to either church or 
state. On Sunday, 17 April 1222, Stephen 
opened a church council at Osney which is 
to the ecclesiastical history of England what 
the assembly at Runnymede in June 1216 is 
to her secular history. Its decrees, known 
as the Constitutions of Stephen Langton, are 
' the earliest provincial canons which are 
still recognised as binding in our ecclesiastical 
courts/ 

From the establishment of ordered freedom 
in the church the archbishop turned again to 
the vindication of ordered freedom in the 
state. Already, in January 1222, he had had 
to summon a meeting of bishops in London 
to make peace among the counsellors who 
were quarrelling for mastery over the young 
king, in which he succeeded for the mo- 
ment by threatening to excommunicate the 
troublers of the land. A week after Epiphany 
1223 he acted as leader and spokesman of the 
barons who demanded of Henry III the con- 
firmation of the charter. The shift with 
which William Brewer tried to put them off 
in the king's name — 'the charter was extorted 
by violence, and is therefore invalid ' — pro- 
voked the one angry outburst recorded of 
Stephen Langton : ' William, if you loved 
the king, you would not thus thwart the 
peace of his realm ; ' and the archbishop's un- 
usual warmth startled Henry into promising 
a fresh inquiry into the ancient liberties of 
England. For this, however, Henry seems 
to have substituted an inquiry into the privi- 
leges of the crown as John had held them 
before the war {Fcedera, i. 168). It was 
probably in despair of getting rid by any 
other means of the foreigners wno counselled 
or abetted such double dealing as this, that 
Stephen and the other Englisn ministers of 
state suggested to the pope that the young 
king should be declared of age to rule for 
himself. A bull to that effect, issued in 



April, probably arrived while the primate 
was absent on a fruitless mission to France, 
in company with the bishops of London and 
Salisbury, to demand from Louis VIH, who 
had just (August) succeeded to the crown, 
the restoration of Normandy promised to 
Henry by the treaty of Lambeth. Some time 
in the autumn the bull was read in a council 
in London. The party of anarchy among 
the barons, headed by the Earl of Chester 
and Falkes de BreautS [q. v.], attempted to 
seize the Tower, and, failing, withdrew to 
Waltham. Stephen and the bishops per- 
suaded them to return and make submission 
to the king, but they still refused to be re- 
conciled with the justiciar, Hubert de Burgh 
f*q. v.], and from the Christmas court at 
Northampton they withdrew in a body to 
Leicester. The archbishop again, on St. Ste- 
phen's day, excommunicated all 'disturber* 
of the realm/ and then wrote to the ' schis- 
matics ' at Leicester that unless they sur- 
rendered their castles to the king at once he 
would excommunicate every one of them by 
. name ; this ' communication and commina- 
| tion ' brought them to submission 29 Dec. 
I In June 1224, when a fresh outrage of Falkes 
compelled the king to proceed against him 
by force, the archbishop sanctioned the grant 
of an aid from the clergy to defray the cost 
I of the expedition, accompanied Henry in 
person to the siege of Bedford Castle, and 
I excommunicated the offender. He absolved 
! him, indeed, soon after at the bidding of Pope 
Honorius, whose ear Falkes had contrived 
I to gain ; but by that time Falkes was on the 
j eve of surrender, and when his wife appealed 
I to the archbishop for protection against the 
j claims of a husband to whom she had been 
married against her will, Stephen success- 
fully maintained her cause, and that of Eng- 
land's peace, against both Falkes and Hono- 
! rius. On 8 Oct. the archbishop was at Wor- 
cester, deciding a suit between the bishop of 
I that see and the monks of his chapter. At 
Christmas he was at Westminster with the 
king, when Hubert de Burgh, in Henry's 
name, demanded a fifteenth from clergy and 
laity for the war in Poitou. Led by the 

Srimate, the bishops and barons granted the 
emand (2 Feb. 1225), on condition that the 
charter should be confirmed at once ; and this 
time the condition was fulfilled. 

A fresh difficulty with Rome threatened 
to spring up at the close of the year, when a 
papal envoy, Otto, arrived with a demand 
that in every conventual or collegiate 
church the revenue of one prebend, or its 
yearly equivalent, should be devoted to 
the needs of the Roman court. Once more 
the difficulty was turned by the primate. 



Langton 



127 



Langton 



By his advice the matter was deferred to a 
council at Westminster on the octave of 
Epiphany (1226). The king's illness and 
the absence of several bishops, including, it 
seems, Stephen himself caused a further 
postponement till after Easter ; and then the 
rejection of the pope's claim was a foregone 
conclusion, for meanwhile Stephen had per- 
suaded Honorius virtually to abandon it by 
recalling Otto. Having thus, as he trusted, 
secured the liberties of the state and the 
church in general, Stephen in 1228 applied 
himself to recover for his own see certain of 
its ancient privileges and immunities which 
had fallen into desuetude. He offered the 
king three thousand marks for their restora- 
tion, but proved his case so clearly that Henry 
remitted the offer. Shortly afterwards the 
archbishop fell sick, and withdrew to his 
manor of Slindon, Sussex, where he died. The 
dates of his death and burial are given by 
the chroniclers of the time in a strangely con- 
flicting and self-contradictory way ; the most 
probable solution of the puzzle seems to be 
that he died on 9 July 1228, and was buried on 
the 15th at Canterbury, whither his body had 
been transported from Slindon on the 13th 
(Gbbv. Cant. ii. 115; Roe. Wend. iv. 170; 
Matt. Pabis, Chron. Maj. iii. 157, and Hist. 
Angl. ii. 802 ; Ann. Wore. ann. 1228 ; Cont. 
Flor. Wig. ann. 1228; Stubbs, Reg. Sacr. 
Anglic, p. 37). Five years later Bishop Henry 
of Rochester proclaimed that he had seen in 
a vision the souls of Stephen Langton and 
Richard I released from purgatory, both on 
the same day. The pope himself did not 
hesitate to declare, a few months after the 
primate's death, that ' the custodian of the 
earthly paradise of Canterbury, Stephen of 
happy memory, a man pre-eminently endued 
with the gifts of knowledge and supernal 
grace, has been called, as we nope and believe, 
to the joy and rest of paradise above.' A 
tomb, nxed in a very singular position in 
the wall of St. Michael's Chapel in Canter- 
bury Cathedral, is shown as the resting- 
Slace of his mortal remains; but the tra- 
it ion is of doubtful authenticity. 
Stephen Langton's political services to his 
country and his national church were but a 
part of his work for the church at large. A 
neat modern scholar has called him, ' next to 
Bede, the most voluminous and original com- 
mentator on the Scriptures this country has 
produced.' It was as a theologian, ' second 
to none in his own day '(Ann. Wav. ann.1228), 
that he was chiefly famed throughout the 
middle ages. He left glosses, commentaries, 
expositions, treatises, on almost all the books 
of the Old Testament, besides a large number 
of sermons. The many copies of these various 



works preserved in the university and college 
libraries of Oxford and Cambridge, at Lam- 
beth Palace, and in different libraries in 
France, bear witness to the lofty and wide- 
spread esteem in which they and their author 
were held. The only portion of Stephen's 
writings which has been printed, except the 
few letters already referred to, is a treatise 
on the translation of St. Thomas the Martyr, 
probably an expanded version of the sermon 

E reached on that occasion. One memorial of 
is pious industry is still in daily use: either 
in tne early days when he was lecturing on 
( theology, or during one of his periods of exile, 
* he coted the Bible at Parys and marked the 
chapitres ' (Higden, Polychronicon, 1. vii. c. 
34, trans. Trevisa) according to the division 
' which has been generally adopted ever since. 
I His literary labours were not confined to theo- 
, logy ; he was, moreover, an historian and a 
J poet. He wrote a * Life of Richard I,' of 
which the sole extant remains are embodied 
in the ' Polychronicon ' of Ralph Higden, who 
' ' studied to take the floures of Stevenes book T 
' for his own account of that king (ib. c. 25). 
1 Several bibliographers mention among Lang- 
j ton's writings two other historical works : a 
I ' Life of Mahomet ' and 'Annals of the Arch- 
bishops of Canterbury.' Of the former, how- 
• ever, nothing is now known, while the ascrip- 



tion of the latter to Stephen seems to have 
oriffinated in a confusion between the owner 
and the author of two manuscripts now in the 



library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge 
(lxxn and cccclxvii). In Leland's day Can- 
terbury College, Oxford, possessed a poem in 

I heroic verse called ' Hexameron/ and said to 
be written by Langton, and Oudin mentions 

. a ' Carmen de Contemptu Mundi ' among the 
manuscripts at Lambeth. Both of these 

' seem to be now lost, but a rhythmical poem 
entitled 'Documenta Clericorum,' ascribed 
to the same writer, is still in the Bodleian 

, Library (Bodl. MS. 57, f. 66*). More inte- 
resting still is a ' Sermon by Stephen Lang- 
ton on S. Mary, in verse partly Latin, partly 
French,' of which a thirteenth-century manu- 
script is preserved in the British Museum 
(Arundel 292, f. 88). The sermon begins 
and ends with a few Latin rhymes ; its main 
part is in Latin prose, and its text is, not a 
passage from Scripture, but a verse of a 
French song upon a lady called 'la bele Aliz/ 
to which the preacher contrives very skil- 
fully to give an excellent spiritual interpre- 
tation. Another copy of this sermon, fol- 
lowed by a theological drama and a long 
canticle on the Passion, both in French verse, 
was found in the Duke of Norfolk's library 
by the Abb4 de la Rue, who attributed all 
three works to the same author (Archao- 



Langton 



128 



Langton 



logia, xin. 232-3) ; but it is doubtful whether i n order toconclude the espousals of Edward's 
theirjuxtapositionmthis manuscript is more daughter Elizabeth and Charles, son of the 
than accidental (Pkice, note to Wabton, French king. Two years later he was sent 
Hist. Engl Poetry, 1840, li. 28). There is, ! to demand the fulfilment of this marriage 
however, other evidence of the interest with ' treaty, but the prince, now Charles VIII, 
which the greatest scholar of his day re- king of France, refused to carry it out, and 
garded the vernacular tongue of the land ' the match was broken off. 
where his learning had been acquired. The Meanwhile Langton received much ecclesi- 
earhest legal document known to have been astical preferment. In 1478 he was made 
drawn up in England, since the Conqueror's I treasurer of Exeter, prebendary of St. Decu- 
time, in any language other than Latin, is a \ man > 8 , Wells Cathedral, and about the same 
French charter issued by Stephen Langton t time master of St. Julian's Hospital, South- 
in January 1215 {Rot Chart. 209). The - — .__,..,,,.„ .^ 1. 

land of his birth needs no other proof of his 
loyalty to her than the Great Charter of her I 
freedom. • 



[The chief original authorities for Stephen 
Langton's life are a Canterbury Chronicle printed ' 
in Bishop Stubbs's edition of Gervase of Canter- 



ampton, a post which he still retained twenty 
years later. He was presented on 1 July 1480 
to All Hallows Church, Bread Street, and on 
14 May 1482 to All Hallows, Lombard Street, 
city of London, also becoming prebendary of 
North Kelsey, Lincoln Cathedral, in the next 
year. Probably by the favour of Edward V, 



bury, vol. ii., appendix to preface; Roger of who granted him the temporalities of the see 



Wendover; Walter of Coventry ; Matthew Paris 
Ralph of Coggeshall ; Annales Monastici ; Royal 
Letters (all in Rolls Series^ ; Close and Patent 
Rolls (Record Commission); and the Life and 
Letters of Innocent III (Migne, Patrologia, vols, 
ccxir. ccxv.) For his political career, see Stubbs'a 
Constitutional History and Preface to W. Coven- 
try, vol. ii. A full biography of him has yet to 
be written ; we have only sketches of his life, 
character, and work, from three very different 



on 21 May, Langton was advanced in 1483 
to the bishopric of St. Davids ; the papal bull 
confirming the election is dated 4 July, and 
he was consecrated in August. Langton's 
prosperity did not decline with Edward's de- 
position. He was sent on an embassy to Rome 
and to France by Richard III, who translated 
him to the bishopric of Salisbury by papal bull 
dated 8 Feb. 1485. Langton was also elected 



points of view, by Dean Hook in his Archbishops provost of Queen's College, Oxford, on 6 Dec. 

of Canterbury, by Mr. C. E. Maurice in his 1487 (Wood gives the date as about 1483), a 

English Popular Leaders, and by the Rev. Mark post which he seems to have retained till 1495. 

Pattison in the Lives of the English Saints He was a considerable benefactor to the col- 



edited by Dr. Newman. His Constitutions are 
printed in Wilkins's Concilia, vol. ii., and his 
Li bell us de Translatione S. Thorns at the end of 
Lupus's Quadrilogus and Dr. Giles's Sanctus 
Thomas Cantuariensis. His sermon on ' la bele 
Aliz* is translated in T. Wright's Biographia 
Britannica Uteraria, vol. ii.] K. N. 

LANGTON, THOMAS (d. 1501), bishop 
of Winchester and archbishop-elect of Can- 
terbury, was born at Appleby in Westmore- 
land, and educated by the Carmelite friars 
there. He matriculated at Queen's College, 
Oxford, but soon removed to Cambridge, pro- 
bably to Clare Hall, on account of the plague. 
In 1461 he was elected fellow of Pembroke 
Hall, serving as proctor in 1462. While at 
Cambridge he toot both degrees in canon law, 
and was afterwards incorporated in them at 
Oxford. In 1464 he left the university, and 
some time before 1476 was made chaplain to 
Edward IV. Langton was in high favour 
with the king, who trusted him much, and 
sent him on various important embassies. 
In 1467 he went as ambassador to France, 
and as king's chaplain was sent to treat with 
Ferdinand, king of Castile, on 24 Nov. 1476. 
He visited France again on diplomatic busi- 
ness on 30 Nov. 1477, and on 11 Aug. 1478, 



lege, where he built some new sets of rooms 
and enlarged the provost's lodgings. In 1493 
Henry VII transferred him from Salisbury to 
Winchester, a see which had been vacant 
over a year. During the seven years that he 
was bishop of Winchester Langton started a 
school in the precincts of the palace, where 
he had youths trained in grammar and music. 
He was a good musician nimself, used to ex- 
amine the scholars in person, and encourage 
them by good words and small rewards. 
Finally, a proof of his ever-increasing popu- 
larity, Langton was elected archbishop of 
Canterbury on 22 Jan. 1501, but died of the 
plague on the 27th, before the confirmation of 
the deed. He was buried in a marble tomb 
within 'a very fair chapel' which he had 
built south of the lady-chapel, Winchester. 
Before his death he had given 10/. towards 
the erection of Great St. Mary's Church, Cam- 
bridge, and in 1497 a drinking-cup, weighing 
67 oz., called the ' Anathema Cup,' to Pem- 
broke Hall. This is the oldest extant hanap 
or covered cup that is hall-marked. By his 
will, dated 16 Jan. 1601, Langton left large 
sums of money to the priests of Clare Hall, 
Cambridge, money and vestments to the 
fellows and priests of Queen's College, Ox- 



Langton 



129 



Langton 



ford, besides legacies to the friars at both uni- 
versities, and to the Carmelites at Appleby. 
To his sister and her husband, Rowland 
Machel, lands (probably the family estates) 
in Westmoreland and two hundred marks 
were bequeathed. An annual pension of eight 
marks was set aside to maintain a chapel at 
Appleby for a hundred years to pray for the 
souls 01 Langton, his parents, and all the 
faithful deceased at Appleby. A nephew, 
Robert Langton, also educated at Queen's 
College, Oxford, according to Wood, left 
money to that foundation with which to 
found a school at Appleby. 

[LaDsd. MS. 978, f. 12 ; Cole MS. 26, f. 240 ; 
Godwin's Cat of Bishops, pp. 191, 284 ; Godwin, 
De Praeeol. Angl. (Richardson), p. 295 ; Wood's 
Athens (Bliss), ii. 688 ; Wood's Colleges and 
Halls (Gutch), i. 147; Cooper's Athena Cantabr. 
i. 4; Le Neve's Fasti, i. 24, 196, 414, ii. 198; 
Syllabus of Rymer's Foedera, ii. 708, 709, 710, 
712, 714, 715; Grants of King Edward V 
(Camd. Soc), pp. xxiz, lxiv, 2, 37 ; Newcourt's 
Repertorinm, 1. 245 ; Willis's Cathedrals (Lin- 
coln), p. 229; Hawes's Framlinghatn, p. 217; 
Smith's College Plate, pp. 6, &c] E. T. B. 

LANGTON, WALTER (d. 1821), bishop 
of Lichfield and treasurer, is said to have 
been born at Langton West, a chapelry in 
the parish of Church Langton, four miles 
from Market Harborough in Leicestershire. 
He continued his connection with the dis- 
trict, receiving in 1306 a grant of free- warren 
at Langton West (Hill, Hist, of Langton, 
p. 15). Yet at his death he only held three 
acres of land in the parish (Cal. Inq. post 
mortem, i. 300). He was the nephew of 
William Langton, dean of York ; but there 
seems no reason for making him a kinsman 
to John Langton [q. v.], bishop of Chichester 
and chancellor, his contemporary. Neither 
can any real connection be traced between 
him and Stephen Langton [q. v.], archbishop 
of Canterbury (Hill, Hist, of Langton, p. 
17). He started life as a poor man (Hehing- 
BtTBGH, ii. 272), and became a clerk of the 
king's chancery. His name first appears pro- 
minently in the records in 1290. He was tnen 
clerk of the king's wardrobe (Foedera, i. 732), 
and received in the same year license to im- 
park his wood at Ashley, and a grant of twelve 
adjoining acres in the forest of Rockingham 
fl?oss). In 1292 this park was enlarged ( Cat. 
Inq. post mortem, i. 104, 111). In 1292 he is 
first described as keeper of the king's ward- 
robe (Foedera, i. 762), though he is also spoken 
of as treasurer of tne wardrobe (Ann, Dun- 
staplem Annates Monasttci,iu.4O0), and even 
simply as treasurer (Foedera, i. 772). He 
attached himself to the service of the power- 
ful chancellor, Bishop Burnell [q. v.], and on 
vol. xxxn. 



Burnell's death in October 1292 received for 
a short space the custody of the great seal, 
until in December a new chancellor, John 
Langton, was appointed (ib. i. 762). But his 
J custody was merely formal and temporary, re- 
| suiting apparently from his position as keeper 
I of the wardrobe, and he has no claim to be 
I reckoned among the regularly constituted 
1 keepers of the great seal. Langton now be- 
1 came a favoured councillor of Edward I 
i Q clericus regis familiarissimus,' Flores Hist. 
1 iii. 280), was rewarded with considerable ec- 
I clesiastical preferment, and soon became a 
I landholder in many counties. He became 
I canon of Lichfield and papal chaplain, and 
1 also dean of the church of Bruges (Foedera, 
1 i. 766). But the local lists of dignitaries of 
I the chapel of St. Donatian, now the cathedral 
of Bruges, do not contain his name (Com- 
pendium Chronologicum Episcoporum . . . Bru- 
gensium, p. 80, 1781). It was afterwards 
objected against him that he held benefices 
in plurality regardless of church law or papal 
sanction. By 1297 he had acquired lands 
worth over 20/. a year in Surrey and Sussex 
(Pari. Writs, i. 554). 

Langton took an active part as one of the 
judges of the great suit respecting the Scottish 
succession (Foedera, i. 766 sq. ; Risha.nger, 
p. 261, Rolls Ser.) In 1294 he shared with 
the Earl of Lincoln the responsibility of ad- 
vising Edward I to consent to the temporary 
surrender of Gascony to Philip the Fair 
(Munimenta QildhalUeLondoniensis, 11. i.165 ; 
Cotton, Historia Anglicana, p. 232). As 
the chancellor, John Langton, would not sign 
the ffrant of surrender, the great seal was 
handed over temporarily to his namesake, 
Walter, who signed with it the fatal deed. 
When the French king treacherously retained 
possession of the duchy, Langton busied him- 
self with obtaining a special offering from the 
Londoners to the king. On 28 Sept. 1296 
Langton was appointed treasurer in succes- 
sion to William of March, bishop of Bath 
(Madox, Exchequer, ii. 37). His tenure was 
to be during the king's pleasure, and the 
salary a hundred marks a year (tb. ii. 42). 
Langton accompanied to the court of the 
French king the two papal legates who had 
been sent to England by Boniface VIII to 
negotiate a truce between Edward and his 
allies with Philip. The commission, to Lang- 
ton and the other English negotiators is dated 
6 Feb. 1297 (Foedera, i. 859 ; Flores Hist. iii. 
287). He also utilised this journey for act- 
ing as one of the negotiators of the peace 
and alliance with Count Guy of Flanders (ib. 
iii. 290). 

On 20 Feb. Langton was elected both by 
the monks of Coventry and the canons of 



Larigton 



130 



Langton 



Lichfield as their bishop, or, as the see was 
more often called at the time, bishop of 
Chester. His election was confirmed by Arch- 
bishop "Winchelsea on 11 June, and on 16 July 
the king restored him the temporalities of the 
see ( Whabton, AngUa Sacra, 1. 441). He was 
consecrated on 23 Dec. by one of the legates, 
Berard de Goth, cardinal-bishop of Albano, 
and brother to the future pope, Clement V 
(Sttjbbs, Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum, p. 
49 ; Ann. Dunstaple in Ann. Mon. iii. 400). 

Langton still retained the office of trea- 
surer, and devoted his energies to affairs of 
state rather than to the worE of his diocese. 
He shared the growing unpopularity of Ed- 
ward I towards the end of nis reign. On 
the meeting of the famous Lincoln parliament 
on 20 Jan. 1301, the barons and commons, 
urged on apparently by Archbishop Winchel- 
sea, requested Edward to remove Langton 
from his office. At the same time they pre- 
sented, through Henry of Keighley, member 
for Lancashire, a bill of twelve articles com- 
plaining of the whole system of adminis- 
tration. Edward gave way for the time, 
but in June he ordered the imprisonment of 
Keighley, putting him under the charge of 
Langton, against whom he had complained, 
and directmg that Keighley's considerate 
treatment in the Tower should seem to come 
from the good will of the incriminated minis- 
ter, and not from the order of the king 
(Sttjbbs, Const Hist. ii. 151). On 14 Oct. 
of the same year Langton was associated 
with other magnates on an embassy to France 
(Fcedera, i. 936 ; Ann. Lond. in Ann. Edw. I 
and II, Rolls Ser. i. 103). They negotiated 
the continuance of a truce until November 
1302, and returned to England on 21 Dec. 

Grave charges were now brought against 
Langton. A knight, named John Lovetot, 
accused him of living in adultery with his 
stepmother, and finally murdering her hus- 
band, Lovetot's father. He was also charged 
with pluralism, simony, and intercourse with 
the devil, who, it was alleged, had frequently 
appeared to him in person (Fcedera, i. 956-7 ; 
Flores Historiarum, iii. 305). So early as 
February 1300 Boniface VHl wrote to Win- 
chelsea demanding an investigation, and 
citing Langton to appear before the papal 
curia (Chron. Lanercost, pp. 200-1, Bannatyne 
Club). It was not, however, until May 1301 
that a formal citation was served on the 
bishop, who was suspended from his office 
penduig the investigation. Langton went to 
Rome to plead his cause in person, spending 
vast sums of money on the papal officials, who 
knew his wealth and did not spare him. He 
was at a disadvantage, moreover, as he did 
not make his appearance before the papal 



court until the date of his citation had 
passed. Langton remained for some time 
in Italy, Edward covering his retreat by ap- 
pointing him in March 1302 a member of a 
special embassy then sent to the pope (Fcedera, 
i. 939). The king all along upheld the cause 
of his treasurer (ib. i. 943, 956). Boniface 
urged Edward not to show his rancour against 
the accuser Lovetot until the investigation 
was concluded (ib. i. 939). At a later stage 
the pope sent back the matter to Archbishop 
Winchelsea, who, after a long investigation r 
was forced to declare the bishop innocent. 
Lovetot was soon afterwards committed to 
prison on a charge of homicide, and died 
there (Flores Hist. iii. 806). At last, on 
8 June 1308, Boniface formally absolved 
Langton of the charges brought against him 
(Fcedera, i. 956-7). All through the busi- 
ness Winchelsea had shown a strong animus 
against the accused, and a bitter and lifelong 
feud between the treasurer and the archbishop 
was the most important result of the episode. 
In June 1308 Edward showed his sense of 
Langton's trustworthiness by making him 
principal .executor of his testament. In 1 308 
and 1804 Langton was with the king in Scot- 
land. On 15 June 1305 he was 'involved in 
a grave dispute with Edward, prince of Wales 
[see Edwakd II], who had invaded his woods, 
and answered his remonstrances with insult. 
Hot words passed between the minister and 
the prince, but the king warmly took the 
treasurer's side, and the prince was forced into) 
submission. But the continued remonstrances 
of Langton against the prince's extravagance 
must have effectually prevented any real 
cordiality (Tboxelowe, pp. 63-4). In Oc- 
tober of the same year Langton was sent with 
the Earl of Lincoln and Hugh le Despenser 
on an embassy to the new pope, Clement V, 
at Lyons (Ann. Lond. p. 148). They took* 
with them a present of sacred vessels of pure* 
gold from the king (Rishakgeb, p. 227); 
and were present at Clement's coronation on 
14 Nov. The main object of this mission 
was to procure the absolution of the king from 
the oaths which he had taken to observe the 
charters, and particularly the charter of the 
forests. But Langton took advantage of his 
position to urge the complaints which both 
the king and himself had against Archbishop 
Winchelsea. On 12 Feb. Clement issued a 
bull suspending the archbishop from his func- 
tions. On 24 Feb. 1306 the embassy was 
back in London. In the summer Winchelsea 
went into exile. This secured the continu- 
ance of Langton's power for the rest of the 
king's life. He was now unquestionably 
Edward's first minister and almost his only 
real confidant. 



Langton 



131 



Langton 



On 2 July 1306 Langton was appointed 
joint warden of the realm with the Archbishop 
of York during the king's absence in Scotland 
(Fcedera, i. 989). But early next year he fol- 
lowed Edward to the borders, appointing, on 
8 Jan. 1307, a baron of the exchequer named 
Walter de Carleton as deputy during his ab- 
sence (Madox, Hist, of the Exchequer, ii. 49). 
Edward now directed Langton to open the 
parliament at Carlisle (Fcedera, i. 1008). 
Langton seems to have been present at the 
Jringrs death, and conveyed his oody with all 
due honour on its slow march from the Scot- 
tish border to Waltham. 

Langton's old quarrel with Edward II had 
indeed been patched up, and Langton had 
even professed to intercede with the old king 
on behalf of Gaveston (Hemingbubgh, ii. 272, 
Engl. Hist. Soc.) But he had done this so 
unwillingly that there is no need to believe 
the chronicler's story of Edward Fa answer- 
ing his advances by tearing the hair out of 
his head and driving him out of the room (ib. 
ii. 272). Langton was well known to be 
Gaveston's enemy (Chron. Lanercost, p. 210), 
and the speedy return of the favourite from 
exile, soon to be followed by the restoration 
of Winchelsea, sealed the doom of the trea- 
surer. As he rode from Waltham to Westmin- 
ster, to arrange for the interment of his old 
master, he was arrested and sent to the Tower 
(Heminobttbgh, ii. 273; Ann. Paulini, p. 
267). On 22 Aug. 1307 he was removed from 
the treasurer8hip. On 20 Sept. his lands, 
reckoned to be worth five thousand marks a 
year, were seized by the king (Fcedera, ii. 7). 
On 28 Sept. Edward invited by public pro- 
clamation all who had grievances against the 
fallen minister to bring forward their com- 
plaints (Riley, Memorials of London, p. 63). 
The king and Gaveston also seized upon the 
vast treasure hoarded up by Langton at the 
New Temple in London, including, it was 
believed, fifty thousand pounds of silver, 
besides gold and jewels (Hemingbukgh, ii. 
273-4). Most of this went to Gaveston. So 
vast aboard explains Langton's unpopularity. 
A special commission of judges, neaded by 
Roger Brabazon, was appointed to try Lang- 
ton, now formally accused of various misde- 
meanors as treasurer, such as appropriating 
the king's moneys for his own use, selling 
the forms at too low a value for bribes, and 
giving false judgments (Madox, Exchequer, 
u. 47). On 19 Feb. 1308 Edward ordered 
the postponement of the trial until after his 
coronation (Fcedera, ii. 32) ; but before the end 
of March judgments were being levied on the 
lands belonging to his see. Langton himself 
remained in strict custody, being moved to 
Windsor for his trial, and then being sent 



back to the Tower (Pari. Writs, 11. iii. 230). 
Gaveston was entrusted with his custody, and 
appointed the brothers Felton as his gaolers 
(Mubimuth, p. 11). They maliciously car- 
ried their prisoner about from castle to castle. 
For a time he was confined at Wallingford 
(Chron. Lanercost, p. 210 ; Canon of Brid- 
LiNGTON,p. 28), and was finally shut up in the 
king's prison at York. 

Clergy, pope, and baronage interceded in 
vain in Langton's favour. Even Winchelsea, 
who hated him, could not overlook the grave 
irregularity of confining a spiritual person 
without any spiritual sentence. In April 

1308 Clement V strongly urged on Edward 
the contempt shown to clerical privilege by 
Langton's confinement. The legate, the 
bishop of Poitiers, pressed for his release. 
At last, on 3 Oct. 1308, Edward granted 
Langton the restitution 01 his temporalities 
(Fcedera, ii. 58). But nothing of advantage 
to him resulted at once from this step. In 

1 309 further accusations were brought against 
him in the articles of the barons, and he re- 
mained in prison, though Adam Murimuth, 
a partisan of Winchelsea's, assures us (p. 14) 
that the archbishop refused to have any deal- 
ings with the king on account of his continued 
detention of Langton. It is noteworthy that 
during his imprisonment Langton still re- 
ceived writs 01 summons to parliament and 
to furnish his contingents for the king's wars 
(Pari Writs). 

Langton had been too long a minister, and 
was too unfriendly to the constitutional op- 
position, to care to remain a martyr. He had 
great experience and ability, and as Edward's 
difficulties increased the king bethought him- 
self that his imprisoned enemy might still be 
of service to him. The declaration of Win- 
chelsea for the ordainers and against the 
king made Langton most willing to come to 
terms with Edward. On 1 July 1311 he was 
removed from the king's to the archbishop's 
prison at York (Fcedera, ii. 138). This put 
Edward right with the party of clerical 
privilege, though about the same time he 
appointed new custodians of Langton's estates 
(&. ii. 146-50). But on 23 Jan. 1812 Langton 
was set free altogether. Next day Edward, 
who was at this time at York, wrote to Pope 
Clement in favour of his former captive (tb. 
ii. 154). On 14 March Langton was restored 
to his office of treasurer until the next par- 
liament should assemble (ib. ii. 159). He 
was believed to have betrayed the secrets of 
the confederate nobles to the king as the 
price of this advancement (Flores Hist. iiL 
148). The growing troubles of Edward from 
the lords ordainers are the best explanation 
of his falling back on his father's old minis- 

k2 



Langton 



132 



Langton 



ter; but Langton never got more than a half 
support from Edward ft, 'ad semigratiam 
regis recipitur ' (Tbokelowe, p. G4), and the 
ordainers, headed by the irreconcilable Win- 
chelsea, soon turned against him. On Mon- 
day, 3 April, as Langton was sitting with the 
barons of the exchequer at the exchequer of 
receipt, an angry band of grandees, headed 
by the Earls of Pembroke and Hereford, 
burst in and forbade them to act any longer 
(Madox, Exchequer, ii. 266-8). On 18 April 
Edward strongly urged him to do his duty 
despite their threats (Fcedera, ii. 164) ; but 
power was with the ordainers, and Langton 
was forced to yield. Winchelsea excom- 
municated him for taking office against the 
injunctions of the ordainers. Langton now 
appealed to the pope, receiving on 1 May a 
sale-conduct to go abroad from the king, who 
still described him as treasurer (ib. ii. 166), 
and wrote to the pope begging for his absolu- 
tion (ib. ii. 167 ; cf. 171, 178). Adam Murimuth 
the chronicler went to Avignon to represent 
Winchelsea (Mtjbimuth, p. 18). 

Langton remained some time at the papal 
court. In November Edward was forced Dy 
the ordainers to write pressing for a con- 
clusion of the suit (Fosdera, ii. 186, 189). 
Langton was still away in February 1313; 
but the death of Winchelsea in 1818, and 
the reconciliation of English parties, again 
made it possible for him to regain his posi- 
tion in England. He remained in the king's 
council until the February parliament of 
1815 insisted on driving him from office along 
with Hugh le Despenser (Monk of Malmes- 
btjbt, p. §09). After the reconciliation of the 
king with the ordainers in 1318, Langton put 
before the new council a claim for 20,000/., 
which he alleged that he had lost in the king's 
service. He was asked whether he intended 
to burden the king's distressed nuances by 
so large a demand, and answered vaguely, 
neither renouncing nor pressinghis claim. In 
the end he received nothing. He died at his 
house in London on 9 Nov. 1321 (Flore* Hist. 
iii. 200; Chesterfield, BeEpp. Cov. et Lich- 
field in Anglia Sacra, i. 442 ; other writers 
say on 16 Nov.) He was buried on 6 Dec. 
in the lady-chapel of Lichfield Cathedral. 
His effigy, in Derbyshire marble, still remains, 
though in rather a defaced condition. It is 
figured on p. 16 of Hill's ' History of Lang- 
ton.' His cousin, Edmund Peveril, was his 
next heir, and, despite all his misfortunes, he 
left land in eleven counties (Cal. Inq. post 
mortem, i. 300). He is described as always 
dealing moderately with the people as an 
official (Ann. Dunst. in Ann. mon. iii. 400), 
and as 'homo imaginosus et cautissimus' 
(Hbmingbubgh, ii. 272). 



Despite the cares of state Langton found 
time and money to be a munificent benefactor 
to his church and see. About 1300 he began 
the building at Lichfield of the lady-chapel 
in which he was buried. He left money in 
his will to complete the work. He also sur- 
rounded the cloisters with a wall, built a rich 
shrine for St. Chad's relics, which cost 2,000/., 
and gave vestments, jewels, and plate to the 
cathedral. He encompassed the whole ca- 
thedral close with the wall which enabled a 
royalist garrison to offer a stout defence to 
Lord Brooke in 1643. He erected the great 
bridge, built houses for the vicars, and in- 
creased their common funds. He built for 
himself a new palace at the edge of the 
close, rebuilt Eccleshall Castle, repaired his 
London house in the Strand, and repaired or 
rebuilt several of his manor-houses (Anglia 
Sacra, i. 441,447; Stone, Hist, of Lichfield, 
pp. 22-3). He may have been associated with 
the fine new churches at Church Langton and 
Thorpe Langton (Hill, Hist, of Langton). 

[Chronicles of Edward I and H, Cotton, 
Trokelowe, Flores Hiatoriarum, Murimuth, all 
in Rolls Ser. ; Hemingburgh (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; 
Chron. of Lanercost (Bannatyne Club) ; Rymer's 
Foedera, Record ed.; Madox's Hist, of the Ex- 
chequer; Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 441-2,447, 
451 ; Le Neve's Fasti Eeclesia Anglican©, ed. 
Hardy, i. 549-50; Calendarium Inquisitionum 
post mortem ; Parliamentary Writs, i. 554-5, ii., 
iii. 729-31 ; Foss's Judges of England; Stubbs's 
Constitutional Hist vol.ii.; Hill's Hist, of Lang- 
ton ; Stone's Hist, of Lichfield.] T. F. T. 

LANGTON. WILLIAM (1803-1881), 
antiquary and financier, son of Thomas Lang- 
ton (who in early life had been a merchant 
at Riga, afterwards at Liverpool, and who 
died in 1838 in Canada West), was born at 
Farfield, near Addingham, in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, on 17 April 1803. His 
mother was the daughter of the Rev. Wil- 
liam Currer, vicar of Clapham. He was edu- 
cated chiefly abroad, where he acquired fami- 
liarity with foreign languages. From 1821 to 
1829 he was engaged inbusiness in Liverpool, 
during the latter part of the time as agent for 
some mercantile firms in Russia. Removing 
to Manchester in August 1829, he accepted a 
responsible position in Messrs. Heywood's 
bank, and in connection with that house he 
continued until 1854, when he succeeded to 
the important post of managing director of 
the Manchester and Salford Sank, which 
flourished under his rule for the next twenty- 
two years. He resigned in October 1876 in con- 
sequence of the complete failure of his sight. 
During the long period of his residence in 
J Manchester he was justly regarded as one of 
J its most accomplished ana philanthropic 



Langton 



133 



Langwith 



citizens, and was associated in the establish- 
ment of some of its prominent institutions. 
He took a leading part in the projection of 
the Manchester Atheneeum in 1836. His 
services were publicly recognised in 1881 by 
the presentation to the Athenaeum of his 
marbie medallion bust, along with those of 
his co-founders, Richard Cobden and James 
Heywood, F.R.S. When the Ohetham So- 
ciety was founded in 1843 he became one 
of its earliest members, and was elected its 
treasurer, subsequently exchanging that office 
for the honorary secretaryship. He edited 
for the society three volumes of ' Chetham 
Miscellanies/ 1851, 1866, 1862 ; « Lancashire 
Inquisitions Post Mortem, 1 1875 ; and ' Be- 
naft's Visitation of Lancashire of 1533/ 2 vols. 
1876-82. About 1846 he acted as secretary 
to a committee that was formed to obtain a 
university for Manchester. Though unsuc- 
cessful, this scheme probably in part sug- 
gested to John Owens [q. v.] the foundation 
of the college which bears his name. He 
was also, in association with Dr. Kay (after- 
wards Sir J. P. Kay-ShuttleworthJTq. v.l), a 
chief promoter of the Manchester Provident 
Society, 1833, and of the Manchester Statis- 
tical Society in the same year. To the latter 
society he contributed in 1857 a paper on the 
' Balance of Account between the Mercantile 
Public and the Bank of England/ and in 
1867 a presidential address. 

Among other professional papers he wrote 
« On Banks and Bank Shareholders/ 1879, 
and a letter on savings banks, 1880, addressed 
to the chancellor of the exchequer. He was 
an accurate genealogist, herald, and anti- 
quary, a philologist, a skilful draughtsman, 
and a graceful writer of verse, both in his 
own language and in Italian. On his retire- 
ment into private life 5,000/. was raised in 
his honour, and a memorial Langton fellow- 
ship founded at Owens College. He spent 
his retirement at Ingatestone, Essex, where 
he died on 29 Sept. 1§81. He was buried in 
Fryerning churcnyard, Essex. 

He married at Kirkham, Lancashire, on 
15 Nov. 1831, Margaret, daughter of Joseph 
Hornby of Ribbv, Lancashire, and had issue 
three sons and six daughters. 

[Memoir in Ohetham Society's Publications, 
vol ex., which contains also a portrait of Langton 
from the Athenaeum bust ; Manchester Guardian, 
30 Sept. 1881 ; Manchester City News, 1 Sept. 
1877 and 1 Oct. 1881 ; Foster's Lancashire Pedi- 
grees.] C. W. S. 

LANGTON, ZACHARY (1698-1786), 
divine, third son of Cornelius Langton of 
Kirkham, Lancashire, and Elizabeth his wife, 
daughter of the Rev. Zachary Taylor, head- 
master of the grammar school there, was bap- 



tised at Kirkham on 24 Sept. 1698. He was 
educated at K"irTfTip.m grammar school, and, 
on being elected to a Barker exhibition, went 
to Magdalen Hall, Oxford, where he graduated 
B.A. on 18 Dec. 1721, and M.A. on 10 June 
1724. After his ordination he removed to 
Ireland, where his kinsman, Dr. Clavton, was 
bishop of Killala, and afterwards of Clogher. 
He held preferments in the diocese of Kil- 
lala, and was chaplain between 1746 and 
1761 to the Earl of Harrington, lord-lieu- 
tenant. He held the prebend of KiUaraght 
from 5 July 1735 until 1782, and that of 
Errew from 6 Dec. 1785 until his death. In 
November 1761 he returned to England, and 
was present at Kirkham Church in 1769 at 
the recantation of William Gant, late a Ro- 
man catholic priest. He published anony- 
mously a pedantic work entitled ' An Essay 
concerning the Human Rational Soul, in 
three parts/ 8vo, Dublin 1753; Liverpool, 
1755 ; Oxford, 1764. The Oxford edition has 
a dedication of 166 pages addressed to the 
Duke of Bedford, lord-lieutenant of Ireland. 
He died at Oxford on 1 Feb. 1786. He mar- 
ried Bridget, daughter of Alexander Butler of 
Kirkland, Lancashire, but died without issue. 

[Fishwick's Kirkham (Chetham Soc), p. 152; 
Palatine Note-book, iv. 148, 179, 246 ; Earwaker's 
Local Gleanings, 4to, ii. 127, 8vo, 274, 814; 
Monthly Rev. December 1764, xxxi. 414 ; Gent. 
Mag. 1786, lvi. 266; Cotton's Fasti Hibern. iv. 
89, 1 10 ; Foster's Lane. Pedigrees.] C. W. S. 

LANGWITH, BENJAMIN (1684 P- 
1743), antiquary and natural philosopher, a 
Yorltshireman, was born about 1684. He 
was educated at Queens 1 College, Cambridge, 
and elected fellow and tutor (Cooper, Me- 
morials of Cambridge, i. 314). He graduated 
B.A. in 1704, M.A. in 1708, B.D. in 1716, 
and D.D. in 1717 {Cantabr. QraduaU, 1787, 
p. 233). Thoresby placed his son under his 
care, but was obliged to remove him, owing 
to Langwith's negligence {Letters addressed 
to R. Thoresby, h. 322-3, 361-2). He was 
instituted to the rectory of Petworth, Sussex, 
in 1718 (Dallaway, Rape of Arundel, ed. 
Cartwright, p. 335), and was made prebendary 
of Chichester on 15 June 1725 (Lb. Neve, 
Fasti, ed. Hardy, i. 273). He was buried at 
Petworth on 2 Oct. 1743, aged 59. His 
widow, Sarah, died on 8 Feb. 1784, aged 91, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey {Re- 
gisters , ed. Chester, p. 437). 

Langwith gave Francis Drake some assist- 
ance in the preparation of his ' Eboracum/ 
His scientific attainments were considerable. 
Four of his dissertations were inserted in the 
1 Philosophical Transactions.' He wrote also 
' Observations on Dr. Arbuthnot's Disserta- 
tions on Coins, Weights, and Measures,' 4to, 



I^anier 



134 



Lanier 



London, 1747, edited by his widow. It was 
reissued in the second edition of Arbuthnot's 
« Tables of Ancient Coins/ &c, 4to, 1764. 
[Nichols's Ulustr. of Lit. i. 298; Watt's Bibl. 

Bnt.] e. a. 

LANIER, Sib JOHN (d. 1692), military 
commander, distinguished himself in the troop 
of English auxiliaries which served some time 
in France under the Duke of Monmouth, and 
he lost an eye while engaged in that service. 
He succeeded Sir Thomas Morgan as governor 
of Jersey, and was knighted. His rule is said 
to have been despotic. At the accession of 
James II he was recalled, and put in com- 
mand of a regiment of horse j he was colonel 
of the queen's regiment of horse, now the 1st 
dragoon guards, in 1687 (Hart. MS. 4847, 
f. 5), and he became lieutenant-general in j 
1688. He declared for William III, and was 
despatched to Scotland to take Edinburgh 
Castle, which surrendered to him on 12 June 
1689 (Luttkbll, Brief Historical Relation, 
i. 479, 533, 647). He subsequently did excel- 
lent service in the reduction of Ireland, but 
he had much trouble with the majority of his 
regiment, who inclined to James II, and fre- 
quently disagreed with his brother officers 
(ib. i. 697, 613, ii. 170). On the evening of 
16 Feb. 1689-90 he marched from Newry 
towards Dundalk, then strongly garrisoned by 
the Irish, with a thousand troops. The next 
morning, deeming it useless to make an at- 
tack on the town, he burnt a great part of the 
suburbs on the west side. At the same time a 
party of Leviston's dragoons, under his direc- 
tion, took Bedloe Castle, and a prize of about 
fifteen hundred cows and horses (Harms, ' 
Life of William III, p. 249). At the battle 
of the Boyne, on 1 July 1690, Lanier was 
at the head of his regiment. He was also 
present at the siege of Limerick in the follow- 
ing August (ib. ii. 210]), at Lanesborough Pass 
in December 1690 with Kirke (Story, Im- 
partial History, p. 48), and at the battle of 
Aughrim on 12 July 1691 (Botbr, ii. 264). 
Lanier was to have had a command under the 
Duke of Leinster ; but on 26 Dec. William 
offered him a pension of 1,600/. a year on con- 
dition that he resigned his commission (Lut- 
trell, ii. 190, 239, 323). Lanier refused to 
retire, and in April 1692 the king appointed 
him one of his generals of horse in Flanders, 
though his health was fast failing. He was 
badly wounded at the battle of Steenkirk on 
8 Aug. 1692, and died a few days afterwards. 
He was a bachelor. 

[Falle's Jersey (Durell), pp. 133, 398 ; Boyer^ 
Life of William HI, ii. 1 78, 181 ; MacaulaVs Hist 
ch. xvi. xix. ; will reg. in P. C. C. 187, fane.] 

G. G. 



LANIER (LANIERE), NICHOLAS 
(1588-1666), musician and amateur of art, 
born in London in 1588, is no doubt identi- 
cal with ' Nicholas, son of John Lannyer, 
Musician to her Ma Ue ,' who was baptised on 
10 Sept. 1588 in the church of Holy Minories, 
London. John Lanier (or Lannyer), the 
father, married on 12 Oct. 1585, at the same 
church, Frances, daughter of Mark Anthony 
Galliardello, who had served as musician to 
Henry VHI and his three successors. The 
family of Lanier was of French origin, and 
served as musicians of the royal household 
in England for several generations. One John 
Lanier, probably Nicholas's grandfather, who 
died in 1572, was described in 1577 as a 
Frenchman and musician, a native of Rouen 
in France, and owner of property in Crutched 
Friars in the parish of St. Olave, Hart Street, 
London (see Exch. Spec. Comm. No. 1365, 
19 Eliz., 1577). 

Another Nicholas Lanier, possibly Nicho- 
las's uncle, was musician to Queen Elizabeth 
in 1581, and owned considerable property in 
East Greenwich, Blackheath, and the neigh- 
bourhood. He died in 1612, leaving four 
daughters and six sons, John (d. 1650), Al- 
phonso (d\ 1613), Innocent (d. 1625), Jerome 
(d. 1657\ Clement (d. 1661), Andrea {d. 
1659), wno were all musicians in the service 
of the crown, while some of their children 
succeeded them in their posts. 

Nicholas Lanier, like other members of 
his family, became a musician in the royal 
household, and in 1604 received payment 
for his livery as musician of the flutes. He 
was attached to the household of Henry, 
prince of Wales, and on the death of the 

1>rince in 1612 he wrote to Sir Dudley Car- 
eton [q. v.] that * he knows not wnich is 
the more dangerous attempt, to turn courtier 
or cloune.' He held subsequently a pro- 
minent position among the royal musicians, 
both as composer ana performer. Herrick 
alludes to his skill in singing in a poem ad- 
dressed to Henry Lawes. In 1613 Lanier, 
Qiovanni Coperario [q. v.], and others com- 
posed the music for the masque by Thomas 
Campion, given on St. Stephen's night on 
the occasion of the marriage of Robert Oarr, 
earl of Somerset, and Lady Frances Howard. 
Lanier composed the music for the masque 
of ' Lovers Made Men ' composed by Ben 
JonsonTq. v.], and given at Lord Hay's house 
on 22 Feb. 1617 ; on this occasion Lanier is 
said to have introduced for the first time 
into England the new Italian mode, or ' stylo 
recitativo.' Lanier also sang himself in this 
masque and painted the scenery for it. He 
composed the music for Ben Jonson's masque 
1 The Vision of Delight,' performed at court 



Lanier 



i3S 



Lanigan 



at Christmas 1617. An air by Lanier from 
4 Luminalia, or the Festival of Light,'per- 
formed at court on Shrove Tuesday, 1637, is 
printed in J. Stafford Smith's ' Musica An- 
tiqua/ p. 60. On the accession of Charles I, 
Lanier was well rewarded for his services. 
He was appointed master of the king's music 
and given a pension of 200/. a year (see 
Rymbb, Fcedera, xviii. 728). 

Lanier was also a painter himself and a 
skilled amateur of works of art. In 1625 he 
was sent by Charles I to collect pictures and 
statues for the royal collection. He remained 
in Italy about three years, staying at Venice 
and elsewhere, and expended large sums of 
money on his master's behalf. In 1628 he was 
at Mantua, lodging in the house of Daniel 
Nys, the agent, through whom Charles I ac- 
quired the collection of the Duke of Mantua, 
including Mantegna's 'Triumph of Caesar/ 
now at Hampton Court. Lanier's acquisi- 
tions formed the nucleus of the celebrated 
collection formed by Charles I. He is con- 
sidered to have been the first, with the ex- 
ception perhaps of Thomas Howard, second 
earl of Arundel [q. v.], to appreciate the 
worth of drawings and sketches by the great 
painters. Certain pictures and drawings that 
can be traced to the collection of Charles I 
bear a mark generally accepted as denoting 
.that they were among those purchased by 
Lanier. Sir William Sanderson, in his ' Gra- 
phice,' alleges that from his experience in 
trading in pictures Lanier was the first to 
introduce the practice of turning copies into 
originals by blackening and rolling them. 
Vandyck painted Lanier's portrait at half 
length, ana the king's admiration for the pic- 
ture is said to have led him to persuade 
Vandyck to permanently settle in England. 
Another portrait of Lanier painted at this 
time by Jan Livens was finely engraved by 
Lucas Vorsterman. Lanier was appointed 
keeper of the king's miniatures. In 1636 
Charles I granted to him and others a charter 
of incorporation as ' The Marshal, Wardens, 
and Cominalty of the Arte and Science of 
Musicke in Westminster.' Lanier was chosen 
the first marshal. 

With the outbreak of the civil wars the 
fortunes of the Lanier family declined. On 
the execution of the king Lanier composed a 
funeral hvmn to the words of Thomas Pierce. 
He had the mortification of seeing the king's 
collections, which he had done so much to 
form, dispersed by auction. Lanier and his 
cousins were large purchasers at the sale, 
and he himself was tne purchaser of his own 
portrait by Vandyck. During the common- 
wealth he appears to have followed the royal 
family in exile. Passes exist among the State 



Papers for Lanier to journey with pictures 
and musical instruments between Flanders 
and England. In 1655 the Earl of Newcastle 
gave a ball at the Hague to the court, at 
which a song composed by the earl was sung 
to music by Lanier. On the Restoration he 
was reinstated in his posts as master of the 
king's music and marshal of the corporation 
of music. He composed New-vear's music in 
1663 and 1665, and died in February 1665-6. 

Songs by Nicholas Lanier are printed in 
' Select Musicall Ayres and Dialogues' (1653 
and 1659), ' The Musical Companion ' (1667), 
< The Treasury of Music ' (1669), and « Choice 
Ayres and Songs,' iv. (1685). A good deal 
of his music remains in manuscript ; in the 
British Museum there are songs by him 
(Add. MSS. 11608, 29396; Eg. MS. 2013), 
and a cantata 'Hero and Leander' (Add. 
MSS. 14399, 33236), which had some success 
in his day. Other music remains in manu- 
script in the Music School and! in the library 
of Christ Church, Oxford, and also in the 
Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge. 

Besides the portraits mentioned above 
Vandvck is said to have painted Lanier as 
' David playing the harp before Saul.' A 
miniature of Lanier by Isaac Oliver was in 
James IPs collection of pictures. In the 
Music School at Oxford there is an in- 
teresting portrait of Lanier, painted by him- 
self (engraved by J. Caldwall in Hawkins, 
Hist, of Music, lii. 380). This shows him 
to have been a painter, but he cannot be 
identical with the Nicholas Lanier (1568- 
1646 ?), possibly a cousin, who in 1636 pub- 
lished some etchings from drawings by Par- 
migiano, and in 1638 another set of etchings 
after Giulio Romano. It is probably this 
last Nicholas Lanier who was ouried in St. 
Martin's-in-the-Fields on 4 Nov. 1646. 

The family of Lanier continued to inherit 
their musical talent for successive genera- 
tions. One branch went to America, where 
it was worthily represented by Sidney Lanier 
(1842-1891), musician and poet. 

[C*l. State Papers, Dom. Ser. 1604-70; 
Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Wornum ; 
Sainsbury's Papers relating to Rubens ; Vertue's 
MSS. (Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 23068, &c.) ; 
Hawkins's Hist, of Music; Grove's Diet, of 
Music and Musicians; Menkel's Musikalisches 
Conversations Lexikon ; Fetis's Biographie Uni- 
versale des Musiciens ; Hasted's Hist, of Kent, 
ed. Drake, 1886; information kindly supplied 
by Messrs. W. Barclay Squire, F.S.A., Alfred 
Scott Gatty (York herald), and others.] L. C. 

LANIGAN, JOHN, D.D. (1758-1828}. 
Irish ecclesiastical historian, born at Cashel, 
co. Tipperary, in 1758, was the eldest of the 
sixteen children of Thomas Lanigan, a school- 



Lanigan 



136 



Lanigan 



master of that city, by his wife Mary Anne 1 
[Dorkan]. He was educated by his father, ' 
who afterwards placed him in a seminary 
kept at Cashel by ratrick Hare, a protestant 
clergyman. Here he was a great friend of j 
Edward Lysaght [q. ▼.], and remained for some 
time as usher. In 1776 he was recommended 
by Dr. James Butler, archbishop of Cashel, for 
a burse in the Irish College at KomefMoRAir, 
Spicilegium Ossoriense, iii. 351). He sailed 
from Cork to London, where he was robbed 
of his money by a fellow-passenger; but 
fortunately a priest afforded him a refuge 
in his house until a remittance from home 
enabled him to continue his journey to Rome. 
His progress in theological and philosophical 
studies was brilliant and rapid, and after 
having attended a course of lectures on canon 
law at the Sapienza he was ordained priest. 
Soon afterwards he was induced by Tam- 
burini to settle at Pavia, where he was after- 
wards appointed to the chairs of Hebrew 
ecclesiastical history and divinity in the uni- 
versity. In 1786 he declined to attend the 
schism a tical diocesan council held at Pistoia 
under the presidency of the Jansenist bishop 
Scipio Ricci. In 1793 he published the first 
part of his ' Institutions Biblic®,' which, it 
is said, was suppressed in consequence of some 
of the opinions advanced (Ormb, Bibliotheca 
Biblica, p. 284). He was created D.D. by the 
university of Pavia on 28 June 1794. Two 
years later, when Napoleon's victorious troops 
overran the duchy of Milan, the members of 
the university of Pavia were dispersed, and 
Lanigan hurriedly returned to his native 
country, in company with several other Irish 
ecclesiastics. 

On landing in Cork as a penniless wanderer 
he vainly applied for pecuniary assistance to 
Dr. Moylan, bishop of that diocese, and his 
vicar-general, Dr. MacCarthy, who both re- 
garded Lanigan as a Jansenist, on account of 
his intimacy with the notorious Tamburini. 
He was compelled therefore to walk to Cashel, 
where he was welcomed by his surviving re- 
latives. After an unsuccessful attempt to 
obtain the spiritual care of a parish in the 
diocese of Cashel, he proceeded to Dublin, 
and was attached to the old Francis Street 
Chapel, by invitation of its pastor, Martin 
Hugh Hamill, the vicar-general and dean of 
Dublin, who had been his fellow-student at 
Rome. Shortly afterwards he was nominated, 
on the motion of the primate, seconded by 
the Archbishop of Dublin, to the chair of 
sacred scripture and Hebrew in the Royal 
College of St. Patrick, Maynooth. The Bishop 
of Cork, still suspecting him to be a Jansenist, 
suggested that ne should subscribe the for- 
mula which had been drawn up as a test for 



the French refugee clergy after the revolu- 
tion. This Lanigan indignantly refused to> 
do, though he declared that he would cheer- 
fully subscribe the bull 'Unigenitus Dei 
Films/ issued by Clement XI in 1713. The 
result of the dispute was that he resigned 
the professorship. 

At the suggestion of his friend General 
Vallancey he was engaged by the Royal 
Dublin Society as assistant-librarian, foreign 
correspondent, and general literary super- 
visor, with a salary of a guinea and a half 
per week; but it appears that he was not 
regularly appointed as an officer of the so- 
ciety until 2 May 1799. In 1808 his salary 
was increased to 150/. per annum. He was- 
intimately associated with the literary en- 
terprises of the time in Dublin. His wit, 
learning, liberal Catholicism, and the dignity 
and suavity of his continental manners were* 
a ready passport to the best society. Among 
his friends were General Vallancey, Richard 
Kirwan, president of the Royal Irish Aca- 
demy, Archbishop Troy, Dennis Taaffe, and 
the Celtic scholars William Halliday and Ed- 
ward O'Reilly. He assisted the latter to> 
found the Gaelic Society of Dublin in 1808. 
He wrote on current affairs under the pseu- 
donyms of ' Ireneeus ' and * An Irish Priest ; r 
in 1805 he engaged in a controversy with 
John Giffard concerning catholic disabilities* 

Symptoms of cerebral decay appeared in 
1813, and he was removed to Cashel, where he 
was tenderly nursed by his sisters. Although 
for a time able to resume work, and even 
to superintend the removal of the Royal 
Dublin Society's library from Hawkins Street 
to Kildare Street, he ultimately became a 
permanent patient in Dr. Harty^ asylum at 
Finglas. He died on 7 July 1828, and was 
interred in Finglas churchyard,where a monu- 
ment was erected to his memory in 1861, with 
appropriate inscriptions in Irish and Latin. 
His library was sold 6 and 7 March 1828. 

His principal work is ' An Ecclesiastical 
History of Ireland, from the first Introduc- 
tion of Christianity among the Irish to the- 
beginning of the thirteenth century,' 4 vols., 
Dublin, 1822, 8vo ; 2nd edition, Dublin, 1829 r 
8vo. This work he began in 1799. It con- 
tains, in chronological sequence, biographies 
of the principal Irish saints, with their * acts y 
abridged, while their recorded miracles are 
for the most part suppressed. His other 
works are : 1. ' De Origine et Progressu Her- 
meneutic® Sacr®/ Pavia, 1789, being his in- 
augural address as professor of Hebrew and 
sacred scripture at Pavia. 2. ' Saggio sulla 
maniera d'insegnare a' giovani ecclesiastic! la 
Scienza de' Iibri Sacri, Pavia, pp. 1 59. a work 
of great rarity. 3. ' Institutionum Biblicarum 



Lankester 



137 



Lankester 



pars prima, qua continetur Historia Librorum 
Sacrorum Veteris et Novi Testamenti/ vol. i. 
(all published), Pavia, 1793, 8vo, dedicated 
to Count Joseph de Wilzeck, knight of the 
Golden Fleece, containing much valuable 
matter. 4. 'An Essay on the Practical 
History of Sheep in Spain, and of the Spanish 
Sheep in Saxony, Anhalt Dessau, &c. By 
George Stumpf, M.A., and member of the 
Academy of Mentz, Leipsick, 1785. Trans- 
lated from the German, Dublin, 1800, 8vo. 
In vol. i. pt. i. of the ' Transactions of the 
Dublin Society.' 5. ' Introduction concern- 
ing the Nature, Present State, and true in- 
terests of the Church of England, and on the 
means of effecting a reconciliation of the 
Churches; with remarks on the False Re- 
presentations, repeated in some late Tracts, 
of several Catholic Tenets, particularly the 
Supremacy of the See of Rome, by Iren®us/ 
prefixed to a book of 66 pages entitled * The 
Protestant Apology for the Roman Catholic 
Church. By Christianus, i.e. William Tal- 
bot of Castle Talbot, co. Wexford,' Dublin, 
1809, 8vo. 6. An edition of Alban Butler's 
' Meditations and Discourses,' Dublin, 1840, 
8vo, is said to have been revised and im- 
proved by Lanigan. 

[Irish Wits and Worthies, including Dr. Lani- 
gan, his Life and Times, by W. J. Fitzpatrick, 
JLL.D., Dublin, 1873; Allibone's Diet, of English 
Lit. ii. 1058 ; Brenan's Eccl. Hist, of Ireland, 
1864, p. 649; Dublin Rev. December 1847, p. 
489; Home's Introd. to the Holy Scriptures; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 1309; Cat. of 
Library of Trin. Coll. Dublin, v. 39.] T. C. 

LANKESTER, EDWIN (1814-1874), 
man of science, was born 23 April 1814, 
at Melton, near Woodbridge, Suffolk. His 
father, William Lankester, was a builder, 
and died of phthisis at the age of twenty- 
seven, leaving a widow, his son Edwin, four 
years old, and a daughter still younger. An 
injudicious use of the small property left by 
William Lankester made tne family poor. 
Edwin's school education came to an end 
when he was barely twelve years old. He 
was about to be apprenticed to a watchmaker 
when Samuel Gissing, surgeon, of Wood- 
bridge, took him as an articled pupil. In 1832 
his articles expired, and he became assistant 
to a surgeon named Stanisland of Fareham, 
Hampshire. He was not well treated, and after 
a few months left to become assistant at the 
' Repertorium/ in Seymour Street, Euston 
Square, London, where he suffered literally 
from semi-Btarvation. In 1833 he became 
assistant to Mr. Spurgeon of Saffron Walden 
in Essex, who, though severe and ascetic, took 
a pleasure in furthering the intellectual deve- 
lopment of his assistants. He admitted Lan- 



kester to his excellent library, and helped him 
in the study of Latin and Greek and the Eng- 
lish classics. Lankester was made secretary of 
a vigorous natural history society in the town 
and curator of the museum. The friends, won 
by his honesty and ability, lent him 300/. to 
support him through a medical course at the 
recently opened London University, where 
from 1834 to 1837 he studied medicine and 
the natural sciences. He studied zoology 
under Grant and botany under Lindley, in 
whose class he gained the silver medal. His 
fellow-students elected him president of the 
college medical society. In 1837, being un- 
able to afford the expense of the full course 
necessary for the university of London de- 
gree, he qualified as M.R.C.S. and L.S.A. 
Through the friendship of his teacher, Lind- 
ley, he obtained a valuable ap 



resident medical attendant and science tutor 
in the family of Mr. Wood of Campsell Hall, 
near Doncaster. With his pupils, youths of 
exceptional talent, he increased his scientific 
knowledge, and he formed a lifelong friend- 
ship with his colleague, Dr. Leonard Schmitz. 
In 1839 he went to Heidelberg to learn Ger- 
man and to graduate as M.D., a feat which 
he accomplished after a residence of six 
months. He now settled in London, and sup- 
ported himself by literary work, popular lec- 
tures, and such practice as fell in his way. 
Between 1840 and 1 846 he made many friends,, 
including Charles Dickens, Douglas Jerrold, 
and Arthur Henfrey [q. v.] He lodged with 
Edward Forbes [q.v.lin Golden Square ; wrote 
regularly for the ' Daily News ' (chiefly on 
medical reform, in support of Mr. Wakley), 
and began a connection with the* Athenaeum ' 
which lasted till his death. He was a regular 
attendant at the British Association, and for 
five-and-twenty years (1889-64) was secre- 
tary of section D. He was an original mem- 
ber of the famous * Red Lions/ rounded by 
Edward Forbes [q. v.] in 1839. In 1844 he 
became secretary of the Ray Society. In 1845 
he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. 
Lankester's career after his marriage in 
1846 was divided between the pursuit of 
science and the extension of a knowledge of 
scientific results. He had in 1841 taken the 
extra-license of the College of Physicians, 
with a view to practice in Leeds. But his 
failure in 1847 to obtain the London license 
of that body led to his gradually abandoning 
the practice of medicine for more distinctly 
scientific work. In 1847 he wrote the article 
'Rotifera* for the 'Cyclopaedia of Anatomy 
and Physiology ; ' in 1849 he produced a 
translation of Schleiden's * Principles of Scien- 
tific Botany/ and in 1860 was appointed pro- 
fessor of natural history in New College, Lon- 



Lankester 



138 



Lankester 



don. In 1853 he became lecturer on anatomy 
and physiology at the Grosvenor Place School 
of Medicine, and from that year till 1871 was 
joint editor of the ' Quarterly Journal of Mi- 
croscopical Science ' (until 1868 with George 
Busk, and from 1869 to 1871 with his son, 
E. Ray Lankester). He was led to take an 
active part in the microscopic examination of 
drinking-waters during the cholera epidemic 
of 1864, and, in conjunction with Dr. Snow, 
demonstrated the connection of the celebrated 
* Broad Street pump* with that epidemic. 
In 1855 he edited for the prince consort, at 
the suggestion of Sir James Clark [q. v.], an 
important work by William Macgillivray 
fq. v.] on the ' Natural History of the Dee 
. Side and Braemar ; ' it was issued for private 
circulation. In 1856 he published a little 
book on the ' Aquarium, FreshWater and Ma- 
rine.' Alfred Lloyd, the originator of all the 
great aquaria, publicly attributed his first in- 
terest in the subject to a lecture by Lankester. 
In 1857 he produced a translation of Kuchen- 
meister's important work on * Animal and 
Vegetable Parasites of the Human Body* 
(Sydenham Soc.), and in 1859 was elected 

S resident of the Microscopical Society of Lon- 
on. In 1862 he was appointed examiner in 
botany to the science and art department. 
He also did much anonymous literary work. 
He edited the natural history section of both 
the ' Penny ' and the ' English Cyclopaedia,' 
and many editions of the ' Vestiges of the 
Natural History of Creation.' 

Lankester at the same time engaged in a 
very ardent attempt to spread a knowledge 
of physiology and the causes of disease among 
laymen, and in important sanitary investiga- 
tions. In 1845 he had published a work on 
' Natural History of Plants yielding Food,' 
and in 1851 and 1862 he was a juror in the 
department of economics of the International 
Exhibition held in London. In 1858 he was 
appointed to succeed Dr. (now Sir Lyon) Play- 
. fair as superintendent of the food collection 
at South Kensington Museum. He devised 
methods of rendering the, analysis of various 
kinds of food appreciable by the uninstructed 
visitor, and gave courses of lectures upon 
food (printed in 1860), and upon the uses of 
animals to man in relation to the industry of 
man (printed in 1861). On his appointment 
as coroner in 1862, Sir Henry Cole (1808- 
1882) [q. v.], secretary of the science and 
art department, terminated his appointment, 
and, on the opening of the Betnnal Green 
Museum in 1 8/2, removed the food collection 
thither. 

His services in regard to the cholera of 1854 
led in 1856 to his appointment as the first 
medical officer of health for the parish of St. 



James, Westminster, a position which he held 
until his death. In 1859 he wrote, in conj unc- 
tion with Dr. William Letheby, the article 
' Sanitary Science ' in the eighth edition of 
the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' and not only 
published his official reports to the vestry of 
St. James, but initiated a system of leaflets 
for distribution among the households of the 
parish, which has since been taken up and 
carried on by the National Health Society. 
In 1862, on the death of Thomas Wakley, 
Lankester was selected by the medical pro- 
fession as the medical candidate for the post 
of coroner for Central Middlesex. He was 
opposed by Mr. (now Sir Charles) Lewis, a 
solicitor. Lankester was elected after a hard 
and expensive fight by a majority of forty- 
seven in a total poll of 10,894, but incurred a 
debt which weighed him down till his death. 
He now threw himself entirely into work 
connected with the public health, and except 
occasional lectures in ladies' schools and the 
summer courses at the wardens of the Royal 
Botanical Society, he abandoned his connec- 
tion with botany and natural history. He ad- 
vocated the teaching of physiology in schools, 
and produced a school manual of * Health, 
or Practical Physiology ' (1868). For twelve 
years he was Known to the public by the 
newspaper reports of his inquests. He was 
condemned by the county financiers, but was 
approved by the public, for insisting upon 

S roper medical evidence as to the cause of 
eath. He drew attention to the frequency 
of infanticide, to baby-farming, and the ne- 
glect of workhouse infirmaries. His conclu- 
sions (sometimes misrepresented by the press) 
are to be found in his (voluntarily produced) 
4 Annual Reports/ published from 1866 on- 
wards by the Social Science Association in 
the ' Journal of Social Science,' which Lan- 
kester founded in 1865, and edited until his 
death. 

Lankester died, 30 Oct. 1874, at the age 
of sixty, from diabetes, after a brief illness. 
He married, in 1845, Phebe, eldest daughter 
of Samuel Pope of Highbury (formerly a 
mill-owner in Manchester). His wife (the 
authoress of books on British wild flowers, 
inspired by his teaching) and eight children 
survived him. His eldest son, Edwin Ray 
Lankester, born in 1847, is Linacre professor 
of anatomy at Oxford. 

Lankester was above the middle height 
and portly ; his complexion was hiffh-coloured, 
eyes and hair dark brown. He had a singu- 
larly agreeable voice and manner, correspond- 
ing to a natural kindness of heart, which 
rendered it impossible for him to be harsh or 
unjust. He was a genial public speaker and 
an admirable lecturer. His chief mental 



Lankrink 



139 



Lant 



characteristic was his intense love of natural 
scenery and of wild plants and animals, com- 
bined with which he had good judgment in 
matters of art. Until his last illness he was 
a man of very active habits. 

His works are (besides those already noticed 
and many anonymous articles in periodi- 
cals): 1.' Lives of Naturalists,' 1842. 2. 'An 
Account of Askern and its Mineral Springs ; 
together with a sketch of the Natural History 
and a brief Topography of the immediate 
neighbourhood, 1842. 3. ' Memorials of 
John Ray/ Ray Society, 1845. 4. ' Corre- 
spondence of John Kay/ Ray Society. 
5. ' Half-hours with the Microscope/ Lon- 
don, 1859. 

[Private information; Nature, 5 Nov. 1874; 
Lancet, 7 Nov. 1874; Times, 31 Oct. 1874; 
Medical Directory, p. 1177; Athenaeum, 7 Nov. 
1874 ; Proc. Royal Soc. xxiii. 60.] 

LANKRINK, PROSPER HENRICUS 
(1628-1692), painter, born in Germany in 
1628, was son of a German soldier, who 
came with his wife and child to Antwerp, 
where he procured a command in the ser- 
vice of the Netherlandish army. After his 
father's death Lankrink was well educated 
by his mother, who destined him for the 
clerical profession; but as he showed a great 
talent for painting, she reluctantly allowed 
him to be apprenticed to a painter, and to 
etudy in the academy of drawing at Ant- 
werp. Here Lankrink made rapid strides, 
and soon showed a decided skill in painting 
landscape. This he increased by facilities 
offered him for studying good works by 
Titian, Salvator Rosa, and others in the col- 
lection of an amateur. After his mother's 
death Lankrink visited Italy, and then came 
to England, where he soon attracted atten- 
tion. He was patronised, among others, by Sir 
Edward Spragge [q. v.] and by Sir William 
"Williams. The latter bought most of Lank- 
rink's paintings, which were, however, all 
destroyed by fire. Lely employed Lankrink 
to paint the landscapes, flowers, and similar 
accessories in his portraits. His landscape 
paintings were much admired at the time : 
one, with a ' Nymph Bathing her Feet,' was 
engraved in mezzotint by John Smith. He 
painted a ceiling for Mr. Richard Kent at 
Corsham, Wiltshire. Lankrink was fond of 
good living, and popular at court and in so- 
ciety, especially with ladies, but in middle 
life he fell into idle and dissipated habits. 
He formed a very good collection of pictures, 
prints, and drawings by the old masters, and 
by means of a loan from a friend, which he 
never repaid, added to it greatly at the sale 
of Sir Peter Lely's collection (cf. Nobth, 



Lives, iii. 193). He lived for many years 
t in Piccadilly, but subsequently removed to 
Oovent Garden, where he lived in the house 
which afterwards became Richardson's Hotel. 
He died there in 1692, and was buried at 
his request under the porch of St. Paul's, 
Covent Garden. His collections were sold 
afterwards to defray his debts. 

[Walpole's Anecd. of Painting, ed. Wornnm ; 
Vertue's MSS. (Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. i3068- 
23075) ; Kedgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Pilking- 
ton's Diet, of Painters.] L. C. 

LANQUET or LANKET, THOMAS 

8521-1545), chronicler, was born in 1521. 
e studied at Oxford, and devoted himself 
to historical research. He died in London 
in 1545 while engaged on a useful general 
history. Thomas Cooper [q. v.], afterwards 
bishop of Winchester, completed it, and it 
was published in 1549 by Berthelet under 
the title of ' An Epitome of Cronicles con- 
teining the whole Discourse of the Histo- 
ries as well of this realme of England, as all 
other countreis . . . gathered out of most 
probable auctors, fyrst, by T. L., from the 
beginnyng of the world to the Incarnacion 
of Christ, and now finished and continued to 
the reigne of . . . Kynge Edwarde the Sixt 
by T. Cooper,' b.l. 4to. This history is gene- 
rally known as * Cooper's Chronicle, and pre- 
serves many curious traditions. Under the 
J ear 1552 it is noted that then ' one named 
ohannes Faustius fyrst founde the craft 
of printinge, in the citee of Mens in Ger- 
manic' The subsequent editions of the 
' Chronicle ' are mentioned under Coopeb, 
Thomas. Wood also assigns to Lanquet a 
' Treatise of the Conquest of Bulloigne,' but 
it does not seem to have survived, u indeed 
it was ever printed. 

[Wood's Athens Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 149; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Manual; Notes and Queries, 1st 
ser. viii. 494.] W. A. J. A. 

LANSDOWNE, Lobd. [See Geanville 
or Gbbnvillb, George, 1667-1735, verse- 
writer.] 

LANSDOWNE, Mabqttises of. [See 
Pettt and Pbttt-Fitzmaitrice.] 

LANT, THOMAS (1556 P-1600), herald 
and draughtsman, born in or about 1556, 
was originally a servant to Sir Philip Sidney. 
He entered the College of Arms as Portcullis 

Eursuivant in 1588, and was created Windsor 
erald 22 Oct. 1597, though his patent was 
not issued till 19 Nov. 1600. According to 
Noble he died in the latter year. 

His works are : 1. ' Sequitur celebritas & 
pompa funeris [of Sir Philip Sidney], quem- 
admodu a Clarencio Armorum et Insignium 
rege instituta est, una cum varietate vesti- 



Lantfred 



140 



Lanyon 



mentorum, quibus pro loco et gradu cujusq; 
epullatis singuli utebantur. Delineatu . . . 
hoc opus . . . est a T. Lant, insculptum deinde 
in aere a D. T. De'bri j. Here followeth the 
manner of the whole proceeding of his fu- 
nerall,' &c, London, 1587, oblong folio. It 
is dated at the end 1688. The work, which 
is of extreme rarity, consists of thirty-four en- 
graved copperplates, forming a long roll, with 
a description m Latin and English. Among 
the portraits is one of Lant himself, which has 
been republished. A copy of the work, which 
was purchased at Richard Gough's sale for 
$9/. 185. by Sir Joseph Banks, is now in the 
British Museum. 2. * The Armory of Nobility, 
&c, first gathered and collected by Robert 
Cooke, alias Clarenceux, and afterwards cor- 
rected and amended by Robert Glover, alias 
Somerset, and lastly copyed and augmented 
by T. Lant, alias Portcullis/ 1689, Sloane MS. 
4959. 3. < A Catalogue of all the Officers of 
Arms, shewing how they have risen by de- 
grees, &c, which order hath been observed 
long before the time of King Edward IV 
unto this year 1595/ Lansdowne MS. 80. 
4. ' Lant's Roll/ manuscript in the College 
of Arms. It has been continued by some 
other herald to the accession of Charles II. 
One Thomas Lant, probably the same, 
published * Daily Exercise of a Christian; 
gathered out 01 the Scripture, against the 
Temptations of the Deuil/ London, 1590, 
16mo ; 1623, 12mo. 

[Dallaway's Heraldry, p. 259 ; Granger's Biog. 
Hist, of England, 5th edit. i. 331 ; Richardson's 
Portraits, pt. iii. ; Noble's College of Arms, pp. 
176, 186; Ames's Typogr. Antiq. (Herbert), pp. 
962, 1680 ; Bromle/s Cat. of Engr. Portraits, 
p. 42; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 1310; 
Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Gough's Brit. Topogr. i. 613 ; 
Moule's Bibl. Herald, p. 34.] T. C. 

LANTFRED or LAMFRID (Jl. 980), 
ha^iographer, was a priest and monk of 
Winchester, being a disciple of Bishop 
^Ethelwold. He wrote: 1. <De Miraculis 
Swithuni/ the first forty-six chapters of 
which are printed in the Bollandists' ' Acta 
Sanctorum, 1 July, pp. 292-9, together with 
a narrative of the saint's translation. The 
whole work is contained in Cotton. MS. 
Nero E. i. ff. 35-53, and Reg. 15, C. vii. ff. 1- 
50, both being of nearly contemporary date. 
2. ' Epistola promissa historise de Miraculis 
Swithuni/ a prefatory letter prefixed to the 
foregoing. It is printed in the 'Acta Sancto- 
rum/ 1 July, p. 28, and in Wharton's 'Anglia 
Sacra/ i. 322. It is often found in manu- 
scripts of Alcuin's letters, e.g. in Cotton. 
Vesp. xiv., and Tiberius, A. xv. Lantfred 
says he had little knowledge of Swithun's 



life, and wrote only of his miracles. His 
style is inflated and obscure, and words of 
Greek origin are frequent in his diction. 

John Joscelyn [cj. v.] says he had an Anglo- 
Saxon book containing ' Depositio Swithuni 
per Lantfredum.' Tanner suggests that this 
was a translation by another hand. Thomas* 
Rudborne cites from a ' Liber de fundatione 
ecclesiee Wentanae ' by Lantfred two hexa- 
meters, and also some verses, which are given 
at the end of the manuscripts of the treatise 
'De Miraculis/ Bale and Pits wrongly 
ascribe to Lantfred a * Life of Swithun.' 

[Bale, ii. 37; Pits, p. 178; Tanner's Bibl. 
Brit.-Hib. p. 463; Leyser's Hist. Poet, et Poem, 
medii aevi, p. 286; Wright's Biog. Brit. LitU 
Anglo-Saxon, p. 469.] C. L. K. 

LANYON, Sib CHARLES (1813-1889), 
civil engineer, son of John Jenkinson Lanyon 
of EastDOurne, Sussex, by Catherine Anne 
Mortimer, was born at Eastbourne, 6 Jan. 
1813. Having received his early education 
at a private school in his native place, he 
was articled to the late Jacob Owen of the 
Irish board of works, Dublin, in preparation 
for the profession of civil engineer. He sub- 
sequently married Owen's daughter Eliza- 
beth Helen. In 1835, at the first examina- 
tion for Irish county surveyorships, Lanyon 
took second place; he was appointed county 
surveyor of Kildare, and in the following 
year transferred at his own request to co. 
Antrim. Here he executed several works 
of great importance, among others the con- 
structing of the great coast road from Larne 
to Portrush, and he designed and erected 
the Queen's and Ormeau bridges over the 
Lagan at Belfast. He made several of the 
chief local railways, such as the Belfast and 
Ballymona line and its extensions to Cooks- 
town and Portrush, now amalgamated with 
other lines, and forming part of the Belfast and 
Northern Counties railway. He was also engi- 
neer of the Belfast, Holywood, and Bangor 
railway, and the Carrickfergus and Larne line. 
He was architect of some of the principal 
I buildings in Belfast, such as the Queen's Col- 
lege, the Court-house, the County Gaol, the 
j Custom House, and the Institutions for the 
I Deaf and Dumb and the Blind. In 1860 he 
! resigned the county survivorship. In 1862 
I he became mayor of Belfast, and in 1866 was 
returned in the conservative interest as one of 
the members for the borough. In 1868 he was 
defeated at the polls. In 1876 he served as 
high sheriff of co. Antrim. He was one of the 
Belfast harbour commissioners and a deputy 
lieutenant and magistrate of the county. In 
1862 he was elected president of the Koyal 
Institute of Architects of Ireland, and held 



Lanyon 



141 



Lapidge 



office till 1868, when he was knighted by the 
Duke of Abercorn, then lord-lieutenant. He 
was also a fellow of the Institute of British 
Architects and a member of the Institute of 
Civil Engineers both of England and Ireland. 
For a long time he was a prominent member 
of the masonic body, in which he rose to be 
grand master of the province of Antrim. He 
died, after a protracted illness, at his resi- 
dence, The Aboey, "White Abbey, co. Antrim, 
on 31 May 1889, and was buried in the 
churchyard of Newtownbreda, near Belfast. 
His wife died in 1858, leaving a son, Wil- 
liam, afterwards Sir William Owen Lanyon, 
who is separately noticed. 

[Personal knowledge ; Engineer, 7 Jnne 1889; 
Times, 6 Jnne 1889; Iron, 7 Jnne 1889.] 

T. H. 

LANYON, Sib WILLIAM OWEN 
(1842-1887), colonel, colonial administrator, 
born in county Antrim on 21 July 1842, was 
eldest surviving son of Sir Charles Lanyon 
[q. v.], kt., of The Abbey, White Abbey, | 
county Antrim, by his wife, Elizabeth Helen, 
daughter of Jacob Owen of the board of 
works, Dublin. He was educated at Broms- > 
grove, Worcestershire, and on 21 Dec. 1860 , 
was gazetted ensign by purchase in the 6th 
royal Warwickshire regiment, with which he 
served in Jamaica during the native dis- 
turbances in 1865. The same year he was t 
appointed aide-de-camp to the general com- 
manding the troops in theWestlndies. He ; 
purchased his lieutenancy, 6th foot, in 1866, 
exchanged to the 2nd West India regiment, 
and in 1868 purchased a company. He was ! 
aide-de-camp and private secretary to Sir , 
John Peter Grant, K.C.B., governor of 
Jamaica from 1868 to 1873. In 1873, and i 
until invalided in January 1874, he served 
as aide-de-camp to Sir Gurnet (now Lord) 
Wolseley in the Ashantee campaign (brevet 
of major, medal). In 1874 he was despatched 
by the colonial office to the Gold Coast on 
a special mission in connection with the 
abolition of slavery, for which he was made 
C.M.G. The year after he was appointed 
administrator of Griqualand West (diamond 
fields). He raised ana commanded the volun- 
teer force there during the Griqua outbreak 
and the invasion in 1878 of the Batlapin 
chief, Botlasitsie, whom he defeated re- 
peatedly and finally subdued. He received 
the thanks of the home government and the 
Cape legislature (C.B., Kaffir medal, brevet 
of lieutenant-colonel). He administered the 
Transvaal from March 1879 to April 1881, 
and in 1880 he was made K.C.M.G. for his 
services in South Africa. He served in the 
tian campaign of 1882 as colonel on the 
and commandant on the base of opera- 



tions (medal, 3rd class Osmanie and Khedive's 
medal). He also served with the Nile expe- 
dition of 1884-5. Lanyon died at New York, 
after a long and painful illness, on 6 April 
1887, aged 45. - 

Lanyon married in 1882 Florence, daugh- 
ter of J. M. Levy of Grosvenor Street, Lon- 
don ; she died in 1883. 

[Dod's Knightage; Army Lists; Colonial List, 
1887; Illnstr. London News, 2 July 1887 (will, 
1 1 ,000J.) Much information relating to Lanyon's 
colonial services will be found in Parliamentary 
Papers, indexed under 'Gold Coast,' 'Griqua,' 
1 Transvaal/ &c] H. M. C. 

LANZA, GESUALDO (1779-1859), 
teacher of music, born in Naples in 1779, was 
son of Giuseppe Lanza, an Italian composer 
and author of* 6 Aide Notturne con accomp. 
di Chitarra franc, e V. a piac.,' Naples, 1792, 
and of six trios, Op. 13, and six canzonets with 
recit. Op. 14 (London). The father resided 
during many years in England, and for some 
time was a private musician to the Marquis 
of Abercorn. From his father Gesualdo re- 
ceived his first instruction in music, and soon 
became known in London as a singing-master. 
Among his pupils may be mentioned Cathe- 
rine Stephens (1807), afterwards countess of 
Essex, and Anna Maria Tree (1812), sister- 
in-law of Charles Eean. 

In 1842 Lanza opened singing classes for 
the better explanation of his theories at 
76 Newman Street ; the fee was 15*. for twelve 
lessons. Later in the same year he announced 
a series of lectures, ' The National School for 
Singing in Classes, free to the public,' and 
on 6 Dec. 1842 he delivered ' A Lecture at 
the Westminster Literary and Scientific In- 
stitution illustrative of his new system of 
Teaching Singing in Classes/ 

Lanza published in London in 1817 ' one 
of the best works on the art of singing which 
has appeared in this country/ under the title 
' The Elements of Singing familiarly exem- 
plified.' His other works include ' The Ele- 
ments of Singing in the Italian and English 
Styles' (London, 3 vols. 4to, 1809); 'Sun- 
day Evening Recreations ' (London, 1840) ; 
' Guide to System of Singing in Classes ' 
(London, 1842). He also composed a ' Stabat 
Mater,' which is preserved in the library of the 
Royal College of Music, solfeggi, and songs. 
He died in London on 12 March 1859. 

[Georgian Era, iv. 528 ; Grove's Diet, of Music; 
Quarterly Musical Review, i. 351 ; Musical World; 
Dram, and Mus. Rev. 1842.] R. H. L. 

LAPIDGE, EDWARD (d. 1860), archi- 
tect, was brought up as an architect, and 
found employment in the neighbourhood of 
Hampton Court Palace, wherenis father was 



Laporte 



142 



Lapraik 



employed as chief gardener. In 1808 he sent 
to the Royal Academy a view of the garden 
front at Esher Place, in 1814 a drawing for a 
villa at Hildersham in Cambridgeshire, and a 
few other drawings in later years. Between 
1825 and 1828 he was engaged in building 
the new bridge over the Thames at Kingston. 
In 1827 and the two followingyears he built 
the church of St. Peter at Hammersmith, 
and in 1832 the chapel of St. Andrew on 
Ham Common, Surrey. In 1836 he was an 
unsuccessful competitor for the new houses 
of parliament, and in 1837 for the Fitzwil- 
liam Museum at Cambridge. In 1836-7 he 
made considerable alterations to St. Mary's 
Church at Putney, and in 1839-40 to All 
Saints' Church at Fulham. Lapidge was a 
fellow of the Institute of British Architects, 
and surveyor of bridges and public works 
for the county of Surrey. In the latter 
capacity he executed many works of minor 
importance. He died early in March 1860. 
Rear-admiral William Lapidge, who served 
with great distinction in the Channel squa- 
dron, and died 17 July 1860, aged 67 , was 
his brother. 

[Diet of Architecture ; Redgrave's Diet, of Ar- 
tists; Gent. Mag. 1860, pt. ii. p. 324.] L. C. 

LAPORTE, JOHN (1701-1839), water- 
colour painter, was born in 1761, and became 
a drawing-master at the military academy 
at Addiscombe. He was also a successful 
private teacher, and Dr. Thomas Monro [q. v.], 
the patron of Turner, was one of his pupils. 
From 1786 he contriouted landscapes to the 
Royal Academy and British Institution exhi- 
bitions, and was an original member of the 
short-lived society 'The Associated Artists 
in Water-colours/ from which he retired in 
181 1 . He published : ' Characters of Trees/ 
1798-1801, 'Progressive Lessons sketched 
from Nature,' 1804, and ' The Progress of a 
Water-colour Drawing ; ' and, in conjunction 
with William F. Wells [q. v.], executed a set 
of seventy-two etchings, entitled ' A Collec- 
tion of Prints illustrative of English Scenery, 
from the Drawings and Sketches of T. Gains- 
borough/ 1819. His ' Perdita discovered by 
the Old Shepherd ' was engraved bv Barto- 
lozzi, and his ' View of Millbank on the River 
Thames near London ' by F. Jukes. Laporte 
died in London 8 July 1839. Three of his 
drawings are in the South Kensington Mu- 
seum. His daughter, Miss M. A. Laporte, 
exhibited portraits and fancy subjects at the 
Academy and the British Institution from 
1818 to 1822 ; in 1836 she was elected a 
member of the Institute of Painters in Water- 
colours, but withdrew in 1846. 

Lapobtb, George Henby (d. 1873), ani- 



mal painter, son of the above, exhibited sport- 
ing subjects at the Academy, British Institu- 
tion, and Suffolk Street Gallery from 1818, 
and was a foundation member of the Institute 
of Painters in Water-colours, to which he sent 
clever representations of animals, hunting 
scenes, and military groups. Some of his 
works were engraved in the 'New Sporting 
Magazine/ Laporte held the appointment of 
animal painter to the king of Hanover. He 
died suddenly at 13 Norfolk Square, London, 
23 Oct. 1873. 
I [Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Roget's History 
I of the Old Water-colour Society, 1891 ; Graves's 
1 Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880; Royal Academy 
and British Institution Catalogues ; Year's Art, 
1886 ; Times, 25 Oct. 1878.] F. M. O'D. 

1 LAPRAIK, JOHN (1727-1807), Scot- 
tish poet, was born at Laigh Dalquhram 
rDalfram), near Muirkirk, Ayrshire, in 1727. 
After education in the parochial school he 
succeeded his father on the estate, which was 
of considerable extent, and had been in the 
family for generations. He also rented the 
lands and mill of Muirsmill, in the neigh- 
bourhood. In 1754 he married Margaret 
Rankine, sister of Burns's friend, 'rough, 
rude, ready-witted Rankine/ She died after 
the birth of her fifth child, and in 1766 
Lapraik married Janet Anderson, a farmer's 
daughter, who bore nine children, and sur- 
vived her husband fifteen years. Ruined bv 
the collapse of the Ayr Bank in 1772, Lapraik • 
had first to let and then to sell his estate, and 
after an interval to relinquish his mill and 
farms, on which for several years he struggled 
to exist. Confined for a time as a debtor, he 
figured as a prison bard. After 1796 he opened 
a public-house at Muirkirk, conducting also 
the village post-office on the same premises. 
Here he died, 7 May 1807. 

Early in 1785 Burns heard the song 
' When I upon thy bosom lean ' at a ' rocking/ 
or social gathering, in his house at Mossgiel 
Farm, Muirkirk. Learning that Lapraik was 
the author, he made his acquaintance, and 
within the year addressed to him his three 
famous ' Epistles.' Burns, who sent an im- 
proved version to Johnson's ' Museum/ never 
knew that the song was a clever adaptation 
from a lyric published in the ' Weekly Maga- 
zine/ 14 Oct. 1773 (Chambebs, Burns, i. 254, 
library ed.) Burns's generous patronage 
encouraged Lapraik to publish his verses, 
which appeared at Kilmarnock in 1788 as 
' Poems on Several Occasions.' The volume 
contains nothing equal to the 'Rocking 
Song.' James Maxwell of Paisley notices 
Lapraik unfavourably in his 'Animadver- 
sions on some Poets and Poetasters of the 
Present Age,' Paisley, 1788. 



Lapworth 



143 



Larcom 



S Contemporaries of Burns; Chambers's Life 
. Works of Burns ; Lockhnrt's Life of Burns, 
ed. Scott Douglas.] T. B. 

LAPWORTH, EDWARD (1574-1636), 
physician and Latin poet, born in 1574, was 
a native of Warwickshire. He may have 
been a son of the Michael Lapworth who 
was elected fellow of All Souls' College in 
1562, and graduated M.B. in 1573 ; we know 
that his father was physician to Henry 
Berkeley (Smyth, Account of the Berkeleys, 
ii. 381, Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch. 
Soc.) Probably he is the Edward Lapworth 
who matriculated at Exeter College 81 Jan. 
1588-9. He was admitted B.A. from St. 
Alban Hall on 25 Oct. 1592, and M.A. 
30 June 1595. Prom 1598 to 1610 he was 
master of Magdalen College School, and as a 
member of Magdalen College he supplicated 
for the degree of M.B. and for license to prac- 
tise medicine 1 March 1 602-8 ; he was licensed 
on 3 June 1605, and was admitted M.B. and 
M.D. on 20 June 1611 (Oxf Univ. Reg. 11. 
iii. 172, Oxf. Hist. Soc.) He was * moderator 
in vesperus* in medicine in 1605 and 1611 
(ib. i. 129), and ' respondent ' in natural philo- 
sophy on James Ps visit to Oxford in 1605 
( "Nichols, Progresses of James I, i. 527). In 
July 1611 he had permission to be absent 
from congregation in order that he might 
attend to his practice. In 1617 and 1619 he 
seems to have been in practice at Faversham, 
Kent (cf. State Papers, Dom. 1611-18 p. 457, 
1619-25 p. 125). In 1618 he was designated 
first Sedleian reader in natural philosophy 
under the will of the founder (though the 
bequest did not take effect till 1621), and on 
9 Aug. 1619 was appointed Linacre physic 
lecturer. From this time he resided part of 
the year in Oxford (cf. ib. 1627-8, p. 480). 
In the summer he practised usually at Bath, 
and dying there 23 May 1686 was buried in 
the abbey church (Wood, Fasti, i. 848). He 
had resigned his Oxford lectureship in the 
previous year. Lapworth married, first, Mary 
Coxhead, who was buried 2 Jan. 1621 ; and, 
secondly, Margery, daughter of Sir George 
Snigg of Bristol, baron of the exchequer, and 
widow of George Chaldecot of Quarlstone 
(Hoabb, Wiltshire, v. 81-2). He had a son, 
Michael, who matriculated at Magdalen Col- 
lege in 1621, aged 17 ; and a daughter, Anne, 
who was his heiress, and mother of William 
Joyner [q. v.l 

In person Lapworth was ' not tall, but fat 
and corpulent ' (Gttidott). He was a scholarly 
man, with a taste for poetry ; there is a 
laudatory reference to him in John Davies's 
* Scourge of Folly/ p. 215. At the marriage 
of Theophila Berkeley to Sir Robert Coke in 
1613 there were, it is said, 'songs of joy from 



that learned physician, Doctor E. Lapworth p 
(Smyth, Account of the Berkeley s, ii. 401). 
Lapworth contributed verses to a variety of 
books. Bloxam gives a list of thirteen, in- 
cluding the Oxiord verses on Elizabeth's 
death, James's accession, and those of Mag- 
dalen College on Prince Henry and William, 
son of Arthur, lord Grey de Wilton, as well 
as John Davies's ' Microcosmos/ and the 
' Ultima Linea Savilii,' 1 622. To these must 
be added lines in Joshua Sylvesters 'Du 
Bartas, his Devine Weekes and Workes/ 1605, 
and the treatise of Edward Jorden [q. v.l on 
' Naturall Bathes and Minerall Waters.' The 
lines given in Ashmolean MS. 781, f. 137, 
as by ' Dr. Latworth on his deathbed,' seem 
to be his ; they begin ' My God, I speak it 
from a full assurance.' There are some notes 
of his as to a child with two heads being born 
at Oxford in 1633 {Queen's Coll. Oxon. MS. 
121, f. 29 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1638-4, 
p. 284). He was the owner of Harleian MR. 
978 (James MS. 22 in the Bodleian Library). 

There was an Edward Lapworth who ma- 
triculated as. a pensioner at Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, 30 Aug. 1590, and gra- 
duated B.A. 1591 and M.A. 1595. Masters 
conjectures that he had migrated from Ox- 
ford, and states that he graduated M.D. at 
Cambridge in 1611 (Hist. C. C. C. Cambr. 
p. 331). But it does not seem clear that the 
two persons are identical ; the Oxford pro- 
fessor, however, was certainly the Bath phy- 
sician and scholar. 

J Wood's Fasti, i. 537 ; Athense Oxon. i. 45 ; Hun- 
s Chorus Vatum in Addit. MSS. 24488, f. 449, 
and 24492, f. 1 1 4 ; Bloxam's Beg. Magd. Coll. iii. 
138-41, v. 144 ; Ghiidott's Lives of the Physicians 
of Bath, 1677, pp. 167-8 ; authorities quoted.] 

C L K 

LARCOM, Sib THOMAS AISKEW 
(1801-1879), Irish official, second son of 
Captain Joseph Larcom, R.N., commissioner 
of Malta dockyard from 1810 tol817,bv Ann, 
sister of Admiral Hollis, was born on 22 April 
1801. After a brilliant career at the Royal 
Academy at Woolwich, he was in 1820 ga- 
zetted a second lieutenant in the corps of 
royal engineers. In 1824 he was selected by 
Colonel T. F. Colby [q. v.] for the work of the 
ordnance survey of England and "Wales, and 
in 1826 was transferred to the same service 
in Ireland. For the next two years he was 
occupied in working with his mend Major 
Portlock upon the ' great triangulation,' the 
term applied to the series of observations by 
which the Irish survey was connected with 
that of England. In 1828 Colby appointed 
Larcom as his assistant in the central or- 
ganisation of the Irish survey at Mountjoy, 
Phoenix Park, near Dublin. Here he soon 



Larcom 



144 



Larcom 



had the work in his own hands. He organised 
the large body of civilians and soldiers required 
for the multifarious operations of compiling, 
engraving, and publishing the county maps 
oflreland, the beauty of which has never been 
exceeded; adopted the electrotype process, 
and introduced the system of contouring. 
Mountjoy thus became a centre of scientific 
education, and the resort of scientific men. 
Larcom, however, aimed at something more 
than mechanical excellence. He * conceived 
the idea that with such opportunities a small 
additional cost would enable him, without 
retarding the execution of the maps, to draw 
together a work embracing every aescription 
of local information relating to Ireland' 
(Colby, Londonderry — Parish of Temple- 
more — Ordnance Survey , Pref.) The Irish 
government sanctioned the scheme, and the 
account of Templemore, a parish in London- 
derry, was the result (Dublin, 1837, 4to). 
But the government declined, on the ground 
of economy, to permit a further develop- 
ment of this work. Larcom, however, had 
made a scientific study of the old Irish lan- 
guage, had instructed numerous agents to 
work under him in the collection of informa- 
tion, and ended by accumulating a rich store 
of local information concerning the history, 
the languages, and the antiquities of Ire- 
land. Br. Todd, the president of the Royal 
Irish Academy, to which many of Larcom's 
manuscripts passed, observed that ' this in- 
formation has been of singular interest. . . . 
In many places it will be found that the 
descriptions and drawings presented in the 
collection are now the only remaining records 
of monuments which connect themselves 
with our earliest history, and of the folk- 
lore which the famine [of 1846] swept away 
with the aged sennachies, who were its sole 
repositories.' 

On the results of Larcom's collected in- 
formation were based many subsequent im- 
provements. In 1832, three years before his 
friend Thomas Drummond [q. v.] had be- 
come under-secretary, he prepared the plans 
required for working out the changes made 
necessary by the Irish Reform Bill. In 1836 
he prepared the topographical portion of the 
* Report on Irish Municipal Reform/ when 
elaborate maps of sixty-seven towns were 
completed in a month. In 1841 he became a 
census commissioner. It was owing to him 
that the census in Ireland for the first time 
included a systematic classification of the oc- 
cupations and general conditions of the popu- 
lation, as well as its numbers, and that a 
permanent branch of the registrar-general's 
department was formed for the collection of ' 
agricultural statistics. England afterwards | 



adopted the general plan of the Irish census. 
In 1842 he was appointed a commissioner for 
inquiring into the state of the Royal Irish So- 
ciety, and again, in 1845, for purposes relating 
to tne new Queen's Colleges. 

On the completion of the ordnance survey 
in 1846 the government offered him a com- 
missionership of public works, and he had 
scarcely accepted it when the great Irish 
famine called forth all his powers. Larcom 
had already assisted Sir Richard John Griffith 
[cj. v.] as assistant-commissioner in connec- 
tion with the system of public relief works 
undertaken in the initial stages of the famine. 
He now became the chief director of those 
works ; and though some of them turned out 
to be of little permanent value, they proved 
the salvation of such portions of the people 
as were not hopelessly stricken. The effects 
of the famine soon made it evident that the 
whole of the Irish poor-law system must be 
dealt with afresh, and Larcom was placed 
at the head of a commission of inquiry. In 
1849 he held the same place in the commis- 
sion for the reform of the Dublin corporation. 
In 1850 he became deputy-chairman of the 
board of works. The unions and electoral 
districts of all Ireland were then remodelled 
in exact accordance with the reports of the 
various boundary commissions over which he 
presided. 

When the post of under-secretary for Ire- 
land fell vacant in 1853, Larcom was at once 
appointed to the office, which was now made 
for the first time non-political and permanent. 
Every effort was needed to harmonise differ- 
ences between the two great sections of the 
Irish people, the catholics and the protestants, 
whose mutual antipathy had been intensified 
by the revival of the agitation for repeal. 
Larcom, adopting the policy of his friend 
Drummond, undertook to govern all parties 
alike with even-handed justice, to remove 
abuses, and to prevent disorder, not only by 
systematic vigilance, but by disseminating 
a belief in the ubiquity of tne government's 
power. His unique knowledge of the country 
enabled him to use his position for the de- 
velopment of its material prosperity in a 
manner hitherto unexampled. He encouraged 
everything which would promote public con- 
fidence, attract capital, or give employment to 
the poor, and maintained the strict supremacy 
of the law on exactly the same principles as 
prevailed in England and Scotland. 

Larcom devoted himself strenuously to the 
development of education. He supported 
the policy of the Irish National Society, 
which sought to evade religious differences 
by teaching the working classes only just so 
much religion as would not be obnoxious to 



Lardner 



145 



Lardner 



any of the great contending forms of Chris- 
tianity, and he strenuously promoted the de- 
velopment of the ' Queen's Colleges ' for the 
upper classes. 

in spite of the momentary check to the 
prosperity of Ireland given by the Phoenix 
conspiracy of 1869, Larcom was able to point 
to a great and steady increase of prosperity 
during his tenure of office. Year after year 
he drew up memoranda, which were read 
on public occasions by successive lords-lieu- 
tenant, showing by official returns the pro- 
gress of agriculture, the evidences of improved 
conditions of life, and the diminution of crime. 
In the decade which ended in 1860 offences 
specially reported fell from 10,639 to 3,681, 
agrarian oflences from 162 to 60, and robbery 
0? arms from 1,006, to 377. But the great 
Fenian movement initiated in the United 
States was seething in Ireland from 1861 
onwards. In 1866 the storm broke and 
taxed all the energies of government. On 
Larcom fell the main duty of meeting the 
emergency. He acted decisively, and when 
he retired in 1868 Ireland was tranquil. 

Larcom had been made E.C.B. in 1860, and 
grateful addresses and presentations from all 
classes in Ireland commemorated his depar- 
ture. He died at Heathfield, near Fareham, 
on 15 June 1879. His later years were de- 
voted to the collection of information concern- 
ing his own period of rule in Ireland, which he 
arranged and bound in hundreds of volumes. 
These he left to different learned societies, 
chiefly Irish, with many of which he had long 
been closely associated. Some professional 
literature of his composition will be found in 
volumes of the ordnance survey, including the 
' Memoir of Templemore/ and in memoirs of 
his friends Drummond and Portlock, besides 
articles in the ( Aide Memoire ' of the royal 
engineers, and a valuable edition of Sir Wil- 
liam Potty's famous * Down Survey/ published 
by the Irish Archaeological Society in 1861. 

Larcom married in 1840 Georgina, daugh- 
ter of General Sir George D'Aguilar [q. v.], 
He was succeeded by his third son, Colonel 
Charles Larcom, R. A. In person Sir Thomas 
was of middle height and strongly built, with 
a remarkably fine head. There is a bust of 
him at Mountjoy, Phoenix Park. 

[' Obitoary Memoir of Sir T. A. Larcom/ in 
the Proceedings of the Royal Society, No. 198, 
1879 ; Edinburgh Review, No. 336, • A Century 
of Irish Government ; ' manuscript Life of Sir 
T. A. Larcom, by the Right Hon. Mr. Justice 
Lawson.] M. B. 

LARDNER, DIONYSIUS (1798-1869), 
scientific writer, son of a Dublin solicitor, 
was born in Dublin on 3 April 1793. He was 
educated for the law, but, finding the work 

VOL. XXXII. 



distasteful, entered Trinity College, where 
he graduated B.A. in 1817, M.A. in 1819, 
and LL.B. and LL.D. in 1827, taking prizes 
in loffic, metaphysics, ethics, mathematics, 
and physics, and a gold medal for a course 
of lectures on the steam engine, delivered 
before the Dublin Royal Society, and after- 
wards published. He took holy orders, but 
devoted himself to literary and scientific 
work, contributing during his residence in 
Dublin to the ' Edinburgh Review,* the 'En- 
cyclopedia Edinensis,' and the 'Encyclo- 
paedia Metropolitan ' (for which he wrote 
the treatise on algebra), besides publishing 
some independent works. Elected in 1827 to 
the chair of natural philosophy and astro- 
nomy in the recently founded London Uni- 
versity, now University College, he removed 
to London, and initiated in 1829 the work 
by which he is principally remembered, the 
' Cabinet Cyclopaedia/ He was fortunate in 
securing as contributors some of the most emi- 
nent writers of the day. Mackintosh wrote 
on England, Scott on Scotland, Moore on Ire- 
land, Thirlwall on Ancient Greece, Sismondi 
on the fall of the Roman empire and the 
rise and fall of the Italian republics, Sir 
Nicholas Harris Nicolas on the chronology 
of history, Southey and Gleig on British 
naval and military heroes, John Forster on 
British statesmen, Baden Powell and Her- 
schell on the history and study of natural 
philosophy and astronomy, De Morgan on 
probabilities, Phillips on geology, Swainson 
on natural history and zoology, and Henslow 
on botany. Lardner himself contributed the 
treatises on hydrostatics and pneumatics, 
arithmetic and geometry, and collaborated 
with Captain Kater [q. v j in the treatise on 
mechanics, and with C. V . Walker [q. v.] in 
those on electricity, magnetism, and meteor- 
ology. The work was completed in 1849, in 
133 vols. 8vo. Another serial, started in 
1830, under the title of ' Dr. Lardner's 
Cabinet Library/ was discontinued, after 
nine volumes had appeared, in 1832. It 
comprised Moyle Scherer's 'Military Me- 
moirs of the Duke of Wellington/ ' A Re- 
trospect of Public Affairs for 1881/ ' His- 
torical Memoirs of the House of Bourbon/ 
and the ' History of the Life and Reign of 
George IV/ all except the first-mentioned 
work being anonymous. Lardner also edited 
the ' Edinburgh Cabinet Library/ of which 
thirty-eight volumes, 8vo, chiefly devoted to 
history, travels, and biography, were published 
at Edinburgh between 1880 and 1844. In 
a letter to Lord Melbourne, published in 
1887, Lardner urged upon government the 
importance of establishing direct steam com- 
munication with India by way of the Red 

L 



Lardner 



146 



Lardner 



Sea (' Steam Communication with India by 
the Red Sea advocated in a Letter to the 
Right Hon. Viscount Melbourne/ London, 
1837, 8vo). He also discussed, in the ' Edin- 
burgh Review ' for April of this year, the fea- 
sibility of constructing steamships capable 
of mailing the voyage across the Atlantic. 
In the course of this article, the tone of 
which was cautious to the verge of scepti- 
cism, he made some disparaging comments 
on Hall's recently patented method of con- 
densation, which, by enabling the same water 
to be used throughout the voyage, effected a 
great economy of force. He was accordingly 
denounced before the British Association by 
the inventor as ' an ignorant and impudent 
empiric ' (Samuel Halts Address to the Bri- 
tish Association, explanatory of the Injustice 
done to his Improvements on Steam Engines 
by Dr. Lardner, Liverpool, 1837, 4to). A 
paper by Lardner on the resistance to rail- 
way trains, read before the British Associa- 
tion at this meeting, was published in the 
'Railway Magazine* for November of the 
same year, and among the ' Reports ' of the 
association for 1838 and 1841 are two by him 
on the same subject, afterwards reprinted in 
' Reports on the Determination of the Mean 
Value of Railway Constants/ London, 1842, 
8vo. 

In the midst of these various and arduous 
labours Lardner carried on during several 
years an amour with Mrs. Heaviside, the 
wife of Captain Richard Heaviside, a cavalry 
officer, and eloped with her in March 1840. 
Heaviside obtained a verdict against him in 
an action of seduction, with 8,000/. damages. 
An act of parliament dissolving the marriage 
followed in 1845. The interval was spent by 
Lardner in a lecturing tour in the united 
States and Cuba, by which he is said to have 
made 40,000/., besides the profits arising from 
the sale of his lectures, which were published 
at New York in 1842 and subsequent years, 
and passed through many editions. Return- 
ing to Europe in 1845, he settled at Paris, 
where he thenceforth resided until his death. 
He visited London in 1851, and reviewed the 
Exhibition in a series of letters to the ' Times ' 
newspaper, reprinted under the title ' The 
Great Exhibition and London in 1851/ Lon- 
don, 1852, 8vo. Lardner also communicated 
in 1852 to the Royal Astronomical Society 
papers * On the Uranography of Saturn/ ' On 
the Classification of Comets, and the Distri- 
bution of their Orbits in Space/ and ' On 
Certain Results of Laplace's Formulae ' (see 
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical 
Society, xiii. 160, 188, 252). During his resi- 
dence in Paris he wrote the works on railway 
economy and natural philosophy mentioned 



below, and launched upon the world in 1853 
a miscellany of treatises on various branches 
of science, especially in their relation to com- 
mon life, entitled ' The Museum of Science 
and Art/ completed in 12 vols., London, 1856, 
8vo. Portions of this work were acknowledged 
and reprinted as Lardner's own under the 
titles : ' The Electric Telegraph Popularised/ 
London, 1855, 8vo ; new edition, revised and 
rewritten by E. B. Bright, 1867, 8vo (Ger- 
man translation by C. Hartmann in ' Neuer 
Schauplatz der Kiinste/ Ilmenau, 1856, 8vo) ; 
* Common Things Explained/ in two series, 
London, 1855 and 1856, 8vo preprinted 1873, 
8vo); 'Popular Astronomy, in two series, 
London, 1855 and 1857, 8vo (reprinted 1873, 
8vo) ; ' Popular Physics/ London, 1856, 8vo 
(reprinted 1873, 8vo) ; ' The Bee and White 
Ants : their Manners and Habits, with Il- 
lustrations of Animal Instinct and Intelli- 
gence/ London, 1856, 8vo ; ' Popular Geo- 
logy/ London, 1856, 8vo (reprinted 1873, 
8vo) ; * The Microscope/ London,- 1856, 8vo ; 
'Steam and its Uses/ London, 1856, 8vo 
(reprinted 1873, 8vo). 

Lardner was a fellow of the Royal Socie- 
ties of London and Edinburgh, of the Royal 
Astronomical Society, of the Linnean So- 
ciety, of the Zoological Society; an honorary 
fellow of the Cambridge Philosophical So- 
ciety and of the Statistical Society of Paris ; 
a member of the Royal Irish Academy, and 
a fellow of the Society for Promoting Useful 
Arts in Scotland. He was reputed to be the 
Paris correspondent of the ' Daily News.' He 
died at Naples on 29 April 1859. He is 
satirised by Thackeray in the last ( Memoirs 
of Mr. Charles J. Yellowplush/ as a literary 
quack advertising his cyclopaedia at dinner- 
parties, and also as Dionysius Diddler in the 
'Miscellanies/ He was certainly not an 
original or profound thinker, but he was a 
man of great and versatile ability, master of 
a lucid style, and as a populariser of science 
did excellent work. 

Lardner married twice : first, in 1815, 
Cecilia Flood (d. 1862), granddaughter of the 
Right Hon. Henry Flood [q. v.], by whom he 
haa three children. The parties separated 
by mutual consent in 1820, and in 1849 a 
formal divorce took place. The doctor then 
married Mary, the divorced wife of Captain 
I Heaviside, by whom he had two daughters. 
I A humorous sketch of Lardner, which is 
I vouched for by the editor as a graphic like- 
ness, is given in the ' Maclise Portrait Gal- 
lery/ ed. Bates, p. 122. 
Lardner's principal works, exclusive of 
1 those of which the full titles are given in 
! the text, are as follows : 1. ' System of Alge- 
braic Geometry/ London, 1823, 8vo, one 



Lardner 



147 



Lardner 



Tolume only, treating of the geometry of 
plane curves. 2. ' An Elementary Treatise 
on the Differential and Integral Calculus/ 
London, 1825, 8vo. 3. 'An Analytical 
Treatise on Plane and Spherical Trigono- 
metry and the Analysis of Angular Sections/ 
2nd edit. London, 1828, 8vo. 4. ' The First 
Six Books of Euclid, with a Commentary 
and Geometrical Exercises. To which are 
annexed a Treatise on Solid Geometry, and a 
Short Essay on the Ancient Geometrical Ana- 
lysis/ London, 1828, 1838, 1843, 1846, 8vo. 

5. ' Discourse on the Advantages of Natural 
Philosophy and Astronomy as part of a 
General and Professional Education. Being 
an Introductory Lecture delivered in the 
University of London/ London, 1828, 8vo. 

6. ' Popular Lectures on the Steam Engine/ 
London, 1828, 12mo; 7th edit. 1840, 8vo; 
new edit. 1848, 12mo. 7. ' Mechanics/ 
* Pneumatics/ and ' Newton's Optics ' (' Li- 
brary of Useful Knowledge — Natural Phi- 
losophy/ vols. i. and ii.), London, 1829, 8vo. 
8. ' Course of Lectures on the Sun, Comets, 
the Fixed Stars, Electricity, &c. Eight 
double lectures, revised and corrected/ New 
York, 1842, 8vo. 9. ' Lectures upon Locke's 
Essay/ Dublin, 1845, 8vo. 10. 'Popular 
Lectures on Astronomy, delivered at the 
Royal Observatory of Paris by M. Arago, 
member of the Institute of Pans, &c. With 
extensive additions and corrections by D. 
Lardner, LL.D./ 3rd edit. New York, 
1848, 8vo. 11. ' A Rudimentary Treatise on 
the Steam Engine/ London, 1848, 12mo. 
12. ' Railway Economy : a Treatise on the 
New Art of Transport, its Management, 
&c./ London, 1850, 8vo. 13. ' Handbook of 
Natural Philosophy and Astronomy/ Lon- 
don, 1851-3, 5 vols. 12mo; republished 
as follows: 'Astronomy/ London, 1855-6, 
2 vols. 12mo, 2nd, Sra, and 4th editions, 
revised and enlarged by E. Dunkin, 1860, 
1867, 1875, 8vo; 'Mechanics/ London, 1855, 
8vo, new and enlarged edition by B. Loewy, 
1877, 8vo; 'Electricity, Magnetism, and 
Acoustics/ London, 1856, 8vo, new edit, by 
E. Carey Foster, 1874, 8vo; 'Hydrostatics, 
Pneumatics, and Heat/ London, 1855, 8vo, 
edited, in 2 vols., by B. Loewy — vol. i. 'Hy- 
drostatics and Pneumatics/ 1874, and vol. ii. 
'Heat/ 1877, 8vo; 'Optics/ London, 1856, 
8vo ; new edition by T. 0. Harding, 1878, 
8vo. 14. ' Animal Physics, or the Body 
and its Functions Familiarly Explained/ 
London, 1857, 8vo ; reprinted in Weale's 
Rudimentary Series as 'Handbook of Ani- 
mal Physiology/ 1877, 8vo. 15. ' Natural 
Philosophy for Schools/ London, 1857, 8vo ; 
new edit, by T. 0. Harding, 1869, 8vo. 
16. ' Animal Physiology for Schools/ Lon- 



( don, 1858, 8vo. 17. ' Chemistry for Schools/ 
I London, 1859, 8vo. 

' [Vapereau's Diet. Uuiv. des Contemporains, 
I 1858; Ann. Reg. 1859 Chron. p. 446, 1840 Chron. 
p. 289 ; Conversations-Lexikon, 1853 ; Men of 
the Time, 1850 ; Dublin Graduates ; Dublin 
I Univ. Mag. vol. xxxv. ; Webb's Compendium of 
I Irish Biography ; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. ; Brit. 
I Mus. Cat. ; private information.] J. M. K. 
j LARDNER,NATHANIEL,D.D. (1684- 
1768), nonconformist dfvine, biblical and 
patristic scholar, was born at The Hall House, 
Hawkhurst, Kent, on 6 June 1684. He was 
■ the elder son of Richard Lardner (sometimes 
written Larner, which seems to have been the 
' pronunciation). The father, who was born 
I on 28 May 1653 at Portsmouth, was grand- 
j son of Thomas Lardner, a cordwainer there ; 
was educated at the academy of Charles Mor- 
ton (1626-1698) [q. v.], and became an in- 
' dependent minister, being settled between 
I 1673 and 1732 at Deal, London, Chelmsford, 
1 and elsewhere ; he died on 17 Jan. 1740 ; he 
, was ' a little man/ but ' a lively, masculine ' 
preacher. Nathaniel's mother was a daughter 
! of Nathaniel Collyer or Collier, a South wark 
f tradesman, 'citizen and grocer/ who in the 
plague year, 1665, had retired to Hawkhurst. 
I He appears to have been at a grammar school, 
I probably Deal, and thence went to the pres- 
| byterian academy in Hoxton Square, London, 
I under Joshua Oldfield, D.D., assisted by John 
Spademan and William Lorimer [q. v.] To- 
wards the end of 1699 he went with Martin 
Tomkins [q. v.] to study at Utrecht. Daniel 
Neal [q. v.j, the historian of the puritans, was 
among his fellow-students. In 1702 he re- 
moved to Leyden for the winter session ; of 
the course 01 studies at Leyden he has given 
some account in his funeral sermon for 
Jeremiah Hunt, D.D. [q. v.] 

In 1703 Lardner returned to London with 
Tomkins and Neal. He joined the indepen- 
dent church in Miles Lane, under Matthew 
Clarke the younger [q. v.] For six years he 
gave himself to study. He preached his first 
sermon on 2 Aug. 1709 in Tomkins's pulpit 
at Stoke Newington. In 1713 he became 
domestic chaplain to Lady Treby, widow of 
Sir George Treby (d. 1702), chief justice of 
the common pleas. He was tutor to their 
youngest son, JBrindley, and in 1716 travelled 
with him for four months in France and 
Holland, keeping a journal of the tour. In 
1719 he was one 01 the non-subscribers at 
Salters' Hall [see Bbadbtiry, Thomas]. He 
began to write about this time ; his initial 
forms the last letter of the name 'Bagweell/ 
applied to the 'Occasional Papers/ 1716-19 
[see Gbosvenok, Benjamin], By Lady 
Treb/s death, at the beginning of 1721, he 

l2 



Lardner 



148 



Lardner 



lost an agreeable situation/ and went to 
live with Lis father in Hoxton Square, act- 
ing as his assistant (till 1729) at Hoxton 
Square meeting-house. The death of his 
pupil Brindley Treby in 1728 greatly affected 
his spirits and healtn. He became very deaf; 
early in 1724 he writes that when at public 
worship he could neither hear the preacher's 
voice nor the congregation singing. He was 
at this time taking part in a course of Tues- 
day evening lectures at the Old Jewry, in- 
stituted in 1723. Late in that year he Degan 
a series of lectures on * The Credibility of the 
Gospel History,' out of which grew his great 
work on that subject. He joined two clubs 
which met at Chew's Coffee-house, Bow 
Lane : a literary club on Monday evenings, 
and a small clerical club on Thursday even- 
ings, to which his friend Hunt belonged. 
By the members of this latter club a subject- j 
index to the bible was projected, the pre- 
paration of the first division embracing the 
topics of scripture ; God, his works and pro- 
vidence, was assigned to Lardner, who seems , 
to have made no progress with it. | 

In February 1727 he published the first I 
two volumes of his ' Credibility,' which at j 
once placed him in the front rank of Chris- 
tian apologists. He sold the copyright in 
1768 for 150/., ' a sum far less than he had 
laid out,' but this was the only work of 
which he disposed in like fashion. A danger- 
ous fever attacked him in February 1728 ; 
his physicians despaired of his life, but called 
in Sir Edward Hulse, M.D. [q. v.], who cured 
him. On 24 Aug. 1729 he preached for Wil- 
liam Harris, D.D.[q. v.], at the presbyterian 
meeting-house in Poor Jewry Lane, Crutched 
Friars, and was unexpectedly invited to be- 
come Harris's assistant as morning preacher. 
For Harris he had held ( a high esteem from 
his early youth,' and, accepting the invitation, 
entered on his duties on 14 Sept. His name 
henceforth disappears from the lists of con- 
gregational ministers, but he declined the 
pastoral care among presbyterians, and was 
never ordained. At this period he was in 
correspondence on theological topics with 
John Shute Barrington, first viscount Bar- 
rington [q. v.], to whom he addressed his 
letter on tne Logos (see below). 

Lardner's only brother, Richard, a barris- 
ter, died in April 1733. In November 1736 he 
was again prostrated by fever, and inca- 
pacitated for preaching till late in the spring 
of 1737. The death of his father, with whom 
he had continued to live, and of his colleague 
occurred in the same year, 1740. He was now , 
urged to take a share in the pastorate, and . 
consulted Joseph Hallett (1691 ?-1744)[q. v.], j 
who tried (23 June) to meet his difficulties I 



about ordination, deafness, and literary work. 
Ultimately he decided to remain as assistant t 
George Benson, D.D. [q. v.], being elected 
pastor in November 1740. Hallett's letter 
makes it probable that Lardner, who else- 
where describes himself as ' not forward to 
engage in religious disputes,' shrank from 
the ordeal of a theological examination and 
a detailed confession of faith. Early in 1745 
he received the diploma of D.D. from the 
Marischal College, Aberdeen, and in June 
1746 he was appointed a London correspond- 
ent of the Scottish Society for Propagating 
Christian Knowledge. He retained his place 
as assistant till 1751 ; the smallness of the 
morning congregation was among his reasons 
for resigning ; he preached his last sermon on 
23 June. His want of popularity as a preacher 
was partly due to indistinct enunciation ; 
he slurred his words and dropped his voice r 
defects to which his deafness rendered him 
insensible. From about 1753 * the only method 
of conversing with him was by writing,' and 
he amused himself when alone with looking 
over the sheets covered with the miscellane- 
ous jottings of his visitors. 

His old age was lonely. His brother-in- 
law, Daniel Neal, died in 1743. Hunt, his 
closest friend, and connection by marriage, 
who died in 1744, was to some extent re- 
placed in his intimacy by Caleb Fleming, 
D.D. [q. v."|, his neighbour in Hoxton Square. 
His only sister, Elizabeth, widow of Neal, died 
in 1748. His family affections were very 
strong; on his sister's death he writes, 'now 
all worldly friendships fade, and are worth 
little.' He lived by himself, and was some- 
times 'made unhappy by his servants.' To 
Hawkhurst, where he kept The Hall House 
unoccupied, he paid an annual visit of a 
few days. For works of benevolence he was 
always ready; in 1756, and again shortly 
before his death, he exerted himself to pro- 
cure contributions in aid of foreign protes- 
tants. His literary activity was continued 
to the last. Priestley, wno often visited 
him, called upon him in 1767, and found his 
memory for persons failing. Letters written 
in the last year of his life show that he took 
an interest in liberal politics, but thought it 
unsafe ' to allow a free toleration to papists/ 

In July 1768 he took his annual journey 
to Hawkhurst, accompanied by one of his 
nieces and her husband, William Lister 
(d. 16 March 1778, aged 62), independent 
minister at Ware. He reached Hawkhurst 
about 19 July in feeble health, but seemed 
to revive. On the 22nd an apothecary was 
called in, but though the end was near he did 
not take to his bed. He died at The Hall 
House, Hawkhurst, unmarried, on the even- 



Lardner 



149 



Lardner 



ing of Sunday, 24 July 1768, having com- 
pleted his eighty-fourth year, and was buried 
in his family vault in Bunhill Fields, about 
the middle of the north side ; the tomb (re- 
stored about 1800 by Isaac Solly of Waltham- 
stow, who married Elizabeth Neal, Lardner's 
great-niece) bears an inscription to his me- 
mory. His funeral was very simple. Fleming, 
Thomas Amory, D.D. [a. v.l Richard Price, 
D.D., and Ebenezer Raacline were present ; 
the last named, his successor at Poor Jewry 
Lane, made a lorn? oration at the grave, part 
of which is appended to the ' Life 'by Kippis. 
A funeral sermon he had strictly forbidden. 
In 1789 an inscribed marble slab was erected 
to his memory in Hawkhurst Church by his 
great-nephew, David Jennings [see under 
Jennings, David, D.D.] His library was sold 
in December 1768. Many books bearing his 
autograph are now in Dr. W illiams's Library, 
OordonSquare, London. His 'Adversaria ' and 
interleaved bible he ordered to be destroyed. 

Lardner's apologetic works were especially 
'planned for the benefit of the unlearned. He 
regarded the average reader as capable of 
judging for himself of the internal evidence 
for theliistorical character of the New Testa- 
ment, and aimed at putting him in a posi- 
tion to form his own judgment respecting 
the external evidence, m place of relying on 
the authority of the learned. Without de- 
claring any theory of inspiration, he under- 
took to show that all facts related in the New 
Testament are not only credible as history, 
but narrated without any real discrepancies, 
and largely confirmed by contemporary evi- 
dence. His method is thorough, and his 
•dealing with difficulties is always candid. 
When he meets with a difficulty which he 
cannot remove, he exhibits much skill and 
•cautious judgment, as well as ample learn- 
ing, in his various expedients for reducing 
it, leaving always the nnal decision with the 
reader. Of greatest value is his vast and care- 
ful collection of critically appraised materials 
for determining the date and authorship of 
New Testament books. Here he remains un- 
rivalled. He may justly be regarded as the 
founder of the modern school of critical re- 
search in the field of early Christian litera- 
ture, and he is still the leading authority on 
the conservative side. 

His style is not equal to his matter. 
Originating in sermon-lectures, his treatises 
have little literary form. His writing is 
plain, but bald, and, as he admits, often pro- 
lix, giving at its best an impression of quiet 
strength. Though in his text every citation 
is presented in an English dress, the copious 
apparatus of original authorities at the foot 
of nis pages renders their appearance some- 



I what more inviting to the student than to a 
■ wider public. Hence Lardner has remained 
a mine for scholars, while the results of his 
' labours have been popularised by Paley and 
1 others. He complained to Kippis that the 
dissenting laity did not patronise his books, 
and Kippis can only point to one exception, 
Thomas Hollis (1720-1774) [q. v.], who sent 
20/. in 1764 as a subscription. From the 
dissenters, indeed, he had received no mark 
of favour, ' not so much as a trust ' — alluding 
to his not being made a trustee of Dr. Wil- 
liams's Library and other foundations. He 
was in intimate relations with Seeker, ex- 
changed letters with Edward Waddington, 
bishop of Chichester, and had a large literary 
correspondence with continental scholars, and 
with the divines of New England. Among 
his dissenting correspondents were John Bre- 
kell [<)• ▼•! Samuel Chandler fq. v.], Philip 
Doddridge [q. v.], and Henry Miles [q. v.] He 
corresponded also with Thomas Morgan [q. v.] 
the moral philosopher, who had written 
against revelation, out addressed himself to 
Lardner, thinking he ' could not talk to any 
man of greater impartiality and integritv.' 

Conservative in the results of his biblical 
criticism, Lardner is conservative also in his 
undo ubt ing acceptance of the miraculous 
element in the biblical narrations. His treat- 
ment of demoniacal possession is rationalistic, 
but it stands alone. All the more remarkable 
1 is his independence of mind in relation to dog- 
I matic theology. Christianity he makes ' a 
I republication of the law of nature, with the 
' two positive appointments of baptism and 
! the Lord's Supper ' {Memoirs, p. 81). As a 
I nonsubscriber at Salters 1 Hall in 1719 he had 
1 agreed to a statement utterly disowning the 
Arian doctrine, and expressing sincere belief 
in the doctrine of the Trinity. * For some 
! while,' probably under the influence of his 
I friend Tomkins (dismissed from his congre- 
I gation for Arianism in 1718), he l was much 
1 inclined ' to the modified Arianism adopted 
! by Samuel Clarke (1676-1729) [<j. v.] in the 
establishment, and by James Peirce among 
dissenters. In his reply to Woolston, pub- 
1 lished towards the end of 1729, he clearly 
{ accepts this view. The perusal of an unpub- 
lished correspondence between two writers 
1 whose names are only given as ' Eugenius,' 
an Arian, and ' Phileleutherus,' a Socinian, 
led him to re-examine his position. In 1730, 
as his letter on the Logos shows, he had de- 
1 cided for what he calls the Nazarene doc- 
, trine (as distinct from the Ebionite, which 
rejected the miraculous conception). This 
1 opinion he taught from the pulpit as early as 
1747, but did not publish it till 1759, and 
then anonymously. He was not indebted to 



Lardner 



150 



Lardner 



Socinian writers, nor had he acquainted him- 
self with them ; his guides to the interpre- 
tation of scripture were the commentaries of 
Grotius and his own patristic studies. 

In person Lardner was of slender build 
and middle height. His portrait, taken be- 
tween 1713 and 1723, and engraved by T. 
Kitchin, is prefixed to his 'Memoirs;* it 
shows a frank, intelligent face, but is not 
otherwise striking. All accounts speak of 
the cheerfulness of his temper and the civility 
of his deportment. His controversial manner 
is a model of calm courtesy. ' All authors/ 
he says, ' should write like scholars and gentle- 
men, at least like civilised people/ Ilis ser- 
mon on ' Counsels of Prudence ' is a reflex 
of his own character. He preserved an anti- 
quated spelling, 'historic/ 'enemie,' 'godli- 
nesse &c 

He published: 1. ' The Credibility of the 
Gospel History/ &c, pt. i., 1727, 2 vols. ; 
2nd edition, 1730; 3rd edition, 1741 ; pt. ii. 
vol. i. 1733; vol. ii. 1736; vol. Hi. 1738; vol. 
iv. 1740; vol. v. 1743; vol. vi. 1745; vol. vii. 
1748 ; vol. viii. 1750 ; vol. ix. 1752 ; vol. x. 
1753; vol. xi. 1754; vol. xii. 1755; supplement, 
1756, 2 vols.; vol. iii. 1757, all 8vo. A new 
edition, of which only two volumes appeared, 
was begun in 1847, 8vo. The first part was 
translated into Dutch (1730) by Cornelius 
Westerbaen of Utrecht, and into Latin (1733) 
by John Christopher Wolff of Hamburg. The 
work, as far as part ii. vol. iv., was translated 
into German (1750-1) by various hands. 2. 'A 
Vindication of Three of our Blessed Saviour's 
Miracles ... in answer to . . . Woolston/ &c, 
1729, 8vo ; translated into German, 1750. In 
his 'Memoirs' is his letter of 7 March 1730 
to Viscount Barrington dealing further with 
difficulties about the raising of Jairus's 
daughter. 3. 'Counsels of Prudence, for 
the use of Young People/ &c, 1737, 8vo; 
a sermon on Matt. x. 16. 4. 'A Caution 
against Conformity to this World/ &c, 
1739, 8vo; two sermons on Rom. xii. 2. 

5. ' A Sermon occasioned by the Death of 
. . . William Harris, D.D./ &c, 1740, 8vo. 

6. 'The Circumstances of the Jewish People: 
an Argument for . . . the Christian Religion/ 
&c, 1/43, 8vo ; three sermons on Rom. xi. 
11; translated into German 1754. 7. 'A 
Sermon ... on occasion of the Death of . . . 
Jeremiah Hunt, D.D. . . . with brief Me- 
moirs/ &c, 1744, 8vo. 8. ' The Case of the 
Demoniacs/ &c, 1748, 8vo; four sermons on 
Mark v. 19, 'preached to a small but attentive 
audience in 1742 ; ' translated into German 
1760. 9. 'A Letter to Jonas Hanway/ &c, 
1748, 8vo (anon.; objects to the term 'Mag- 
dalen house' as based on an error respecting 
Mary of Magdala ; in this letter he quotes 



himself as an authority). 10. ' Sermons upon 
Various Subjects/ &c, 1750, 8vo ; voL ii* 
1760, 8vo. 11. 'A Dissertation upon the two 
Epistles ascribed to Clement of Rome . . . 
published by . . . Wetstein, . . . shewing them 
not to be genuine/ &c, 1753, 8vo. 12. 'An • 
Essay on tne Mosaic Account of the Creation 
and Fall of Man/ &c, 1753, 8vo (anon. ; takes 
the account in the literal sense, but denies- 
the inheritance of a corrupted nature, and 
maintains that human virtue, reared amid 
temptation, may ' exceed the virtue of Adam 
in Paradise/ or 'of an angel;' nearly the 
whole edition of this tract was lost, owing to 
the 'misfortunes' of the publisher). 13. 'A 
Letter . . . concerning . . . the Logos/ &c, 
1759, 8vo (anon. ; postscripts deal with the 
positions of Robert Clayton [q. v.], bishop 
of Clogher) ; reprinted 1788, 8vo, 1798, 12mo, 
1833, 12mo (this tract made Priestley a So- 
cinian about 1768; see Rutt, Memoirs of 
Priestley, 1831, L 69, 93, 99, where extracts 
are given from Lardner's correspondence with 
John Wiche, general baptist minister at Maid* 
stone). 14. ' Remarks upon the late Dr. [John] 
Ward's Dissertations upon . . . passages of the 
. . . Scriptures/ &c, 1762, 8vo (deals with de- 
moniacs, &c.) 15. ' Observations upon Dr. 
[James] Macknight's Harmony/ &c, 1764 
8vo (anon.) 16. 'A Large Collection of 
Ancient Jewish and Heathen Testimonies 
to the Truth of the Christian Religion/ 
1764, 8vo; vol. ii. 1765, 8vo ; vol. iii. 1766, 
8vo ; vol. iv. 1767, 8vo (extends to writers 
of the fifth century, with minute criticism 
of doubtful passages). Posthumous were : 
17. 'Sermons on Various Subjects/ 1769, 
8vo (appended to ' Memoirs '). 18. ' The 
History of the Heretics of the Two First 
Centuries/ &c, 1780, 4to (unfinished ; edited 
from his manuscripts by John Hogg, then 
minister at Mint Meeting, Exeter, after- 
wards banker). 19. 'Two Schemes of a 
Trinity considered, and the Divine Unity 
asserted/ &c, 1784, 8vo (anon.; four ser- 
mons on Philipp. ii. 5-11, preached in 1747, 
and edited by John Wiche). 

Lardner edited the posthumous 'Select 
Sermons/ 1745, 8vo, of Kirby Reyner, pres- 
byterian minister of Tucker Street Chapel, 
Bristol. In conjunction with Chandler and 
others he edited the posthumous 'Tracts/ 
1756, 8vo, of Moses Lowman [q. v.] ; and in 
conjunction with Caleb Fleming he edited, 
supplying the preface, ' An Inquiry into . . . 
our Saviour's Agony/ &c, 1757, 8vo, by 
Thomas Moore, a Holywell Street woollen- 
draper. In 1761 and 1762 he contributed 
four critical letters to Kippb's periodical, 
'The Library.' He revised, at Fleming's 
request, the manuscript of 'The Peculiar* 



Larkham 



151 



Larkham 



Doctrines of Revelation relating to Piacular 
Sacrifices/ &c, 1766, 4to, 2 vols., by James 
Richie, M.D. ; and of ' The True Doctrine of 
the New Testament,' &c, 1767, 8vo, by Paul 
Cardale [q. v.] His letter (1762) to Fleming 
on the personality of the Holy Spirit was 
first printed as an appendix to Cardale's pos- 
thumous 'EnQuiry/ 1776, 8vo. 

Lardner's ' Works ' were collected in 1788, 
8vo, 11 vols., with 'Life' by Kippis, who 
was not the editor of the work. They have 
been reprinted 1815, 4to, 6 vols. ; 1829, 8vo, 
10 vols. ; 1835, 8vo, 10 vols. 

[Memoirs of Lardner were published anony- 
mously in 1769; they were drawn up by Joseph 
Jennings, son of David Jennings, D.D. When 
Kippis was bringing out his Life of Lardner 
(1788) he received a letter from David Jennings, 
Lardner's grandnephew, who wrote strongly ob- 
jecting to the publication, not only on his own 
account, but on that of Richard Dickens, LL.D., 
prebendary of Durham, and his mother (Kippis 
erroneously says his wife), Margaret, daughter of 
Lardner's brother Richard, who married Samuel 
Dickens, D J). Kippis's Life does not supersede 
the Memoirs, and adds little of biographical 
moment. See also London Directory of 1677, 
reprinted 1878 {for Nathaniel Collier); Pro- 
testant Dissenters Magazine, 1797, pp. 434 so. 
(account of Lardner's last days ; reprinted with 
additions in Monthly Repository, 1808, pp. 364 
sq., 485 sq.); Wilson's Dissenting Churches of 
London, 1808, i. 88 sq., ii. 303 sq. ; Rutt's Me- 
moirs of Priestley, 1831, i. 3 7 (compare Priestley's 
Works, xxi. 243); Turner's Lives of Eminent 
Unitarians, 1840, i. 126 sq.; Davids's Evane. 
Nonconformity in Essex, 1863, p. 467 ; James s 
Hist. Litig. Preeb. Chapels, 1867, pp. 688, 713, 
716; Hunt's Religious Thought in England, 
1873, iii. 238 ; Urwick's Nonconformity in Herts, 
1884, p. 720 ; Lightfoot's Essays on Supernatural 
Religion, 1889, p. 40 ; extracts from family papers 
kindly furnished by Lady Jennings.] A. G-. 

LARKHAM, THOMAS (1602-1669), 
puritan divine, born at Lyme Regis, Dorset, 
on 17 Aug. 1602, of ' pious parents,' matri- 
culated at Cambridge, and proceeded B.A. 
from Trinity Hall in 1621-2, and M. A. 1626. 
In 1622 he was living at Shobrooke, near 
Crediton, where he married. He was in- 
stituted vicar of Northam, near Bideford, 
on 26 Dec. 1626, and his puritan proclivities 
brought him into trouble. A petition against 
him was, he says (Sermons on the Attributes, 
Pref.), 'delivered [apparently about 1639] 
into the long's own hand, with 24 terrible 
articles annexed, importing faction, heresie, 
witchcraft, rebellion, and treason.' He was 
1 put into Star-chamber and High Commis- 
sion,' and was proceeded against in the Con- 
sistory Court at Exeter ' under a suit of pre- 
tended slander for reproving an atheistical 



wretch bv the name of Atheist.' Before 
19 Jan. 1640-1 (when Anthony Downe was 
appointed to the living of Northam, * void by 
cession or deprivation ' ) Larkham fled ttfth 
his family to New England, going first to 
Massachusetts, 'but not being willing to 
submit to the discipline of the churches there, 
came to Northam or Dover, a settlement on 
the river Piscataquis, Maine. Here he be- 
came minister, ousting Mr. Knollys.' In this 
capacity he signs first, among forty inhabit- 
ants of Dover, a petition dated 22 Oct. 1640, 
to Charles I, for * combination of government' 
Larkham's conduct in usurping the principal 
civil as well as religious authority led to 
much discontent and even open warfare, and 
commissioners from Boston (of whom Hugh 
Peters was one) were sent to arbitrate. 
They found both parties in fault. Larkham 
remained at Dover until the end of 1642, 
when, says Governor Winthrop, ' suddenly 
discovering a purpose to go to England, and 
fearing to be dissuaded by his people, gave 
them his faithful promise not to go, but yet 
soon after he got on shipboard and so de- 
parted. It was time for him to be gone.' 
There follows an account of the birth of an 
illegitimate child of which Larkham was ad- 
mitted to be the father. ' Upon this the 
church at Dover looked out for another elder/ 
Larkham gives the exact date of his 'de- 
parture,' accompanied only by his son Thomas, 
as 14 Nov. Some time after his arrival in 
England he became chaplain in Sir Hardres 
Waller's regiment going to Ireland. Ac- 
cording to his own story , he was at one time 
' chaplain to one of greatest honour in the 
nation, next unto a lung, had his residence 
among ladies of honour, and was familiar 
with men of greatest renown in the king- 
dom, when he nad a thousand pounds worth 
of plate before him.' On 80 Jan. 1647-8 he 
came into Devonshire, proceeding in the fol- 
lowing April to Tavistock, where Sir Hardres 
then had his headquarters. The vicarage 
of Tavistock had been vacant since George 
Hughes accepted a call from the people of 
Plymouth on 21 Oct. 1643. Larkham ulti- 
mately succeeded to the vicarage, certainly 
before 1649. According to the report of the 
commissioners, who, under the Act for Pro- 
viding Maintenance for Preaching Ministers, 
visited Tavistock on 18 Oct. 1660, Larkham 
was elected by the inhabitants, and presented 
by the Earl of Bedford, ' who as successor to 
the abbey held all the great tithes and the 
right to present.' The earl had formerly al- 
lowed the vicar ' 60" per annum, but Lark- 
ham only received 19" from him.' An addi- 
tional 50" per annum was, however, allowed 
him from Lamerton as tithe. On 15 Nov. 



Larkham 



152 



Larkham 



1649 he had been dismissed from his post as 
chaplain of Waller's regiment. According 
to his 'Diary' he had had 'differences about 
their irreligious carriage.' But he really 
seems to have been dismissed after a court- 
martial, which sat for two days at Plymouth, 
had found him guilty of inciting to insubor- 
dination. He seems nevertheless to have se- 
cured some other military post, for he speaks 
of receiving money in 1651 at a ' muster in 
Carlisle for my men ;' and on 11 June 1652 
he received eleven days' pay from Ebthery at 
Bristol, 'they being about to take ship,' for 
Ireland probably. He was thus absent from 
Tavistock almost the whole of 1651-2, and 
owing to his absence, and to his introduction 
after nis return of novelties in the church, 
'which would have wearied any but an 
Athenian Spirit,' his congregation showed 
much discontent. In 1 657 Larkham attacked 
his chief enemies in a tract entitled ' Naboth, 
in a Narrative and Complaint of the Church 
of God at Tavistock, and especially of and 
concerning Mr. Thomas Larkham.' Five lead- 
ing parishioners, who were especially abused, 
replied in 'The Tavistock Naboth proved 
Nabal : an Answer to a Scandalous Narrative 
by Thomas Larkham, in the name, but with- 
out the consent, of the Church of Tavistocke 
in Devon, etc., by F. G., D. P., W. G., N. W., 
W. H., etc.,' 4to, London, 1658 (Bodleian). 
Larkham in his ' Diary ' calls this reply ' a 
heape of trash, full fraught with lies and 
slanders,' but the authors seem to have been 
justified in their denunciations of Larkham's 
affection for sack and bowls, which his ' Diary ' 
corroborates. They also allude to his pub- 
lished attacks on tithes, although his 'Diary' 
proves that he made every effort to exact the 
Lamerton tithes from refractory farmers. 
Accusations of immorality in New England 
and at home had, it was further declared, 
been brought against him by one of the com- 
missioners. Larkham retorted in a pamphlet 
called ' Judas Hanging Himself/ which is no 
longer extant, and his enemies answered him 
again in ' A Strange Metamorphosis in Tavis- 
tock, or the Nabal-Naboth improved a Judas,' 
&c, 4to, London, 1658, British Museum. But 
Larkham, who was ' out in printing Naboth 
1/. 10*.' {Diary, October 1657), allowed the 
controversy to drop there. Already he had 
in the pulpit spoken of the neighbouring 
ministers as ' doing journey work,' and had as- 
serted that ' many of them would sooner turn 
Presbyterians, Independents, nay Papists, 
rather than lose their benefices.' The cele- 
brated John Howe, then of Great Torring- 
ton, openly protested against one of Lark- 
ham's sermons, which was afterwards pub- 
lished in his ' Attributes of God, 1656.' 



I In October 1659, to Larkham's disgust, a 
j weekly lecture was established in Tavistock 
by his opponents, and the neighbouring minis- 
I ters officiated. TJarkham resisted the arrange- 
I ment, but the council of state (State Papers, 
Dom. cxx. 226) ordered the justices living 
\ near Tavistock (17 March 1659-60) to take 
j measures to continue the lectures, and to ex- 
amine witnesses as to the ' crimes and mis- 
demeanors ' alleged against Larkham. The 
charges chiefly consisted of expressions he 
j had used in sermons, in derogation of the 
restored Long parliament, and in contempt of 
I Monck. The justices sat to hear evidence on 
1 17 April, and Larkham was ordered to admit 
others to preach in the parish church. On 
19 Oct. the justices met to consider whether 
he had been legally appointed to the vicarage 
of Tavistock, and he was bound over to appear 
at the Exeter assizes. On Sunday the 21st 
Larkham, in compliance with the Earl of 
Bedford's desire, resigned the benefice. He 
was nevertheless arrested on 18 Jan. 1660-1, 
and spent eighty-four days in prison at Exeter. 
On his release he returned to Tavistock, living 
with his son-in-law, Condy, and preaching 
occasionallv in retired places, but left the 
town on being warned of impending prosecu- 
tions under the Five Miles Act. In 1664 he 
became partner with Mr. County, an apothe- 
cary in Tavistock, and carried on the business 
successfully after Mr. County's death. The 
last entry in his ' Diary ' is dated 17 Nov. 1669, 
and he was buried at Tavistock on 23 Dec. 

On 22 June 1622 he married Patience, 
daughter of George Wilton, schoolmaster, of 
Crediton. Of this marriage were born four 
children : Thomas, died in the West Indies, 
1648; George, went to Oxford and became 
minister of Cockermouth; Patience, married . 
Lieutenant Miller, who died in Ireland, 1656 ; 
and Jane, married Daniel Condy of Tavistock. 
His works are, besides the tracts already 
mentioned : 1 . ' The Wedding Supper,' 12mo, 
London, 1652, with portrait, engraved by T. 
Cross. Dedicated to the parliament. 2. ' A 
Discourse of Paying of Tithes by T. L., M.A., 
Pastour of the Church of Tavistocke,' 12mo, 
London, 1656. Dedicated to Oliver Crom- 
well 8. ' The Attributes of God,' &c, 4to, 
, London, 1656, with portrait, British Museum. 
[ Dedicated to the fellows, masters, and presi- 
1 dents of colleges, &c, at Cambridge. All his 
works are very scarce, especially the tracts. 
His manuscript ' Diary ' mm 1650 to 1669 
has been edited, but much abbreviated and 
expurgated, by the Rev. W. Lewis. 

[Larkham's manuscript Diary now in the pos- 
session of Mr. Fawcett of Carlisle; his Wedding 
Sapper, Discourse on Tithes, and Attributes of 
G od ; History of Dover, Mass., by the Rev. Jeremy 



Larking 



153 



Laroon 



Belknap, i. 46 ; Governor Winthrop's History of 
Hew England, ii. 62 ; History of Massachusetts, 
toy Thomas Hutchinson, i. 98 ; Provincial Papers 
of New Hampshire, vol. i. ; Palmer's honcon- 
formist's Memorial, ii. 78 , Episcopal Registers 
of Exeter; parish registers of Northam and 
Tavistock.] E. L. R. 

LARKING, LAMBERT BLACK- 
WELL (1797-1868), antiquary, born at his 
father's house, Clare House, East Mailing, | 
Kent, on 2 Feb. 1797, was son of John Lark- ; 
ing, esq. (who was sheriff of Kent in 1808), j 
by Dorothy, daughter of Sir Charles Style, • 
bart. He was educated at Eton and at I 
Brasenose College, Oxford (B.A. 1820, M.A. i 
1823), and was the founder of the University 
Lodge of Freemasons, which is now one of 
the most flourishing in the kingdom. In 1820 
he was ordained to the curacy of East Peck- 
ham, near Tunbridge. He became vicar of 
Ryarsh, near Maidstone, in 1830, and of 
Burnham, near Rochester, in 1837. He held 
both those livings till his death, which took 
place at Ryarsh on 2 Aug. 1868. 

Larking made extensive preparations for 
a history of the county of Kent, and bad for 
some years the assistance of the Rev. Thomas 
Streatfeild of Charts Edge, Kent, who died 
in 1848 and left the materials at the disposal 
of Larking. It was not until 1886 that the 
first instalment of the projected work ap- 
peared under the title of ' Hasted's History 
of Kent, corrected, enlarged, and continued 
to the present time. Edited by Henry H. 
Drake, Fart I. The Hundred of Blackheath,' 
London, fol. To it is prefixed an engraved 
portrait of Larking. 

Larking was honorary •secretary of the 
Kent Archaeological Society from its founda- 
tion in 1867 until 1861, when he was elected 
a vice-president, and he contributed many 
articles to the 'Archseologia Cantiana ' — the ( 
society's transactions. The most important 
of these papers are ' On the Surrenden Char- 
ters,' from the muniments of the Bering 
family (i. 50-65) ; ' Genealogical Notices of 
the North woods' (ii. 9-42) ; ' The Diary of , 
the pious, learned, patriotic, and loyal Sir 
Roger Twysden ' (vols. ill. iv.) ; a notice of j 
the topographical labours of his friend Streat- \ 
feild (vol. iu. ; also printed separately, 1861, 
4to) ; on the ancient Kentish family of Lev- 
bourne, vol. v.; and 'Description of the 
Heart-Shrine in Leybourne Church ;' also 
printed separately, London, 1864, 4to. 

For the Camden Society, of whose coun- 
cil he was for many years a member, 
Larking edited in 1849 ' Uertaine Conside- 
rations upon the Government of England, by 
Sir Roger Twysden,' from an unpublished 
manuscript belonging to the family of Lark- 



big's wife, a direct descendant of Sir Roger ; 
and in 1857 i an Extent of the Lands of the 
Knights Hospitallers in England as reported 
to the Grand Master of the Order in 1338/ 
from a document found by Larking in the 
public library of Valetta in the winter of 
1838-9; and in 1861 'Proceedings princi- 
pally in the county of Kent in 1640.' The two 
earlier volumes contained an introduction by 
John Mitchell Kemble, and the last a preface 
by John Bruce. 

1 The Domesday Book of Kent,' with trans- 
lation, notes, and appendix by Larking, was 
published shortly after his death, London, 
1869, fol. 

He married, on 20 July 1831, Frances, 
daughter of Sir William Jervis Twysden, 
bart., of Roydon Hall, Norfolk. There was 
no issue of the marriage. 

[Introduction to the new edition of Hasted's 
Kent, vol. i. ; Cat. of Oxford Graduates; Nichols's 
Cat. of the Works of the Camden Soc.] T. C. 

LAROCHE, JAMES (fl. 1696-1713), 
singer, appeared while a boy as Cupid in Mot- 
teux's * Loves of Mars and Venus, 4to, 1697, 
which was performed in 1697 at Lincoln's Inn 
Theatre, a species of musical entr'acte to the 
'Anatomist' of Ravenscroft. He is there 
called Jemmy Laroche. His portrait is given 
in a rare print entitled ' The Raree Show, 
sung by Jemmy Laroch in the Musical In- 
terlude for the Peace [of Utrecht] with the 
Tune set to Music for the Violin [by John 
Eccles]. Ingraved, Printed, Culred, and Sold 
by Sutton Nicholls, next door to the Jack,' 
&c, fol., London. It was subsequently pub- 
lished by Samuel Lyne. The engraving ex- 
hibits Laroche with the show on a stool, ex- 
hibiting it to a group of children. The in- 
terlude was played at the theatre in Little 
Lincoln's Inn Fields in April 1713. La- 
roche's portrait was also engraved by Mar- 
cellus Laroon the elder [q. v.] in his ' Cryes 
of London,' and subsequently by Smith and 
Tempest (Evaks, Cat. of Engraved Portraits, 
ii. 240). 

[All that is known of Laroche is supplied 
by Mr. Julian Marshall to Grove's Dictionary 
of Music and Musicians.] J. E. 

LAROON or LAURON, MARCEL- 
LUS, the elder (1653-1702), painter and en- 
graver, born at the Hague in 1653, was son 
of Marcellus Lauron, a painter of French 
extraction, who settled in Holland, where he 
worked for many years as a painter, though 
of small merit, and brought up his sons to the 
same profession. The son Marcellus migrated 
in early life to England, where he was usually 
styled Laroon, and lived for many years in 
Yorkshire. He informed Vertue that he saw 



Laroon 



154 



Larpent 



Rembrandt at Hull in 1661. Laroon became 
well known for small portraits and converea- | 
tion-pieces ; in the latter he showed great ; 
proficiency. He also painted numerous small 
pictures of humorous or free subjects in the 
style of Egbert van Heemskerk, some of which 
were engraved in mezzotint by Beckett and 
John Smith. He also etched and engraved 
in mezzotint similar plates himself. Laroon 
is best known by the drawings he made of 
1 The Cry es of London/ which were engraved 
and published by Pierce Tempest. He also 
drew the illustrations to a book on fencing, 
and the procession at the coronation of Wil- 
liam III and Mary in 1689. He was fre- 
quently employed to paint draperies for Sir 
Godfrey Kneller, and was well known as a 
clever conyist. He was a man of easy-going 
and convivial temperament, fond of music 
and good company, and lived, on coming to 
London, in Bow Street, Covent Garden. He 
died of consumption at Richmond in Surrey 
on 11 March 1702, and was buried there. 
He married the daughter of Jeremiah Keene, 
builder, of Little Sutton, near Chiswick, by 
whom he had a large family, including three 
sons, who were brought up to his own pro- 
fession. He painted portraits of Queen Mary 
(engraved in mezzotint by R.Williams), C. G. 
Uibber the sculptor, and others; his own 
portrait by himself showed the scars result- 
ing from injuries received in a street quarrel. 
Some drawings by him are in the print room 
in the British Museum. He had a collection 
of pictures, which was sold by auction by his 
son on 24 Feb. 1725. 

Laeoon, Mabcelltts, the younger (1679- 
1772), painter and captain in the army, second 
son of the above, was born on 2 April 1679 
at his father's house in Bow Street, Covent 
Garden. He and two brothers were brought 
up as painters, but were also taught va- 
rious accomplishments, including French, 
fencing, dancing, and music. His father had 
frequent concerts in his house, at which the 
sons, when quite children, became noted for 
their proficiency on the violin and other in- 
struments. In 1697 Laroon was appointed 
page to Sir Joseph Williamson [q. v.l English 
plenipotentiary at the peace of Kyswyck. 
After the peace was signed he became page to 
the Earl of Manchester, who was leaving the 
English embassy in Holland to fill that at 
Venice. Laroon went through Germany and 
Tyrol to Venice in the earl's train, but soon 
returned by wav of North Italy and France to 
London, where he resumed painting. Family 
differences led him to abandon his art for the 
stage, and he was for two years engaged as 
an actor and singer at Drury Lane Theatre. 
But he resumed painting before 1707, when he 



made the acquaintance of Colonel Gorsuch, 
(K>mmandingthe battalion of foot-guards on 
service in Flanders. Gorsuch introduced 
him to Colonel Molesworth, aide-de-camp to 
the Duke of Marlborough. He crossea in 
the duke's ship to Holland, was presented 
to the duke, and joined the foot-guards under 
Gorsuch. He was soon promoted to a lieu- 
tenancy in the Earl of Orkney's regiment, 
fought in 1708 at Oudenarde, where he was 
wounded, at the siege of Lille, and at the 
siege of Ghent, where he was again wounded. 
In 1709 he went under General Stanhope 
with James Craggs the younger [q. v.] to 
Spain; in 1710 ne was appointed deputy 
quartermaster-general of the English troops, 
served in all the battles, and was taken pri- 
soner with Stanhope at Brihuega. In 1712 
he returned, on an exchange of prisoners, to 
London. In 1715 he served in Colonel Stan- 
hope's regiment of dragoons at Preston, and 
was quartered at various places in Scotland. 
He was then placed on naif-pay for eight 
years, and resided at York. In 1724 he was 
given a troop in Brigadier Kerr's dragoons, 
in which he served till 1732, when he was 
placed on half-pay, with the rank of captain. 

Laroon was a friend and imitator of Wil- 
liam Hogarth Tq. v.], and a man of jovial 
and boisterous habits. At Strawberry Hill 
there was a drawing by him of the inside of 
Moll King's house. He appears himself in 
Boitard's engraving of * The Covent Garden 
Morning- Frolic* Another portrait of Laroon 
occurs in the group of artists painted by 
Hogarth, now in the University Galleries at 
Oxford. He was a deputy-chairman of a club 
presided over by Sir Kobert Walpole, which 
met at the house of Samuel Scott [q. vj the 
marine painter. He bought pictures for Wal- 
pole, including a ' Holy Family ' by Vandyck, 
the authenticity of which was doubted. This 
so enraged Laroon that he issued a challenge 
to all the critics (see Brit, Mus. Addit. MS. 
23076, f. 27). Laroon's drawings of musical 
parties, conversations, &c, are very well done. 
There are drawings by him in the print room 
at the British Museum and in the Univer- 
sity Galleries at Oxford ; some have been 
engraved. He died at Oxford on 1 June 1 772, 
in his ninety-fourth year, and was buried in 
St. Mary Magdalene s Church in that city. 

[Walpole's Anecd. of Painting, ed. Wornum ; 
Vertue's MSS. (Brit Mus. Add. MSS. 23063- 
23076) ; J. T. Smith's Nollekens and his Times, 
vol. ii. ; Seguier's Diet, of Painters ; Chaloner 
Smith's British Mezzotinto Portraits; Nagler's 
Monogrammisten, iv. No. 1976.] L. C. 

LARPENT, FRANCIS SEYMOUR 
(1776-1845), civil servant, eldest son of John 
Larpent [q. v.l. and half-brother of Sir George 



Larpent 



155 



Larpent 



Gerard de Hochepied Larpent [q. v.], was 
born on 15 Sept. 1776, and educated at Cheam 
school. He graduated B.A. from St. John's 
College, Cambridge, as fifth wrangler in 1799, 
was elected fellow, and proceeded M.A. in 
1 802. He studied for some time under Bay ley , 
the eminent special pleader, was called to 
the bar, and went the western circuit. On 
circuit he did little business, but made some 
useful friendships. Manners Sutton, judge- 
advocate-general, selected him in 1812 to go 
out to the Peninsula as deputy judge-advo- 
cate-general to the forces there. He re- 
mained till 1814 at headquarters with Wel- 
lington, who thought highly of his services 
(Despatches, vi. 360). In August 1813 he 
was taken prisoner, but was exchanged almost 
immediately (ib. np. 737, 761). In 1814 he 
was made a commissioner of customs. About 
the same time he was appointed civil and 
admiralty judge for Gibraltar. A new code 
was in course of formation, and Larpent was 
employed for a month or two in arranging 
the court-martial on General Sir John Murray. 
In the spring of 1815 Larpent was invited 
by the prince regent to inquire into the im- 
proprieties which the Princess Caroline was 
alleged to have committed abroad, but he 
wisely insisted that his appointment should 
proceed from the government directly, and 
that he should be employed to sift rather 
than gather partisan evidence. Although 
he nominally set out to take up his work at 
Gibraltar, he went to Vienna, where he was 
accredited to Count Miinster, and began his 
investigations into the princess's conduct, 
with the result that he dissuaded the prince 
regent's advisers from bringing her to public 
trial. He thence travelled to Gibraltar, and 
remained there till 1820, when he was again 
employed in secret service with reference to 
the Princess Caroline. In 1821 Lord Liver- 
pool made Larpent one of the commissioners 
of the board 01 audit of the public accounts. 
In 1826 he became its chairman, and in 1843 
he retired. He died at Holmwood, near 
Dorking, Surrey, on 21 May 1845. 

Larpent married, first, on 15 March 1815, 
Catherine Elizabeth, second daughter of Fre- 
derick Reeves of East Sheen, Surrey — she 
died without issue on 17 Jan. 1822 ; secondly, 
on 10 Dec. 1829, Charlotte Rosamund, daugh- 
ter of George Arnold Arnold of Ilalstead 
Place, Kent — she died at Bath on 28 April 
1879. 

When in the Peninsula Larpent wrote 
descriptive letters to his step-mother ; these 
were edited, with a preface by Sir George 
1 ^arpent, under the title of ' Private Journals 
of Francis Seymour Larpent,' London, 1853, 
& vols. 8vo, and passed through three editions 



the same year. The manuscript forms British 

Museum Addit. MS. 33419. 
J [Memoir prefixed to the Journals ; Gent. Mag. 
I 1845, ii. 99 ; Burke's Peerage.] W. A. J. A. 

• LARPENTjSib GEORGE GERARD 

I DE HOCHEPIED (1786-1855), politician, 
j youngest son of John Larpent [q. v.], by his 
l second wife, was born in London on 16 Feb. 
( 1786. He early entered the East India house 
I of Cockerell & Larpent, became chairman 
I of the Oriental and China Association, and 
i deputy-chairman of the St. Katharine's Docks. 
I Company. In May 1840 he unsuccessfully 
j contested Ludlow in the whig interest, and 
: in April 1841 Nottingham ; but in June 1841 
he was returned at the head of the poll for Not- 
I tingham, with Sir John Cam Hobnouse [q. v.] 
j On 13 Oct. 1841 he was created a baronet. 
He retired from parliament in August 1842, 
I pending the result of a petition presented 
I against his return. In 1847 he unsuccess- 
. fully contested the city of London. He died 
I in Canduit Street, London, on 8 March 1855. 
' He married, first, 13 Oct. 1813, Charlotte, 
j third daughter of William Cracroft of the 
I exchequer — she died on 18 Feb. 1851 at Bath, 
1 leaving two sons and a daughter ; secondly, 
in 1852, Louisa, daughter of George Bailey 
I of Lincolnshire, by whom he left a son — his 
I second wife died on 23 March 1856. Lar- 
pent wrote a pamphlet in support of pro- 
I tection to West Indian sugar, 1823, which 
I ran through two editions, and another en- 
' titled ' Some Remarks on the late Negotia- 
1 tions between the Board of Control and the 
I East India Company.' He also edited the 

Eils of his half-brother, Francis Seymour 
nt [a. v.], in 1853, and the ' History of 
y ' 01 his grandfather, Sir James Porter, 
continuing it and adding a memoir, 1854. 

I [Gent. Mag. 1855, i. 524; M'Culloch's Lit. 
of Polit Econ. p. 93.] W. A. J. A. 

j LARPENT, JOHN (1741-1824), in- 
! spector of plays, born 14 Nov. 1741, was the 
j second son of John Larpent (1710-1797), who 
I was forty-three years in the foreign office, and 
twenty-five years chief clerk there. His 
I mother was a daughter of James Pazant of 
a refugee Norman family. John was edu- 
cated at Westminster, and entered the foreign 
office. He was secretary to the Duke of 
Bedford at the peace of Paris in 1763, and to 
the Marquis of Hertford when lord-lieutenant 
of Ireland. In November 1778 he was ap- 
pointed inspector of plays by the Marquis of 
Hertford, who was then lord chamberlain. 
He is said to have been strict and careful, 
and to have left behind him manuscript 
copies of all the plays submitted to the in- 
spector from 1787 till 1824 (cf. Notes and 



/ 



Lascelles 



156 



Lascelles 



Queries, 2nd ser. iv. 269). He died 18 Jan. 
1824. Larpent married, first, on 14 Aug. 
1778, Frances (d. 9 Nov. 1777), eldest 
daughter of Maximilian Western of Coke- 
thorpe Park, Oxfordshire, and by her he had 
two sons, of whom the elder, Francis Sey- 
mour Larpent, is separately noticed. His 
second wife, whom he married 25 April 1782, 
was Anna Margaretta, elder daughter of Sir 
James Porter [q. v.l by Clarissa Catherine, 
eldest daughter of Elberd, second baron de 
Hochepied (of the German empire) ; by her 
he had two sons, John James ana George 
Gerard, both of whom, by license dated 
14 June 1819, added the name De Hochepied. 
On 25 March 1828 the elder son succeeded 
his mother's brother as seventh Baron de 
Hochepied, a license to bear the title in Eng- 
land having been granted 27 Sept. 1819. 
George Gerard de Hochepied Larpent is 
separately noticed. 

[Burke's Peerage and Baronetage ; Nichols's 
Lit. Illustr. i. 468 ; Walpole's Letters, ed. Cun- 
ningham, v. 21 ; Alumni W&stmon. 362, 364.] 

W. A. J. A. 

LASCELLES, Mks. ANN (1745-1789), 
vocalist. [See Catley, Ann.] 

LASCELLES, HENRY, second Eakl 
of Harewood (1767-1841), born on 25 Dec. 
1767, was second son of Edward, first earl 
of Harewood, by Anne, daughter of William 
Chaloner. In 1796 he was elected member 
of parliament for Yorkshire in the tory in- 
terest. He was re-elected in 1802, but did 
not represent the constituency in 1806. In 
1807 he was again a candidate for Yorkshire, 
in the first contested election which had oc- 
curred for sixty-six years. The struggle was 
also memorable on account of the vast expense 
which Lascelles and Lord Milton, the whig 
candidate, incurred, it being stated that to- 
gether they spent 200,000/., and on account 
of the return of William Wilberforce, whose 
party almost entirely lacked organisation, at 
the head of the polL The excitement was 
tremendous ; the poll opened on 20 May, and 
continued for fifteen aays. Lascelles was 
unsuccessful, coming 188 votes behind Lord 
Milton. On 20 July 1807, however, he was 
returned for Westbury, in place of his elder 
brother Edward, who elected to sit for the 
family borough of Northallerton. On 6 Oct. 
1812 he was returned for Pontefract; but 
Wilberforce having retired from the repre- 
sentation of the county, Lascelles came in as 
his substitute on 16 Oct. Probably in con- 
sequence of the enormous sums he had ex- 
pended in electioneering in the county, he 
chose to sit for the town of Northallerton in 
1818. In the House of Commons he voted 



- as a moderate tory. He was an admirer of 
Pitt, and spoke fairly often. On 18 Feb. 1800 
he supported the Habeas Corpus Suspension 
Bill, and on 8 Nov. 1801 voted for tne pre- 
liminaries for peace with France. He se- 
conded the appointment of Charles Abbot 
(afterwards first baron Colchester) [a. v.] 
as speaker on 11 Feb. 1802, and took the 
moderate side in the debate on the Prince 
of Wales's debts on 4 March 1803. He moved 
the second reading of the Woollen Manufac- 
tures Bill, an act of some importance in 
manufacturing districts, on 13 June 1804. 

; After the death of his elder brother in 1814 
he was styled Viscount Lascelles, and when 
in 1819 Earl Fitzwilliam was removed on 
political grounds from the lord-lieutenancy 

; of the West Riding, Lascelles was appointed 

J in his place. On 3 April 1820 he succeeded 
his father in the earldom. He took little 

Eart in the debates in the House of Lords ; 
e was opposed to the Bill of Pains and 
Penalties against Queen Caroline, and to 
catholic emancipation. On 7 Oct. 1831 he 
declared himself a moderate reformer, and 
favoured the extension of representation, but 
opposed the Reform Bill. In 1836 the Duchess 
of Kent and the Princess Victoria, and in 
1839 the queen-dowager visited him at Hare- 
wood House, near Leeds, Yorkshire. His 
chief interest lay in country life. He main- 
tained the Harewood Hunt, and died on 
24 Nov. 1841 at Bramham in Yorkshire, just 
! after returning from a run with the hounds. 
His portrait, by Jackson, is at Harewood. He 
married, on 3 Sent. 1794, Henrietta, eldest 
daughter of Sir John Saunders Sebright, bart ., 
and had issue seven sons and four daughters. 
His eldest son, Edward, died in 1839, and 
his second son, Henry, succeeded him in the 
peerage. 

[Gent. Mac. 1842, i. 96; A Collection of 
Speeches, Addresses, and Squibs produced . . . 
during the late contested Election, 1807 ; R. I. 
and S. W. Wilberforce's Life of William Wilber- 
force. iii. 65, 306, &c. ; Parliamentary Debates ; 
Smith's Parliamentary Representation of York- 
shire ; Thornbury's Yorkshire Worthies ; Jlen 
of the Reign.] W. A. J. A. 

LASCELLES, ROWLEY (1771-1841), 
antiquary and miscellaneous writer, born in 
the parish of St. James, Westminster, in 1771, 
received his education at Harrow School, and 
was called to the bar .at the Middle Temple 
10 Feb. 1797. Afterwards he practised for 
about twenty years at the Irish bar. 

In 1813 the record commissioners for Ire- 
land selected Lascelles, in succession to Bar- 
tholomew Thomas Duhigg [q. v.l to edit list . 
of all public officers recorded in the Irish cour ; 
of chancery from 1540 to 1774. The list? 



Lascelles 



157 



Lascelles 



formed part of the extensive manuscript col- 
lections concerning the history of Ireland 
made by John Lodge [q. v.], deputy-keeper 
of the rolls in Ireland ; these collections had 
been purchased after Lodge's death in 1774 
from his widow by the Irish government, and 
were deposited in Dublin Castle. After a 
time Lascelles quarrelled with the commis- 
sioners ; but having gained the favour of Lord 
Redesdale, he was authorised by Goulburn, 
then chief secretary for Ireland, to carry on 
the work in London, where it was printed, 
under the immediate authority of tne trea- 
sury, in two folio volumes dated respectively 
1824 and 1830. Its title ran : < Liber Mune- 
rum Publicorum Hibernise, ab an. 1152 usque 
ad 1827 ; or, the Establishments of Ireland 
from the nineteenth of King Stephen to the 
seventh of George IV, during a period of 
six hundred and seventy-five years. A his- 
tory of Ireland, styled * Kes Gestae Anglorum 
in Hibernia^ written by Lascelles in a partisan 
spirit, was prefixed on his own authority, and 
gave so much offence that, although copies of 
the book were distributed to public libraries, 
it was practically suppressed, and LascelWs 
employment ceased. Archdeacon Cotton re- 
marks that the work contains ' a great mass 
of curious information carelessly put together, 
and disfigured by flippant and impertinent 
remarks of the compiler, most unbefitting a 
government employe' {Fasti Ecelesice Hiber- 
ni<xe y 2nd edit. 1851, vol. i. Pref.) A financial 
dispute between Lascelles and the treasury 
followed. Lascelles maintained before a select 
committee of the House of Commons in 1886 
that he was entitled to 500/. a year till the 
completion of the work. He received 200/. 
in 1832, and 300/. in 1834. Two petitions 
which he addressed to the House of Commons 
on the subject led to no result. He died on 
19 March 1841. 

In 1852 the volumes were issued to the 
public at the price of two guineas, with an 
introduction by F. S. Thomas of the Public 
Record Office, 'showing the origin of the 
work and the cause of its being published in 
its present imperfect state/ A partial index 
to the multifarious contents of the book is 
printed in the 'Ninth Report of the Deputy- 
Keeper of the Public Records in Ireland,' 
Dublin, 1877, pp. 21-58. A full abstract of 
its contents is given in the 'Gentleman's Ma- 
gazine ' for 1829, pt. ii. p. 253. 

Lascelles's other works are: 1. ' A General 
Outline of the Swiss Landscapes/ copious 
extracts from which appeared in the ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine ' for July, August, and Sep- 
tember 1815. 2. ' Letters of Publicola, or 
a modest Defence of the Established Church,' 
Dublin, 1816, 8vo ; letters originally issued 



in the 'Patriot' Dublin newspaper, and after- 
wards reprinted under the title of ' Letters 
of Yorick, or a Good-humoured Remon- 
strance in favour of the Established Church,' 
3 pts., Dublin, 1817, 8vo. 3. < The Heraldic 
Origin of Gothic Architecture. In answer 
to all foregoing systems on the subject ; on 
occasion of the approaching ceremonial of the 
Coronation in Westminster Abbey,' 1820, 
8vo. A very conceited and bombastic pro- 
duction. 4. 'The University and City of 
Oxford ; displayed in a series of seventy-two 
Views drawn and engraved by J. and H. S. 
Storer. Accompanied with a Dialogue after 
the manner of Castiglione,' London, 1821, 
8vo. 5. 'The Ultimate Remedy for Ireland' 
(anon.), 1831, 8vo ; a copv in the British Mu- 
seum, revised in March 1832, has numerous 
manuscript additions by the author. 

[Gent. M«g. 1841 pt.ii. pp. 323-5, 1854 pt. ii. 
pp. 263, 457, 1859 pt. i. pp. 33, 606 ; Thomas's 
Introd. to Liber Hibernise; Ninth Report of the 
Deputy-Keeper of Public Records in Ireland, pp. 
6, 7; Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), p. 1314; 
Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. vi. 350.] T. C. 

LASCELLES, THOMAS (1670-1751), 
colonel, chief engineer of Great Britain and 
deputy quartermaster-general of the forces, 
was born in 1670. He served as a volunteer 
in Ireland from 1689 to 1691, and distin- 
guished himself at the battle of the Boyne. 
He also served in the expedition to Vigo 
and Cadiz in 1702, as gentleman of H.M. 
2nd troop of guards volunteers. He received 
his first commission in the regular army on 
17 March 1704, and proceeded to the Low 
Countries, where he served throughout Marl- 
borough's campaigns, and was present at 
nearly all the battles and sieges. In 1705 
a sum of 65,000/. was by royal warrant of 
Queen Anne of 12 March, on an address of 
the House of Commons, distributed to the 
army under Marlborough for its gallant ser- 
vices in the preceding year, especially at 
Blenheim. Lascelles, who was dangerously 
wounded at Blenheim, received 33/. as his 
share. 

On the declaration of the peace of Utrecht, 
Lascelles and Colonel John Armstrong' were 
appointed, under the treaty, to superintend 
the demolition of the fortifications, &c., of 
Dunkirk. The fortress had been surrendered 
by the French as a pledge of good faith for 
the execution of the treaty, and by its con- 
ditions the fortifications and harbour works 
were to be razed. Lascelles was employed 
on this duty until 1716, and, on an applica- 
tion to the king, Armstrong and he were 
granted pay at 20*. a day, double the ordi- 
nary allowance. The board of ordnance in- 
formed Mr. Secretary Bromley that ' Colonel 



Lascelles 



158 



Laski 



Armstrong and Colonel Lascelles highly de- 
serve an addition of 10*. each per diem 
above their ordinary pay/ In 1715 Lascelles 
-was appointed deputy quartermaster-general 
of all H.M. forces. From 1720 to 1725 he 
was again employed at Dunkirk, and on 1 July 
1722 was promoted to the rank of director of 
engineers, vice Petit, who died on 25 March 
previous. In 1727, by royal warrant, he was 
ordered to perform the duties of surveyor of 
ordnance during Colonel Armstrong's ab- 
sence abroad. In 1729 he was appointed 
British commissioner for inspecting the de- 
molition of new works, consisting of quays 
and jetties constructed by the burghers of 
Dunkirk, and by the end oi December 1730 it 
was reported that these were entirely razed 
to the level of the strand to Lascelles's satis- 
faction. In 1732 he received personal in- 
structions from the king in reference to Dun- 
kirk, and went thither to meet the French 
and British commissioners. 

In 1740 Lascelles was appointed chief en- 
gineer to the train of artillery in the expedi- 
tion under Lord Cathcart to (Jarthagena, but 
his services were in such request at home 
that his place had to be taken by Jonas 
Moore [q. v.] By royal warrant, dated 
18 Nov. 1741, Lascelles was directed to fill 
the office of surveyor-general of the ordnance 
during the illness of Major-general John 
Armstrong. On 30 April 1742 he was ap- 
pointed, by letters patent under the great 
seal, to be master-surveyor of the ordnance, 
ammunition, and habiliment of war within 
the Tower of London, the kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, and all British domin- 
ions, and to be chief engineer of Great Britain, 
in the room of General Armstrong, deceased, 
at a salary as chief engineer of 501/. 17*. 6d. 
per annum. This was in addition to his pay 
of 365/. per annum as director of engineers. 
By royal warrant of 19 May 1742 he was 
further appointed assistant and deputy to 
. the lieutenant-general of the ordnance, and 
to perform the duties of lieutenant-general of 
the ordnance, so long as the post should re- 
main vacant, at a salary of 300/. per annum. 
In 1744 he was sent to Ostend to report on 
the armament and ammunition to Be sent 
thither, and to arrange for repairing and aug- 
menting the fortifications. In 1745 he was 
appointed, as inspector-general of artillery, 
to represent the British government at the 
Hague, to carry out the terms of a conven- 
tion dated 5 May 1745 between the States- 
feneral and George II, and to determine the 
alance due from Great Britain to the States- 
general on account of expenditure for artillery 
and ammunition stipulated to be furnished I 
by Great Britain in the Low Countries. | 



By royal warrant of 11 April 1750 Las- 
celles was granted 200/. per annum for life 
for his long and faithful services. The same 
year he retired on a pension of 200/. per an- 
num. He died on 1 Nov. 1751, aged 81, 
haying served through twenty-one cam- 
paigns and having been present in thirty-six 
engagements. He was one of the ablest en- 
gineers of the time in Europe. 

[State Papers ; Board of Ordnance Kecords ; 
Royal Engineers' Records; Gent. Mag. 1751, 
p. 523.] R. H. V. 

LASKI or A LASCO, JOHN (1499- 
1560), reformer, was born at the castle of 
Lask in Poland in 1499. His father, Jaros- 
law, baron of Lask, who seems to have 
claimed descent from Henry de Lacy, third 
earl of Lincoln [q. v.] (cf. Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. x. 832), was successively tribune of 
Sieradz, palatine or vayvode of Leczyc, and 
vayvode of Sieradz, and died in 1523. His 
mother was Susanna of Bakova-Gora, of the 
family of Novina or Ptomicnczyk. John was 
the second of three sons, all afterwards famous. 
In 1510 his uncle, John Laski, primate of Po- 
land, took the boys into his palace at Cracow 
to direct their education, and when, in March 
1513, the archbishop set out for Rome to attend 
the Lateran council, he took John and his 
elder brother with him. Thence, about the 
end of 1514, the two boys were sent with 
their tutor, John Braniczky, to the university 
of Bologna, where they probably met Ulrich 
von Hutten. John remained at Bologna till 
Christmas 1517-18. His uncle looked after 
his interests, and in 1517 he became canon 
of Leczyc, on 30 Dec. 1517 coadjutor to the 
dean of Gnesen, and in 1518, after a judicious 
distribution of fourteen hundred gulden at 
Rome, custodian of Leczyc and canon of 
Cracow and Plock. In 1521 he was ordained 
priest and became dean of Gnesen. 

In 1523 Laski and his two brothers tra- 
velled to Basle, where they met Erasmus. 
After a short visit to Paris John settled down 
at Basle for a year in Erasmus's house (end 
of 1524 to October 1525). He paid certain 
house expenses, three and a half gulden a 
month for his room, and bought the reversion 
to Erasmus's library for three hundred golden 
crowns (cf. D. Erasmx Epistola, ed. 1706, p. 
891). He met Harden berg, with Pellicanus 
and other reformers, at Basle, and when in 
October 1525 he returned to Poland, he had 
probably to some extent adopted their views. 
Though suspected of reforming tendencies, 
especially in 1534, he continued to hold and 
add to his benefices, even after the death of his 
uncle. He became Bishop of Vesprim in 1 529, 
later provost of Gnesen, and on 21 March 



Laski 



159 



Laski 



1588 archdeacon of Warsaw. A few months 
later he declined King Sigismund's offer of 
the bishopric of Cujavia, and in the autumn 
probably of the same year (1538) he left 
Poland for Frankfort, lodging there in the 
same house as Hardenberg, and the two tra- 
velled together to Mayence, whence Laski 
left for the Netherlands. 

In 1540 Laski settled at Emden in East 
Frisia. In 1542 he became pastor of a con- 
gregation in the town, with a general charge 
as superintendent over the surrounding dis- 
trict, and an official residence in the Francis- 
can friary. In this office Laski appeared as 
a reformer of the Swiss school. His views 
were extreme, especially in regard to the 
Sacrament, and he cleared his churches of 
what he held to be idols. Yet he was no 
. favourer of the anabaptists, and had difficul- 
ties with Menno. The form of church go- 
vernment which he established was presby- 
terian, for which the Frisians were prepared 
by earlier customs of their own. In 1544 it 
was decided that four laymen from the con- 
gregation should assist the minister in the 
regulation of discipline. To Laski was due 
the ccetus, or assembly of ministers, which 
gathered at Emden once a week from Easter 
to Michaelmas, and examined into the life 
and doctrine of its members. For his con- 
gregation he prepared in 1546 his 'Cate- 
chi8mus Emdanus major.' This was used for 
some years, and superseded by the ' Heidel- 
berg Catechism/ which was partly based upon 
it. In the spring of 1546 he ceased to be a 
superintendent, but remained a pastor. In 
1547 he formed a friendship with Hooper 
(Hoopbb, Later Writings, Parker Soc. ix.), 
through whom, and through the foreign pro- 
testants who had settled in London, Laski 
became well known to protestant divines in 
England. 

When in 1548 Cranmer began to scheme 
for a general reunion of the vanous protestant 
sects, he invited Laski to come to England 
to attend a public conference on this subject 
(cf. Cbanmeb, Works, Parker Soc., pp. 420-1). 
Laski arrived at the end of August 1548, 
and spent the winter at Lambeth. An order 
of council of 23 Feb. 1548-9 gave him 50/. 
(Acts 0/ Privy Council, 1547-50, p. 244), and 
he left England for Emden in March 1549 
(cf. Works, ii. 621). On the 22nd Latimer 
in a sermon said: 'Johannes Alasco was 
here, a great learned man, and as thev say, a 
nobleman in his country, and is gone his way 
again : if it be for lack of entertainment, the 
more pity ' ( Works, i. 141 ; cf. Zurich Letters, 
iii. 61, 187; Cranmeb, Works, p. 425). He 
returned to this country 13 May 1550, lived 
for some time at Lambeth (ib. p. 483), and on 



24 July 1550 was appointed superintendent 
of the London church of foreign protestants, 
who included many of his Frisian congrega- 
tion, and to whom the church of the Augus- 
tinian Friars was assigned by letters patent 
24 July 1550 (cf. Lucxock, Studies in the 
History of the Prayer Book, p. 67). In 

1550 Laski took Hooper's side in the contro- 
versy as to vestments (Hoopbk, Later Writ- 
ings, p. xiv ; cf. Zurich Letters, iii. 95), and 
Hooper's attitude may be largely attributed 
to Laski's influence. He organised his church 
on the presbyterian model, and must be re- 
garded as the founder of the presbyterian form 
of church government in this country. He 
still actively supported the extreme reformers 
in their long controversy with the Lutherans 
respecting the sacraments. In September 
1560 Laski visited Bucer at Cambridge, and 
had a long discussion on religious matters. 
They differed on the question of the Real 
Presence. Bucer wrote down his opinion, 
and Laski prepared comments on Bucer's 
views, which were published in his ' Brevis 
et dilucida de Sacramentis Ecclesice Christ i 
Tractatio/ London, 1552. On 6 Oct. 1551 
Laski was appointed one of the divines on 
the commission for the revision of the eccle- 
siastical laws (Zurich Letters, iii. 578). The 
result of the commission's labours appeared 
later as the ' Reformatio Legum ; ' on 19 Nov. 

1551 he received a present of one hundred 
French crowns (Acts of Privy Council, 1550- 
1552, p. 420). His influence at the court of 
Edward VI was great, and can be traced in 
the second prayer-book and in Cranmer's later 
views (cf. Gasquet and Bishop, Edward VI 
and the Book of Common Prayer, pp. 173, 230, 
232; Cabdwbll, The Two Books of Common 
Prayer Compared, Pref.), but the production 
of his own liturgy seems to indicate that this 
influence was not as successful as he wished 
(cf. British Magazine, xv. 612, xvi. 127). 

On 15 Sept. 1553 Laski embarked at 
Gravesend with 175 of his congregation 
(Zurich Letters, iii. 512) on his way to 
Poland. A storm drove the ship to Elsinore, 
and though the king of Denmark received 
Laski favourably, other influences prevailed, 
and they were driven away in midwinter. 
They had no better reception at Hamburg, 
Liibeck, and Rostock, but the main bodv 
found shelter at Danzig, while Laski managed 
to reach Emden and remained there for more 
than a year, chiefly through the intercession 
of the Countess Anna of Oldenburg. On 
31 Dec. 1555 Laski was reported to be dan- 
gerously ill at Frankfort, where he remained 
during the first half of 1556. He employed 
himself in superintending the churches, hold- 
ing a disputation with Velsius, and trying to 



Laski 



1 60 



Lassell 



Eromote a union between the Lutherans and 
is own party. He proceeded to Poland in 
December 1556. In February 1557, in com- 
pany with Utenhovius, he went from Cracow 
to Wilna, where the king received him kindly 
and made him his secretary. Calvin wrote 
of Laski at this time that the only danger 
was that he might fail through too great an 
austerity (Henbt, Calvin, ed. Steboing, ii. 
348). He preached regularly {Zurich Letters, 
iii. 600, 687-90), and took an active part in the 
synods of lvanovitze in 1557 and Pinczow in 
1558 (cf. Wallace, Anti-Trinitarian Biog. 
vol. ii. passim). He was one of the eighteen 
divines whose version of the Bible in Polish 
appeared in 1563. In March 1558 he left 
with Utenhovius for Prussia, but returned 
in October. He had the general superin- 
tendence of the reformed churches in Little 
Poland, a charge of great difficulty. Laski's 
object continued to be the union of the re- 
formed churches, but as in London and Frank- 
fort he found union impossible, although he 
prepared the way for the subsequent com- 
promise at Sandomir. He died, after many 
months' illness, at Calish in Poland 13 Jan. 
1560. His widow was left in poor circum- 
stances. Laski married his first wife in 1539 
at Louvain. She died in London in 1552. 
By her he seems to have had three sons, 
John, Jerome, and a third who died young, 
with a daughter, Barbara Ludovica. His 
second wife was Catherine, whom he mar- 
ried in London in August 1552. By her 
he had five children, of whom Samuel was 
a distinguished soldier. The Laski family 
afterwards became Roman catholic again. 
Albertus Laski, palatine of Siradz in Bo- 
hemia, probably a nephew of the reformer, 
visited England in 1583, and nearly ruined 
himself by searching for the philosopher's 
stone in partnership with John Dee [q. v.] 
and Edward Kelley [q. v.] (cf. Notes and 
Queries, 2nd ser. x. 332). 

There is a full and careful account of 
Laski's writings, both published and in manu- 
script, in Kuyper's 'Job. a Lasco Opera 
Omnia ' (Amsterdam, 1866, 2 vols. 8vo). 
Those which relate to his connection with 
England are : 1. ' Epistola Joannis a Lasco 
. . . continens in se Sum mam Contro- 
versies de Coena Domini breviter explicatam,' 
London, 1551, written in 1545. There is a 
copy of this work in the library of Trinity 
College, Dublin. 2. ' Compendium Doctrince 
de vera unicaque Dei et Christi Ecclesia . . . 
in qua Peregrinorum Ecclesia Londini insti- 
tuta est . . ., London, Latin and Dutch, 1551 ; 
2nd edit., Dutch version, 1553; 3rd edit., 
Dutch version, much altered, Emden, 1565. 
A copy of the first edition is preserved at 



Dublin, of the third at Utrecht. 8. ' Cate- 
chismus Emdanus major,' drawn up 1546, 
published London, 1551, Dutch and Latin 
preface by Utenhovius ; other editions. 
4. 'Brevis et dilucida de Sacramentis Ec- 
clesiee Christi Tractatio . . .,' London, 1552 ; 
copy in the British Museum. 5. 'Brevis 
Fidei Exploratio,' written about 1560 ; edi- 
tions published in 1553 (Dutch) and (with 
slightly varied title) 1558; a copy ot the 
1558 edition at Amsterdam. It appeared in 
Latin, London, 1555. 6. ' Forma ac Ratio 
tota Ecclesiastici Ministerii Edwardi VI, in 
Peregrinorum . . . Ecclesia instituta Londini 
in Anglia . . .,' the liturgy of the church in 
Austin Friars, printed for church use only in 
1551, and later as a justification of Laski's me- 
thods, Frankfort-on-the-Maine, 1555 ; copies 
of the latter are in the British Museum* 
Trinity College, Dublin, and the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford. 

[Authorities quoted ; Dal ton's John a Lasco, 
trans, by Mr. J. Evans, for early life ; Hessel's 
Ecclesise Londino-BatavaArch., passim; Moens's 
Beg. of the Dutch Church, Austin Friars ; Kra- 
sinski's Sketch of the Reformation in Poland, 
i. chap, v., and Sketch of the Religious Hist, of 
the Slavonic Nations, chap. vii. ; Herminjard's 
Corresp. des Reformateurs dans les pays de la 
langue Francaise ; Dixon's Hist, of the Church 
of England, ii. 522, iii. 98, &c, iv. 43 ; Mosheim's 
Eccles. Hist.ii. 26; Setoff's Hist, of the Creeds, 
i. 565, 583 ; Lit. Remains of Edw. VI (Roxb. 
Club), pp. 48, &c. ; Adrian Regenvolscius's (An- 
dreas Wengierski) Systema Historico-Chrono- 
logicum, p. 409, &c; Dan. Q-erdes's Florilegium 
Historico-Criticum, ed. 1640, 8vo (list of works), 
and Hist. Reformationis, iii. 145, &c. ; Erasmus's 
Letters, ed. 1642, pp. 779, &c, 794, 828, 831, 
835, 1534 ; Kuyper's edition of Laski's Works.] 

W. A. J. A 

LASSELL, WILLIAM (1799-1880), as- 
tronomer, was born at Bolton in Lancashire 
on 18 June 1799. At the age of four or five 
he amused himself by polishing lenses. After 
his father's death from fever in 1810 he 
was sent to school at Rochdale for eighteen 
months, was apprentice from 1814 to 1821 
in a merchant's office in Liverpool, and set 
up in business as a brewer about 1825. In 
1820 he began to construct reflecting tele- 
scopes, being too poor to buy them. A nine- 
inert Newtonian erected by nim at Starfield, 
near Liverpool, where he built an observatory 
in 1840 (memoirs Royal Astronomical Soc. 
xii. 265), was virtually the first example of 
the adaptation to reflectors of the equatoreal 
plan of mounting. With it he observed the 
solar eclipse of 8 July 1842 (ib. xv. 91), 
Faye's, d' Arrest's, Mauvais's second, Vico s 
first and second comets in 1848-5, follow- 
ing them further than was possible at any 



Lassell 



161 



Lassels 



public observatory. He desired to possess 
a larger instrument ; but dissatisfied, after 
inspection, with, the methods used by Lord 
Rosse for grinding specula, he invented a 
new machine constructed from his design by 
James N asmyth [q. v.] With this he ground 
and polished a speculum of rare perfection, 
two feet in diameter, and* twenty in focal 
length, and in 1846 mounted it equatoreally 
at Starfield (ib. xviii. 1). On 10 Oct. 1846 
he saw with it the satellite of Neptune 
(Monthly Notices, vii. 167^ and verified the 
aiscovery in the following July. On 19 Sept. 
1848 he detected, simultaneously with Bond 
in America, Saturn's eighth satellite (Hy- 
perion) (ib. viii. 195), and was one of the first 
observers of Saturn's dusky ring, compared 
by him to a crape veil (ib. xi. 21). For these 
achievements he received, on 9 Feb. 1849, 
the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical 
Society (Memoirs, xviii. 192). 

The composition of the Uranian system 
was first clearly ascertained by Lassell. He 
discovered on 24 Oct. 1851 the two inner sa- 
tellites (Ariel and Umbriel), and established 
later the non-existence of four out of Her- 
schel's six (Monthly Notices, xi. 201, 248, 
xii. 15, xxxv. 16). The total solar eclipse of 
28 July 1851 was observed by him with a 
two and a half inch Merz refractor at Troll- 
hattan Falls in Sweden, and in the autumn 
of 1851 he transported his two-foot speculum 
to Malta, where he observed with it during 
the ensuing winter. Much of his attention 
was engaged by the 'marvellous spectacle' 
of the Orion nebula, of which he executed a 
detailed drawing (Memoirs Royal Astrono- 
mical Soc. xxiii. 53). He also made several 
sketches of Saturn (ib. xxii. 151), and noted 
for the first time the transparency of its dusky 
ring (Monthly Notices, xvii.12). The growth 
of factories round Starfield compelled him 
to move his observatory in 1854 to Brad- 
stones, two miles further away from Liver- 
pool. There he observed and depicted Donati's 
comet, 12 Sept. to 8 Oct. 1858 (Memoirs Royal 
Astronomical Soc. xxx. 58), and constructed 
in 1859-60 a reflecting telescope of four feet 
aperture, thirty-seven focal length, mounted 
equatoreally at Valetta in Malta towards the 
close of 1861. The tube of this splendid in- 
strument was of iron lattice-work to avert in- 
equalities of temperature, and the small per- 
centage of arsenic employed in LasselPs earlier 
specula was omitted from its composition. 
Assisted by Mr. Marth, he worked with it 
diligently for three years, and catalogued six 
hundred new nebulae, besides carefully de- 
scribing and drawing nebulae already known 
(ib. xxxvi. 1). One, a planetary nebula in 
Aquarius ( Gen. Cat. 4628), showed as ' a sky- 

VOL. Mil. 



blue likeness of Saturn/ of plainly annular 
structure (Proceedings Royal Soc. xii. 269 ; 
Report Brit. Association, 1862, ii. 14), and a 
larVe drawing of the Orion nebula, executed 
by Miss Caroline Lassell under her father's 
supervision, was by him in 1868 presented to 
the Royal Society, and was photographically 
reproduced in 4 Knowledge, 1 May 1889. 

After his return from Malta Lassell took 
a residence near Maidenhead, and set up his 
two-foot reflector in an observatory there. 
At Maidenhead Lassell observed a 'black' 
transit of Jupiter's fourth satellite on 80 Dec. 
1871 (Monthly Notices, xxxii. 82), and erected 
an improved polishing machine, described 
before the Royal Society on 17 Dec. 1874 
(Phil. Trans, clxv. 303). He discussed in 
1871 and decided against the reality of al- 
leged changes in the nebula about rj Argus 
(Monthly Notices, xxxi. 249). He was member 
of the Royal Astronomical Society from 1839, 
president 1870-2, and attended its council 
meetings until his death. He was elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society in 1849, received 
a royal medal in 1858, was admitted to mem- 
bership by the Royal Society of Edinburgh 
and the Society of Sciences of Upsala, and 
had an honorary degree of LL.D. conferred 
upon him by the university of Cambridge in 
1874. An affection of the eyes latterly pre- 
cluded him from observing, and he died peace- 
fully in his sleep at Maidenhead on 5 Oct. 
1880, leaving benind him a high reputation 
for moral worth and practical scientific effi- 
ciency. His specula have never been sur- 



and polish, and he ranks with Sir William 
Herschel and Lord Rosse among the per- 
fecters of the reflecting telescope. The in- 
strument with which he made most of his 
discoveries was presented by the Misses Las- 
sell after his death to the Royal Observatory, 
Greenwich. 

[Monthly Notices, xii. 188 ; Proceedings Royal 
Soc. xxxi. p. vii ; Astronomical Reg. xvii. 284 ; 
Nature, xxii. 666 (Hoggins); Observatory, iii. 
587 (Mrs. Huggins); Times, 7 Oct. 1880; Athe- 
namm, 1880, ii. 469; Ann. Reg. 1880, p. 203 ; 
Clerke's Hist of Astronomy; Andre" et Kayet's 
L'Astronomie Pratique, i. 114; Astr. Nach- 
richten, xcviii. 207 ; Sirius, xiii. 245 ; Madler's 
Geschichte der Himmelskunde, Bd. ii. passim ; 
Royal Society's Cat. of Scientific Papers, vols. iii. 
viii.] A. M. C. 

LASSELS, RICHARD (1603 P-1668), 
catholic divine, son of William Lassels of 
Brackenborough, Lincolnshire, born about 
1603, was, according to Wood, ' an hospes for 
some time in this university [Oxford], as those 
of his persuasion have told me, but whether 
before or after he left England they could 



Lates 



162 



Latewar 



not tell' {Athena Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 818). 
On 6 Sept. 1623 he was admitted a student in 
the English College at Douay, where he was 
known Dy the name of Bolds. He was made 
professor of classics in 1629, and was ordained 
priest 6 March 1631-2. He became tutor to 
several persons of distinction, with whom he 
made three journeys into Flanders, six into 
France, five into Italy, and one tour through 
Holland and Germany. The last person with 
whom he travelled was Lord Lumley (after- 
wards Earl of Scarborough). During his 
residence in England he was appointed a 
canon of the chapter and archdeacon of a 
district. He was recommended for the posts 
of agent for the clergy at Rome and president 
of Douay College, but he declined all prefer- 
ments. He died at Montpelier in France in 
September 1668, and was buried in the church 
of the Barefooted Carmelites in the suburb 
of that city. 

He was author of : 1. ' An Account of the 
Journey of Lady Catherine Whetenhall from 
Brussels to Italy in 1660,' Birch MS. 4217 
in British Museum. 2. i The Voyage of Italy : 
or a Compleat Iourney t[h]rough Italy ; in 
two parts. Opus posthumum: Corrected & set 
forth by his old friend and fellow Traueller 
S[imonj W[ilson],' a secular priest, Paris, 
lo70, 12mo. Dedicated to Richard, lord Lum- j 
ley, viscount Waterford. Some copies have 
a title-page dated London, 1670, 12mo. Ed- 
ward Harwood says that John Wilkes de- 
scribed this book as ' one of the best accounts 
of the curious things of Italy ever delivered 
to the world in any book of travels ' (Lowndbs, 
Bibliographer's Manual, ed. Bonn, p. 1814). 
A second edition, ' with large additions, by 
a modern hand,' but according to Dodd 
' wretchedly defaced and altered/ appeared in 
two parts at London, 1698, 8vo. A French 
translation was published in 2 vols. Paris, 
1671, 12mo. The work was reprinted by 
Dr. John Harris in his ' Navigantium atque 
Itinerantium Bibliotheca,' vol. ii. London, 
1705, fol. 3. « A Method to hear Mass ' 
(1686 P). There appeared at London in 1864, 
12mo, ' St. George s Mass Book : containing 
the original preface of R. Lassels, printed 1686, 
with various extracts, 2nd edit., compiled 
and edited by Thomas Doyle, D.D. 4. * A 
Treatise on the Invocation of Saints.' 5. • An 
Apology for Catholics,' 2 vols. 8vo, manu- 
script. 

[Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 304; Schroeder*s 
Annals of Yorkshire, ii. 330 ; Holmes's Descrip- 
tive Oat. of Books, iv. 60; Watt's Bibl. Brit; 
Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. iv. 516.] T. C. 

LATES, JOHN JAMES {d. 1777 P), 
musical composer, was son of David Francisco 
Lates, a teacher of languages at Oxford, and 



the author of a 'New Method of Easily 
Attaining the Italian Tongue,' London, 1766. 
The father seems to be identical with* Signior 
Lates, late teacher of Oriental languages/ 
who died at Oxford 28 April 1777 {Gent. 
Mag. 1777, p. 247, and 1800, ii. 841). The 
son became a violinist of repute at Oxford, 
where he was a teacher of the violin and 
leader of the concerts. He owed much to 
the Duke of Marlborough, in whose service 
he was for many years at Blenheim, and 
seems to have been at one time organist of 
St. John's College. He is said to have died 
in 1777. He published : ' Six Solos for a 
Violin and Violoncello, with a Thorough- 
bass for the Harpsichord, humbly inscrib'd 
to Oldfield Bowles, Esq./ Op. 3; also duets 
for two violins, Op. 1 ; duets for two German 
flutes, Op. 2, London. 

His son, Charles Lates (Jl. 1794), born 
at Oxford in 1771, became a pupil of Dr. 
Philip Hayes [5. v.], the university professor 
of music, matriculated at Magdalen College 
4 Nov. 1793, at the age of twenty-two, and 
graduated Mus.Bac. 28 May 1794, when he 
described himself as 'organist of Gains- 
borough.' His exercise for the degree, pre- 
served among the manuscripts in the Oxford 
Music School (MS. Mus. Sen. Ex. d. 72), is 
entitled an 'Anthem — "The Lord is my 
Light " — for Voices and Instruments; ' it was 
performed 7 Nov. 1793. He subsequently 
published a ' Sett of Sonatas for Pianoforte/ 
songs in score, &c. He was a fine organist 
and extempore player, excelling in the art of 
' fuguing.' 

[Diet, of Mus. 1824; Watt's Bibl. Brit.; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. iii. 820.] R. H. L. 

LATEWAR, RICHARD (1560-1601), 
scholar, was son of Thomas Latewar of Lon- 
don. He was born in 1560, and in 1571 was 
sent to Merchant Taylors' School (Robin- 
son, Register, i. 17), whence he was elected 
scholar of St. John's College, Oxford, in 1580, 
and in due course became fellow. He was 
admitted B.A. 28 Nov. 1584, M.A. 23 May 
1588, B.D. 2 July 1594, and D.D. 5 Feb, 1597. 
In 1593 he was proctor, at which time he was 
rector of Hopton, Suffolk. In 1596 he was 
recommended by the university of Oxford as 
one of the candidates for the first Gresham 
professorship of divinity (Wabd, Lives 0/ 
Professors at Gresham College, p. 36). On 
28 June 1599 he was appointed rector of 
Finchley, Middlesex (Nbwooxjrt, Repert. i: 
605), and was afterwards chaplain to Charles 
Blount, eighth lord Mountjov [q. v.l whom 
he accompanied on his expedition to Ireland. 
He died on 17 July 1601, from a wound re- 
ceived at Benburb, co. Tyrone, on the pre- 



Latey 



163 



Latey 



vious day (Fykes Mobysox, Hist, Ireland, ii. 
264, ed. 1735), and was buried in the church 
at Armagh. A monument was erected to his 
memory in St. John's College chapel by his 
father ; the date of his death is incorrectly 

f'ven as 27 July. Amhurst, in his 'Terr® 
ilius,' p. 185, alleges that on the monument 
there were these lines : 

A sero bello dives dumsque vocatas, 
A sero bello nomen et omen habet. 

They are not there now. The actual inscrip- 
tion is given in Wood's ' History and An- 
tiquities of the University of Oxford/ p. 566, 
eil786. 

Latewar was a famous preacher, and 'a 
Latin poet of some merit. Stow refers to his | 
poetic gifts (Annals,e&. 1631, p. 812). Samuel 
Daniel [q. v.] speak) of him as his friend, and | 
in the 'Apology ' to his ' Philotas ' mentions 1 
that Latewar told him that he l himself had 
written the same argument and caused it to | 
be presented in St. John's College, Oxon., j 
where, as I afterwards heard, it was worthily \ 
and with great applause performed.' Late- j 
war contributed verses to the Oxford ' Exe- ( 
quire ' on Sir Philip Sidney, as well as to I 
some other books. He also wrote : 1. ' Car- . 
men anopvrniovtvriKov, Coll. S. Johan. Bapt.,' I 
which was restored and augmented by Richard 1 
Andrews, a later fellow of the college. ' 
2. ' Concio Latina ad Academicos Oxon.,' 1 594, 
a sermon on Philippians iii. 1, preached on 
his admission to his B.D., and printed in 
1594 with his apology in Latin. A letter 
from Latewar to Sir Robert Cotton, of no 
particular interest, is preserved in Cotton. 
MS. Julius C. iii. f. 281. An epitaph on him 
is contained in the 'Affanire' of Charles Fitz- 
geflrey [q. v.] 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. i. 709 ; Hunter's Chorus 
Vatum, Addit. MS. 24491, f. 407; information 
kindly supplied by the Rev. W. H. Hutton, fel- 
low of St. John's College; authorities quoted.] 

C L K. 

LATEY, GILBERT (1626-1705), quaker, 
youngest son of John Latey, born at St. Issey, 
Cornwall, was baptised 20 Jan. 1626. His 
mother, whose name was Hocking, was ' a 
gentlewoman/ and her brother was married 
to a sister of Sir William Noy [q. v.], attor- 
ney-general. Latey's father was a well-to-do 
yeoman, xnaltster,and innkeeper. Latey served 
his apprenticeship to a tailor, and took service 
at Plymouth witn a master ' who was after- 
wards mayor of the town/ but he left this 
employment because he had doubts of his 
master's religious sincerity. 

In November 1648 he arrived in London, 
and soon commenced business as a tailor in 
the Strand. In 1654, although he was hear- 
ing four sermons a day, he was disturbed by 




religious difficulties, and attended the preach- 
ing of Edward Burrough j"q. v.], Francis 
Howgil, and others, at the house of Sarah 
Matthews, a widow, in Whitecross Street. 
He at once joined the Society of Friends, and 
shortly became one of their most influential 
members in London. He thereupon con- 
scientiously refused to make coats super- 
fluously adorned with lace and ribbons. Most 

'rank 
which 
declined. 

In 1659 he went to St. Dunstan's Church, 
Fleet Street, and after the sermon openly 
charged Dr. Thomas Manton To. v. J, the 
preacher, to prove his doctrine. Tne congre- 
gation growing to ' a fermentation,' a con- 
stable was sent for and he was taken before 
a magistrate. The latter told him that Man- 
ton was a very learned man, and could doubt- 
less prove by scripture what he said. ' That/ 
said Latey, ' is all I asked.' The magistrate 
accordingly dismissed him, with the remark 
that he had understood the quakers to be a 
mad sort of folk, but this one seemed rational 
enough. Soon afterwards Latey and sixteen 
others were thrown into a small dungeon 
at the Gatehouse, Westminster, for meet- 
ing together. They could only lie down 
\)j turns, and had neither straw to lie on, 
nor any light. Latey afterwards succeeded 
in proving charges of cruelty and extortion 
against Wickes, the master of the; prison. 

After his release Latey signed the petition 
of six hundred Friends, presented through Sir 
John Glanville, that they might ' lie body for 
body' in place of those already in prison. 
The request was refused. Latey constantly 
visited the numerous meetings in and around 
London, at Kingston, Hammersmith, Bark- 
ing, and Greenwich. While riding to Green- 
wich he was on one occasion stoned by a 
mob. In 1661 he was taken by a party of 
the king's foot-guards from a meeting in 
Palace Yard, and confined under the ban- 
queting-room at Whitehall, In 1663 he 
and George Whitehead procured, after a per- 
sonal appeal to Charles II, the release of 
sixty-three quakers imprisoned at Norwich, 
and a remission of their fines. He was again 
arrested at a meeting at Elisabeth Trot's 
house in Pall Mall, near the Duke of York's 

Salace (St. James's). The quakers continued, 
owever, to meet there untri 1666, when they 
removed to the more populous neighbourhood 
of Westminster. 

During the plague of 1665 Latey was in 
constant attendance on the sick, distributing 
money collected among the Friends. In Sep- 
tember 1670 he held meetings in Somerset, 
Devonshire, and Cornwall. But on learning 

x2 



Latey 



164 



Latham 



that Sir John Robinson, governor of the 
Tower, had given orders for tne pulling down 
of several meeting-houses in London, Latey, 
who held the title of the one in Wheeler 
Street, hurried back and managed to prevent 
its demolition. In 1671 Latey, in spite of 
the warning of his patron, Sir William Saw- 
kell (P Salkeld), that he had orders to arrest 
all who should be present at the Hammer- 
smith meeting on the following Sunday, 
preached there for an hour, and was accord- 
ingly arrested and fined. 

In 1679 Latey attain went by Bath and 
Bristol to Cornwall. He visited Thomas 
Lamplugh [q. v.], bishop of Exeter, after- 
wards archbishop of York, by whose influence 
he hoped to moderate the persecution of 
Friends in the west (letter from the bishop, 
dated 24 March 1693-4, in Brief Narrative), 
Soon after the accession of James II, Latey 
and Whitehead, who in the preceding reign 
had always been well received at court, in- 
duced the new king, after long attendance 
at Whitehall, to order the release of fifteen 
hundred Friends who were at the time in 
prison, and to remit the prisoners' fines of 20/. 
a month for non-attendance at church. Sub- 
sequent interviews of Latey with James led 
to the pardoning of other Friends in Bristol 
and elsewhere, and, in 1686, to the restoration 
of meeting-houses at the Savoy and at South- 
wark which had been seized as guard-houses 
for the king. Latey's house at the Savoy com- 
municated with the meeting-house by a stone 
Passage and flight of steps (Beck and Ball, 
London Friends' Meetings). In December 
1687 a third visit paid by Latey and White- 
head to the king was followed by another 
S reclamation of pardon. With William and 
[ary, Latey's personal influence was exerted 
no less successfully. On their accession he 

Presented an address, with the result that a 
undred quakers, most of whom were impri- 
soned for refusing the oath of allegiance, 
were set at liberty. It was owing to Latey 
and Whitehead's personal and persistent ap- 
plications at court that parliament passed the 
act in 1697 by which the quaker affirmation 
became equivalent to an oath. The act was 
made perpetual in 1715. 

Latey continued to preach at Hammer- 
smith and elsewhere until his death on 
15 Nov. 1705. He was buried at Kingston- 
on-Thames. He married Mary, only daugh- 
ter of John and Ann Fielder of Kingston, by 
whom he had eleven children, ten of whom 
died young. 

Latey wrote an address : ' To all you Tay- 
lors and Brokers who lyes in Wickedness/ 
London, 1660. In this he deprecates the de- 
ceits practised in his trade, the invention of 



' vain fashions and fancies unlike to sober men 
and women,' and the ' decking of themselves 
and servants' liveries so that they may be 
known to serve such and such a master.' 
Besides this he wrote four small tracts in 
conjunction with other quakers. 

Latey's character was of sterling integrity. 
His influence with the nobles, bishops, and 
great men was never used for his own ends. 
A courtier said of him that no man ' bore a 
sweeter character at court.' Whitehead call& 
him ' a sensible man, of good judgment.' An 
epistle of his, dated from Hammersmith 
22 Aug. 1705, shows he was one of the 
earliest to advocate the employment of women 
in offices of the society, 

[A Brief Narrative of the Life and Death, &c. r 
by Latey's nephew, Richard Hawkins, London, 
1707 ; Beck and Ball's London Friends' Meetings, 
1869, pp. 92, 131, 163-8, 220, 240, 250, 262, 312 ; 
Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. i. 306, 
Suppl. p. 1265 ; Friends' Library, Philad., 1837, 
vol. i. ; Sewel's History, i. 340 ; Webb's Fells of 
Swarthmoor, pp. 207-8, 217, 226, 234 ; Registers 
at Devonshire House.] C. F. S. 

LATHAM, JAMES (d. 1760?), portrait- 
painter, was a native of Tipperary. When 
young he studied art at Antwerp, and about 
1725 began to practise portrait-painting in 
Dublin. Latham was the earliest native 
artist who gained any repute in Ireland, and 
from his skill in painting portraits he was- 
called the * Irish Vandyck/ It is stated that 
he also worked for a short time in London. 
Latham's works are seldom met with out of 
Ireland, but are to be found in many family 
mansions there. His portraits of Margaret 
Womngton and of Gemmiani the composer at- 
tracted much notice. Several of his portraits 
were engraved, including those 01 Bishop 
Berkeley and Sir John Ligonier by John 
Brooks, Sir Samuel Cooke by John Faber,. 
jun., and Patrick Quin by Andrew Miller. 
Latham died in Trinity Street, Dublin, about 
1750. 

[Pasquin's Artists of Ireland ;. Gilbert's Hist, 
of Dublin, iii. 329; Walsh's Dublin, ii. 1163; 
Chaloner Smith's British Mezzotinto Portraits.] 

L.C. 

LATHAM, JOHN (1740-1837), ornitho- 
logist, was born 27 June 1740 at Eltham, 
Kent, where his father, John Latham, had 
long practised as a surgeon, and died 23 Aug. 
1788. He was educated at Merchant Taylors* 
School, studied anatomy under Hunter, and 
practised medicine for many years at Dart- 
ford. He soon acquired a considerable for- 
tune, and, retiring from practice in 1796, 
settled at Romsey, Hampshire. He received 
the degree of M.D. at Erlangen in 1795. 

Throughout his life Latham was an enthu- 



Latham 



165 



Latham 



siastic observer of nature, and was interested 
in archaeology. He was elected F.S.A. on 
15 Dec. 1774, and F.R.S. 25 May 1775, and 
he took a leading part in establishing the 
Linnean Society in 1788. Ornithology and 
•comparative anatomy were his favourite sub- 
jects of study, and his collection of birds was 
notably fine. He lived on terms of intimacy 
with the leading scientific men, and as early 
as 1771 began a correspondence with Thomas 
Pennant, which lasted till 1799. In his old 
.age pecuniary losses forced him to sell a great 
part of his library and museum, and he began, 
at the age of eighty-one, his best-known book, 
a ' General History of Birds/ with the hope 
of recovering his financial position. He lived 
during the last years of his long life with 
his son-in-law at Winchester, devoted to 
nature, active, patient, cheerful to the end. 
Lord Palmerston visited him in the autumn 
of 1886, when he was ninety-six years old, 
and described him as ' well, hearty, and cheer- | 
ful, eating a good dinner at five/ but adds < 
that he could no longer see to read (Dal- 
ling, Life of Palmerston, 1874, iii. 18, 19). 
He died 4 Feb. 1887, and was buried in the 
Abbey church of Romsey. An engraved por- 
trait forms the frontispiece to vol. iv. of the 
4 Naturalist.' 

Latham was twice married, for the first 
time in 1763, and for the second in 1798. His 
second wife was a Miss Delamott of Ealing. 
His son, also called John, a physician, died 
in 1848. 

Latham's chief works are : 1. 'A General 
Synopsis of Birds/ 3 vols. 4to, 1781-r6 ; this 
contained many new genera and species. 
2. ' Index Ornithologicus sive Systema Orni- 
thologise/ 2 vols. 4to, 1790, containing de- 
scriptions of all known birds and their habi- 
tats ; reissued with additions at Paris in 1809 
by Johanneau. The Linnean classification 
was modified in this book, and, as countless 
new specimens poured in upon Latham from 
all parts of the world, especially from Aus- 
tralia and the Pacific Islands, he prepared a 
second edition for publication, which is now 
in the hands of Professor Newton. 3. ' A 
General History of Birds/ 1821-8, 11 vols., 
Winchester. This, an enlargement of his 
1 Synopsis/ is Latham's great work, and was 
•dedicated to George IV. He designed, etched, 
and coloured all the illustrations himself. 
Latham is constantly referred to by orni* 
thologists as the authority for the assigned 
names of species; but, as Professor Newton re- 
marks, ' his defects as a compiler, which had 
been manifest before, rather increased with 
age, and the consequences were not happy.' 
The 'History' is, however, a marvellous 
achievement for a man at the age of 82. 



Latham helped to revise the second edition 
of Pennant's 'Indian Zoology* in 1798 ; ' the 
more laborious part, relative to the insects/ 
falling to Latham's share. . Two years later 
Latham's contribution on the subject reap- 
peared in 'Faunula Indica, concinnata a 
Joanne Latham et Hugone Davies/ ed. J. It. 
Foreter, Halle, 1795. Besides papers in the 
1 Philosophical Transactions ' and the ' Trans- 
actions of the Linnean Society/ Latham 
wrote accounts of 'Ancient Sculptures in 
the Abbey Church of Romsey' ('Archeeo- 
logia/ vol. xiv. 1801) and of an engraved 
brass plate from Netley Abbey {ib. vol. xv. 
1804). Other writings by his namesake, 
John Latham, M.D. (1761-1843) [q.v.], have 
been erroneously ascribed to him. 

[Works; Professor Newton in Encycl. Britann. 
xviii. 6, art. 'Ornithology;' Nichols's Literary 
Illustrations of the Eighteenth Century, vi. 613, 
&c. ; Nichols's Lit. Anecd. ix. 26 ; Naturalist, iv. 
26, &c, cf. ii. 56, 283; Gent. Mag. July 1837 ; 
Ann. Reg. 1837, p. 178.] M. G. W. 

LATHAM, JOHN, M.D. (1761-1843), 
physician, was born on 29 Dec. Iv61 at Gaws- 
worth, Cheshire, of which parish his great- 
uncle was rector. He was the eldest son of 
John Latham of Oriel College, Oxford, vicar 
of Siddington, Cheshire, and Sarah Podmore 
of Sandbach, Cheshire. After education at 
Manchester grammar school, he entered 
Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1778, gra- 
duated B. A. on 9 Feb. 1782, M.A. on 15 Oct. 
1784, M.B. on 3 May 1786, M.D. on 3 April 
1788. From 1782 to 1784 he studied medi- 
cine at St. Bartholomew's Hospital (On 
Diabetes, p. 133). He begun to practise 
medicine in Manchester, but soon moved to 
Oxford, where on 11 July 1787 he became 
physician to the Radcliffe Infirmary. In 1788 
ne removed to London, and was elected fellow 
of the College of Physicians on 80 Sept. 1789. 
He was elected physician to the Middlesex 
Hospital on 15 Oct. 1789, and resigned on his 
election to the same office at St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital on 17 Jan. 1793 (Manuscript 
Minute-book of Hospital). His practice be- 
came large, and he was a regular attendant 
at the College of Physicians, where he was 
censor the year after his election as fellow, 
and delivered the Harveian oration in 1794. 
He delivered the Gulstonian lectures in 1793, 
and the Croonian in 1795. He was president 
1813-19 inclusive. In 1795 he became phy- 
sician extraordinary to the Prince of Wales. 
He published 'A Plan of a Charitable Insti- 
tution to be established on the Sea Coast' in 
1791, and in 1796* On Rheumatism and Gout 
a Letter addressed to Sir George Baker, Bart.' 
[q. v.] In this letter he states his opinion 
that neither acute rheumatism nor gout 



Latham 



166 



Latham 



should be classed among inflammations, and 
that the seat of both is the radicles of the 
lymphatic vessels. He denies the heredity 
of gout, maintains the belief that an attack 
is ever beneficial to be erroneous, and ad- 
vocates a very elaborate system of treat- 
ment. 

Latham's house was in Bedford Row, and 
he had made a fortune and bought an estate 
at Sandbach before 1807. In that year he 
coughed up blood, and seemed about to die 
of consumption, but Dr. David Pitcairn cured 
him, and he retired for rest to his estate for 
two years. He had already (July 1802) re- 
signed his hospital physiciancy, but he grew 
tired of country life, and returned to London, 
where he toot a house in Harley Street. 
Practice soon came back to him, and he con- 
tinued it till 1829. He retired in that year 
to Bradwall Hall in Cheshire, where he died 
of stone in the bladder on 20 April 1843. 

Latham wrote ' Facts and Opinions con- 
cerning Diabetes ' in 1811. Half of the book | 
consists of long extracts from the Greek j 
writers and from Willis on the subject, and 
the other half of cases carefully recorded. ! 
He was in favour of a dietetic treatment, 
and supported the views of Dr. John Rollo ; 
fa. v.] The 'Medical Transactions' published | 
by the College of Physicians in London con- j 
tain ten papers by him : ' Cases of Tetanus/ 
11 Dec. 1806, describing the effects of 
opium ; ' Remarks on Tumours/ 11 Dec. 
1806, on the clinical methods of distinguish- 
ing ovarian from hepatic tumours ; l On 
Angina Notha/ 11 Dec. 1812, describing 
symptoms like those of angina pectoris, but 
due not to cardiac but to abdominal disease ; 
'On Lumbar Abscess/ 13 Jan. 1813, men- 
tioning the various directions it may take ; 
' On Leucorrhcea/ 31 March 1813; ' Cachexia 
Aphthosa,' 3 Jan. 1814: ' Superacetate of 
Lead in Phthisis/ 17 April 1815 ; i On 
Anthelmintics and their Effects on Epi- 
lepsy/ 15 Nov. 1815 ; 'On the Medicinal Pro- 
perties of the Potato/ the leaves of which he 
thinks superior as narcotics to henbane and 
hemlock ; ' On the Employment of Vene- 
section in Fits/ 16 Dec. 1819, a dissuasive 
from too frequent use of this remedy. His , 
writings show that the parts of physic in 
which ne excelled were clinical observation 
and acquaintance with the materia medica. 
He set aside a portion of his income for 
charity, and called this his corban fund. 
Besides his printed works he wrote an ela- 
borate ' Dissertation on Asthma/ lectures on 
medicine, and lectures on materia medica. 

Latham married Mary, daughter of Peter 
Mere, vicar of Prestbury, Cheshire. His 
eldest son, John, and his third son, Henry, 



are mentioned below, and his second son, 
Peter Mere, is noticed separately. 

Latham's portrait was painted by Dance 
in 1798, and, when he was president of the 
College of Physicians, by Jackson. 

Latham, John (1787-1853), poetical 
writer, eldest son of the above, born at Ox- 
ford on 18 March 1787, was sent to Maccles- 
field grammar school when five years old, 
and to Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1803. 
Reginald Heber [q . v.] was his contemporary 
ana friend. In 1806 he won the university 
prize for Latin verse by a poem on Trafalgar, 
and in that year, while still an undergraduate, 
was elected a fellow of All Souls College. 
In December 1806 he entered at Lincoln's. 
Inn. Soon afterwards he was attacked by 
ophthalmia, and became almost blind. He 
returned to his college, and resided there, 
or with his father, till 24 May 1821, when 
he married Anne, daughter of Sir Henry 
Dampier. In 1829 he settled in Cheshire, 
near nis father, whom he succeeded as squire 
in 1843. He died on 30 Jan. 1853. His eldest 
son, John Henry Latham (1823-1843), an 
accomplished scholar, had died while an 
undergraduate at Oxford, but two sons and 
a daughter survived him. His only publi- 
cation was a volume of poems, published 
anonymously at Sandbach in 1836, but a 
volume of two hundred and fifty pages was- 
printed in 1853, after his death, ' English 
and Latin Poems, Original and Translated/ 
They are devotional and domestic, the best 
being on the death of his wife. He trans- 
lated into English verse a long passage of 
Tasso's 'Jerusalem Delivered/ and one of 
his best Latin poems is a translation of the 
' Song of Judith/ His poems contain many 
reminiscences of Cowper, and while often 
graceful have seldom any higher merit. 

Latham, Hbnky (1794-1866), poetical 
writer, third son of the above, was Dorn in 
London 4 Nov. 1794, graduated at Brasenose 
College, Oxford, and there obtained a prize 
for Latin verse. He was admitted a barrister 
of Lincoln's Inn in 1820, but soon entered 
the church. He was vicar successively of 
Selmeston with Alciston and of Fittleworth, 
Sussex. He was a friend of Professor Conine- 
ton, and retained through life a taste for classi- 
cal studies. In 1863 he published at Oxford 
'Sertum Shakesperianum, subnexis aliquot 
inferioris notse floribus.' Sixteen are transla- 
tions from Shakespeare and four from Cowper, 
others from the prayer-book, while ten are 
short original Latin poems. He died of 
cholera. 6 Sept. 1866, at Boulogne. He was 
twice married. 

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. For the father : 
Papers in possession of Dr. J. A. Ormerod, his 



Latham 



167 



Latham 



grandson ; Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 393 ; Medi- 
cal Gazette, 5 May 1843, Memoir by his son; 
Works; manuscript Minute-books of St. Bartho- 
lomew's Hospital. For the son John : Memoir 
frefized to the posthumous volume of his poems, 
'or the son Henry : Information from Dr. J. A. 
Ormerod.] N. M. 

LATHAM, PETER MERE, M.D. (1789- 
1875), physician, second son of Dr. John 
Latham (1761-1843) [q. v.] and Mary Mere, 
was born in Fenchurcn Buildings, London, 
on 1 July 1789. His first education was at 
the free school of Sandbach, Cheshire, but in 
1797 he was sent to Macclesfield grammar 
school, of which his uncle was head-master, 
and thence in 1806 to Brasenose College, Ox- 
ford. He obtained the chancellor's priie for 
Latin verse, on ' Corinth/ in 1809, ana gradu- I 
ated B.A. 21 May 1810, M.A. 1818, M.B. 
1814, and M.D. 1816. He began his medical 
studies at St. Bartholomews Hospital in 
1810. It was then the custom for an in- 
tending physician to attach himself to one of 
the medical staff, and he chose Dr. Haworth, 
a member of his own college. He was elected 
a fellow of the College of Physicians on 
30 Sept. 1818, and delivered the Gulstonian 
lectures in 1819. He took a house in Gower 
Street, and in 1815 was elected physician to 
the Middlesex Hospital, which office he held 
till November 1824, when he was elected 
physician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 
In March 1823 he was asked by the govern- 
ment to undertake the investigation of an 
epidemic disorder then prevalent at the Mill- 
bank Penitentiary, and in 1825 published 
' An Account of tne Disease lately prevalent 
at the General Penitentiary.' Scurvy with 
diarrhoea and curious subsequent nervous dis- 
orders were the main features of the epidemic. 
More than half the prisoners were affected, 
and Latham, with Dr. Peter Mark Roget 

S. v.], proved that it was due to a too scanty 
et. They recommended at least one solid 
meal every day, better bread, and three half- 
pounds of meat for every prisoner every fort- 
night. This improved regimen put an end 
to the epidemic. In 1828 he published in 
the ' Medical Gazette ' ' Essays on some Dis- 
eases of the Heart/ in which he maintained 
that the administration of mercury till sali- 
vation was produced was essential to the cure 
of pericarditis. In June 1 836 he was elected, 
with Dr. Burrows, joint lecturer on medicine 
in the school of St. Bartholomew's Hospital 
(Manuscript Minute-book of Medical School). 
His lectures were delivered in a slow and 
formal style, but commanded attention from 
the full information they contained (informa- 
tion from Sir G. M. Humphry, a former at- 
tendant of the lectures). In the same year 



he published ' Lectures on Subjects connected 
with Clinical Medicine.' The first six are on 
methods of study and of observation, six 
more on auscultation and percussion, and two 
on phthisis. He made careful notes of his 
cases, and sixty folio volumes of these are in 
the library of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 
His clinical teaching was excellent. He was 
appointed physician extraordinary to the 
queen in 1837, but never attained a very 
large practice. In 1839 he delivered the Har- 
veian oration at the College of Physicians, 
and it was published with a dedication to Sir 
Henry Halford and the fellows. His descrip- 
tions of the merits of Sydenham, Sir Tho- 
mas Browne, Morton, and Arbuthnot are ad- 
mirable, while his Latin style is above the 
average level of such compositions. He also 
delivered the Lumleian lectures, and was three 
times censor— 1820, 1833, and 1887. In 1845 
he published ' Lectures on Clinical Medicine, 
comprising Diseases of the Heart/ a work of 
great originality, full of careful observation, 
and containing a discussion of all parte of 
the subject. Pericarditis was unknown to 
him except as part of acute rheumatism, and 
he held that a murmur taught an observer no 
more than whether the inside or the outside 
of the heart was diseased ; but his remarks 
on functional palpitation and on the cardiac 
physical signs in cases of phthisis have not 
been superseded, and deserve high praise. 
He treated acute rheumatism by bleeding, 
calomel, and opium, but was opposed to 
copious venesection. His discussion of the 
symptoms and post-mortem appearances of 
angina pectoris in relation to the case of Dr. 
Thomas Arnold of Rugby School is a model 
of the best kind of clinical dissertation, and 
though some of the thirty-eight lectures are 
now obsolete, they contain information of 
permanent value, and also repay study as 
examples of method. 

He had extreme emphysema at a some- 
what early age, and with it frequent attacks 
of asthma. These forced him in 1841 to re- 
sign his physiciancy at St. Bartholomew's, 
but he continued his private practice till 1865, 
when he left London and settled at Torquay, 
where he resided till his death, 20 July 1876. 
He was a small man, with bright grey eves 
and a larjje aquiline nose, and with a pleasing 
voice. His portrait was painted by John Jack- 
son (1778-1831) [q. v.] He married Diana 
Clarissa Chetwynd Stapleton in 1824, but she 
died in the following year (monument in the 
church of St. Bartholomew the Less). He 
afterwards married Grace Mary Chambers, 
and had four children. 

[Life by Sir Thomas Watson in St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital Reports, vol. xi. ; Biographical 



Latham 



168 



Latham 



Notes by Br. Robert Martin prefixed to the 
Collected Works of Dr. P. M. Latham, 2 vols., 
New Sydenham Society, 1876 ; Monk's Coll. of 
Phys. vol. iii. ; manuscript Minutes of Court of 
Governors of St Bartholomew's Hospital ; ma- 
nuscript Minute-book of Medical Officers of St 
Bartholomew's; Works.] N. M. 

LATHAM, ROBERT GORDON, M.D. 

(1812-1888), ethnologist and philologist, 
eldest son of Thomas Latham, vicar of 
Billingborough, Lincolnshire, was born at 
Billingborough on 24 March 1812. He was 
entered at Eton in 1819, and was 'admitted 
on the foundation in 1821. In 1829 he went 
to King's College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated B. A. in 1832, and was soon after- 
wards elected a fellow. In order to study 
philology he resided for a year on the con- 
tinent, first settling near Hamburg, then in 
Copenhagen, and finally in Christiania. In 
1839 he was elected professor of English 
language and literature in University Col- 
lege, London, and in 1841 produced his well- 
known text-book on ' The English Language.' 
He had also determined to enter the medical 
profession, and in 1842 became a licentiate of 
the Royal College of Physicians. He subse- 
quently obtained the degree of M.D. at the uni- 
versity of London. He became lecturer on 
forensic medicine and materia medica at the 
Middlesex Hospital, and in 1844he was elected 
assistant-physician to that hospital. But he 
chiefly devoted himself to ethnology and 
philology, and in 1849 abandoned medicine 
and resigned his appointments. In 1852 the 
direction of the ethnological department of 
the Crystal Palace was entrusted to him. 
In 1862 he made his celebrated protest against 
the central Asian theory of the origin of the 
Aryans, supporting views which have since 
been strongly advocated by Benfey, Parker, 
Canon Taylor, and others. Meanwhile he 
devoted himself to a thorough revision of 
Johnson's ' Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage,' which he completed in 1870. He sub- 
sequently spent much time on a 'Dissertation 
on the Hamlet of Saxo Grammaticus and of 
Shakespeare/ In his later years Latham 
frequently gave lectures on his favourite sub- 
j ects, and in 1863 he obtained a pension of 
100/. from the civil list. Latterly he was 
afflicted with aphasia, and died at Putney on 
9 March 1888. 

Mr. Theodore Watts, an intimate friend 
for many years, characterises Latham as ' one 
who for brilliance of intellect and encyclo- 
paedic knowledge had, in conversation at 
least, scarcely an equal among his contem- 
poraries, and who certainly was less enslaved 
By authority than any other man.' This in- 
dependence of mind gave his literary work 



its success, despite his frequent obscurities of 
style and his occasional inaccuracy. His 
works on the English language passed through 
many editions, and were regarded as autho- 
ritative till they were superseded by those 
of Dr. Richard Morris and Professor Skeat. 
His lexicographical efforts were not very suc- 
cessful. 

Latham's principal works are : 1. l Nor- 
way and the Norwegians,' 2 vols., London, 
1840. 2. < The English Language,' London, 
1841 ; 5th edition 1862. 3. * An Elementary 
English Grammar,' London, 1843 ; new edi- 
tion, revised and enlarged, 1875. 4. * First 
Outlines of Logic applied to Grammar and 
Etymology,' London, 1847. 5. ' History and 
Etymology of the English Language, for the 
use of Classical Schools,' London, 1849; 2nd 
edition 1854. 6. ' Elements of English Gram- 
mar, for the use of Ladies' Schools,' London, 
1849. 7. 'A Grammar of the English Lan- 
guage, for the use of Commercial Schools,' 
London, 1850. 8. ' The Natural History of 
the Varieties of Man,' London, 1850. 9. 'A 
Handbook of the English Language,' London, 
1851; 9th edition 1875. 10. 'Man and his 
Migrations,' London, 1851 . 11.' The Ethno- 
logy of the British Colonies andDependencies,' 
London,1851. 12. 'The Ethnology of Europe,' 
London, 1852. 13. ' The Ethnology of the 
British Islands,' London, 1852. 14. ' The Na- 
tive Races of the Russian Empire,' London, 
1853 (< Ethnographical Library*). 15. ' Varie- 
ties ot the Human Race ' (' Orr's Circle of the 
Sciences,' vol. i.), London, 1854. 16. ' Na- 
tural History Department of Crystal Palace. 
Ethnology. Described by R. G. L.,' London, 
1854. 17. ' Logic and its Application to 
Language,' London, 1856. 18. ' Ethnology 
of India,' London, 1859. 19. 'Descriptive 
Ethnology,' 2 vols., London, 1859. 20.'Opus- 
cula. Essays, chiefly Philological and Eth- 
nographical,' London, I860, 8vo. 21. ' Ele- 
ments of Comparative Philology,' London, 

1862. 22. 'The Nationalities of Europe,' 
London, 1863. 23. 'Two Dissertations on 
the Hamlet of Saxo Grammaticus and of 
Shakespeare,' London, 1872, 8vo. 24. ' Out- 
lines of General or Developmental Philology. 
Inflection,' London, 1878. 25. ' Russian and 
Turk, from a Geographical, Ethnological, and 
Historical Point of View,' London, 1878. 

Latham also edited and largely rewrote 
Johnson's ' Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage,' London, 1866-70, 4to. He wrote a life 
of Sydenham for the Sydenham Society's 
edition of his ' Works,' 1848. He was joint- 
author with Professor D. T. Ansted of a 
work on the Channel Islands, 1862; edited 
' Horse Ferales ' by J. M. Eemble, London, 

1863, 4to ; and Prichard's ' Eastern Origin 



Latham 



169 



Lathbury 



of the Celtic Nations/ 1867. He translated 
(with Sir E. Creasy) ' Frithiof's Saga' and 
'Axel' from the Swedish of Tegner, 1838; 
and edited the ' Germania ' of Tacitus, with 
ethnological dissertations and notes, Lon- 
don, 1851. 

[Mr. Theodore Watts in Athenaeum, 17 March 
1888, p. 340] G. T. B. 

LATHAM, SIMON (fl. 1618), falconer, 
derived his 'art and understanding ' from 
Henry Sadleir of Everley, Wiltshire, third 
son of Sir Ralph Sadleir, grand falconer to 
Queen Elizabeth. He was afterwards ap- 
pointed one of the officers under the master 
of the hawks. At the request of his friends 
he embodied his experiences in an excellent 
treatise entitled ' Lathams Falconry or the 
Faulcons Lure and Cure; in two Bookes. 
The first, concerning the ordering . . . of all 
Hawkes in generall, especially the Haggard 
Favlcon Gentle. The second, teaching ap- 
proved medicines for the cure of all Diseases 
m them' &c. ('Lathams new and second 
Booke of Falconrie, concerning the training 
vp of all Hawkes that were mentioned in his 
first Booke of the Haggart Favlcon, &c.'), 
2 pts., 4to, London, 1616-18 (other editions 
in 1638, 1658, and 1668). There was like- 
wise published under his name ' The Gentle- 
man's Exercise, or Supplement to the Bookes 
of Faulconry,' 4to, London, 1662. Latham 
is thought to have been the nenhew of Lewis 
Latham of Elstow, Bedfordshire, under fal- 
coner (1625) but afterwards (1627) serjeant 
falconer to the king (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1625-6 p. 544, 1627-8 p. 301, 1661-2 pp. 
366, 369), who died a reputed centenarian m 
May 1655 (Elstow parish register ; will re- 
gistered in P. G. C. 316, Aylett). A curious 
portrait of Lewis Latham is in the possession 
of his descendants, the Holden family of the 
United States. 

[Latham's Falconry; J. 0. Austin's Genealog. 
Diet, of Rhode Island; Harting's Bibliotheca 
accipitraria.] G-. G-. 

LATHBERY, JGHN, D.D. (Jl. 1360), 
Franciscan, was famous as a theologian 
throughout the later middle ages. Leland 
states that he was a friar of Heading and 
doctor of Oxford. According to Bale he 
flourished 1406, but this appears to be a mis- 
take. He was certainly at the provincial 
chapter of Friars Minors at London in 1348, 
but probably became D.D. after 1350, as his 
name does not occur in the list of masters of 
theology at Oxford in ' Monumenta Francis- 
cana,' vol. L 

His best-known work was a 'Commen- 
tary on Lamentations ' (called also ' LectursB 
Morales *)> of which many manuscripts are 



extant (at Oxford) ; it was printed at Ox- 
ford in 1482, and is one of the earliest books 
issued by the university press. Other works 
of his still extant in manuscript are ' Distinc- 
tiones Theologise ' or ' Alphabetum Morale ' 
or ' Loci Communes/ and extracts from a trea- 
tise ' De Luxuria Clericorum.' 

[Leland's Scriptores ; Bale's Scriptores ; Tan- 
ner's Bibl. Brit. ; The Grey Friars in Oxford 
(Oxf. Hist Soc.) ; Merton O0II.MSS. vol. clxxxix. ; 
Bernard's Cat. MSS. Angl.] A. G-. L. 

LATHBURY, THOMAS (1798-1865), 
ecclesiastical historian, son of Henry Lath- 
bury, was born at Brackley, Northampton- 
shire, in 1798, and educated at St. Edmund 
Hall, Oxford, whence he graduated B.A. in 
1824, and M.A. in 1827. Having taken holy 
orders, he was appointed curate of Chatteris, 
Cambridgeshire. Afterwards he was curate 
at Bath, and at Wootton, Northamptonshire. 
In 1831 he obtained the curacy of Mangots- 
field, Gloucestershire, and his fifth curacy 
was the Abbey Church, Bath, to which he 
was appointed in 1838. In 1848 he was pre- 
sented by Bishop Monk to the vicarage of 
St. Simon's, Baptist Mills, Bristol. He was 
one of the principal promoters of the church 
congress held at Bristol in September 1864. 
He died at his residence, Cave Street, St. 
Paul's, Bristol, on 11 Feb. 1865. His 
stipend from the established church at the 
time of his death amounted to little more than 
150/. a year. He left a widow and four 
children, three of them sons. The eldest 
son, Daniel Conner Lathbury, is a barrister ; 
the second is a clergyman of the church of 
England. 

His principal works, some, like his histories 
of convocation and the nonjurors, being of 
great value, are: 1. 'The Protestant Me- 
morial. Strictures on a Letter addressed by 
Mr. Pugin to the Supporters of the Martyrs' 
Memorial at Oxford/London [1830 ?], 12mo. 
2. 'A History of the English Episcopacy, 
from the Period of the Long Parliament to 
the Act of Uniformity, with Notices of the 
Religious Parties of the time, and a Review 
of Ecclesiastical Affairs in England from the 
Reformation,' London, 1836, 8vo. 3. 'A 
Review of a Sermon by the Rev. W. Jay on 
the English Reformation' (anon.), London, 
1837, 8vo. 4. ' The State of Popery and 
Jesuitism in England, from the Reformation 
to the . . . Roman Catholic Relief Bill in 
1829, and the Charge of Novelty, Heresy, 
and Schism against the Church of Rome sub- 
stantiated,' London, 1838, 8vo. 5. ' Protes- 
tantism the old Religion, Popery the new,' 
London [1838 ?], 12mo ; sixth thousand, much 
enlarged, London [1850?], 12mo. 6. 'The 
State of the Church of England from the 



Lathom 



170 



Lathom 



Introduction of Christianity to the period 
of the Reformation/ London, 1889, 12mo. 
7. 'GuyFawkes, or a complete History of 
the Gunpowder Treason . . . and some No- 
tices of the Revolution of 1688/ London, 
1889, 8vo ; 2nd edit., enlarged, London, 1840, 
8vo. 8. * The Spanish Armada, a.d. 1688, or 
the Attempt of Philip II and Pope Sixtus V 
to re-establish Popery in England/ London, 
1840, 8vo. 9. 'A Historv of the Convoca- 
tion of the Church of England, being an Ac- 
count of the Proceedings of Anglican Eccle- 
siastical Councils from the earliest Period/ 
London, 1842, 8vo ; 2nd edit., with consider- 
able additions, London, 1868, 8vo. 10. ' The 
Authority of the Services, (1) for the Fifth 
of November, (2) on Thirtieth of January, 
(3) the Twenty-ninth of May, (4) for the 
Accession of the Sovereign, considered/ Lon- 
don, 1843, 8vo, reprinted from the ' Church 
of England Quarterly JEteview/ 11. ' Memo- 
rials of Ernest the Pious, first Duke of Saxe- 
Gotha,and the lineal Ancestor of His Royal 
Highness Prince Albert/ London, 1848, 8vo. 
12. ' A History of the Nonjurors, their Con- 
troversies and Writings, with Remarks on 
some of the Rubrics in the Book of Common 
Prayer/ London, 1846, 8vo. 13. 'List of 
Printed Services belonging to T. Lathbury* 

S London, 1845 P], 8vo. 14. An edition of 
eremy Collier's ' Ecclesiastical History of 
Great Britain/ with a life of the author, 
the controversial tracts connected with the 
' History/ and an index, 9 vols. London, 1862, 
8vo. 15. ' A History of the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer and other Books of Authority; 
with ... an Account of the State of Re- 
ligion and of Religious Parties in England 
from 1640 to 1660/ London, 1868, and again 
1869, 8vo. 16. 'The Proposed Revision of 
the Book of Common Prayer/ London, 1860, 
8vo. 17. ' Facts and Fictions of the Bicen- 
tenary: a Sketch from 1640 to 1662/ Lon- 
don [1862], 8vo. Printed for the Bristol 
Church Defence Association. 18. * Oliver 
Cromwell, or the Old and New Dissenters, 
with Strictures on the Lectures of N. Hay- 
croft and H. Quick/ London [1862], 8vo. 
Printed for the Bristol Church Defence As- 
sociation. 

[Bristol Times and Mirror, 13 Feb. 1866, p. 2, 
col. 6, 14 Feb. p. 2, col. 6, 16 Feb. p. 2, col. 6; 
Crockford's Clerical Directory, 1860, p. 369; 
Foster's Men at the Bar, p. 267 ; Men of the 
Time, 1862, p. 468; Gent. Mag. ccxviii. 386; 
Lowndes's Bibl. Man. (Bohn), pp. 496, 1315.] 

T. 0. 
LATHOM, FRANCIS (1777-1832), no- 
velist and dramatist, born at Norwich in 
1777, is said to have been the illegitimate 
sou of an English peer. In early life he 



wrote for the Norwich Theatre, and probably 
acted there, but after 1801 he retired to In r 
verurie, where he lodged with a baillie, and 
subsequently removed to Bogdavie, a farm- 
house in Fyvie, Aberdeenshire, belonging to 
one Alexander Hennie. He was liberally 
provided with money and developed many 
eccentricities. He dressed, it is said, ' like 
a play-actor/ read regularly London news- 
papers, drank whiskey freely, interested him- 
self in theatrical gossip, wrote novels, and 
sang songs of his own composition. He was 
known in Fyvie as 'Mr. Francis or 'Boggie's 
Lord/ from the name of Ronnie's farmhouse, 
and his reputed wealth exposed him to fre- 
quent risk of being kidnapped by those who 
were anxious to secure so profitable a lodger. 
In his last years he lived with Rennie at 
Milnfield farm in the parish of Monquhitter, 
and died there suddenly on 19 May 1832. He 
was buried in the Rennies* burial plot in the 
churchyard of Fyvie. 

His writings, which met with some suc- 
cess, are : 1. ' AH in a Bustle ; a comedy/ 
8vo, Norwich, 1795; 2nd edit. 1800, never 
acted. 2. * The Midnight Bell ; a German 
story/ 8 vols. 12mo, London, 1798 ? ; another 
edit. 1800P ; 2nd edit. 1825 (translated into 
French, 3 vols. 16mo, Paris, 1799). 3. 'The 
Castle of Ollada/ 2 vols. 12mo, London, 
1799? 4. 4 Men and Manners; a novel,' 
4 vols. 12mo, London, 1799 ; another edit. 
1800. 5. 'The Dash of the Day; a comedy,' 
2nd and 3rd edits. 8vo, Norwich, 1800, acted 
at Norwich. 6. ' Mystery ; a novel/ 2 vols. 
12mo, London, 1800 (translated into French 
and German). 7. ' Holiday Time, or the 
School Boy's Frolic ; a farce/ acted at Nor- 
wich, 8vo, Norwich, 1800. 8. 'Orlando and 
Seraphina, or the Funeral Pile ; an heroic 
drama/ 8vo, London [Norwich printed 
1800]; another edit. 1803, acted at Norwich. 
9. ' Curiosity ; a comedy/ adapted from the 
French of Madame de Genlis, acted at Nor- 
wich (8vo, 1801). Genest describes it as 'a 
good piece ; considerably better than Ma- 
dame Genlis's original ; the moral is excel- 
lent ' (Hist. Account, x. 222-3). 10. ' The 
Wife of a Million ; a comedy/ acted at Nor- 
wich, Lincoln, and Canterbury, 8vo, Norwich 
[1802]. 11. 'Astonishment!!! a romance 
of a century ago/ 2 vols. 12mo, London, 
1802. 12. ' The Castle of the Thuilleries, 
or Narrative of all the Events which have 
taken place in the interior of that Palace. 
Translated from the French/ 2 vols. 8vo, 
London, 1808. 18. ' Very Strange but Very 
True ; a novel/ 4 vols. 12mo, 1803. 14. ' Er- 
nestina; a tale from the French/ 2 vols. 
12mo, London, 1803. 16. 'The Impene- 
trable Secret, Find it Out/ 2 vols. 12mo> 



Lathrop 



171 



Latimer. 



London, 1806. 16. 'The Mysterious Free- 
booter, or the Days of Queen Bess; a 
romance/ 4 vols. 12mo, London, 1806. 
17. ' Human Beings ; a novel/ 3 vols. 12mo, 
London, 1807. 18. « The Fatal Vow, or 
St. Michael's Monastery ; a romance/ 2 vols. 
12mo, London, 1807. 19. 'The Unknown, 
or the Northern Gallery/ 3 vols. 12mo, 
1808. 20. 'London, or Truth without 
Treason/ 4 vols. 12mo, London, 1809. 

21. 'Romance of the Hebrides, or Wonders 
Never Cease/ 8 vols. 12mo, London, 1809. 

22. ' Italian Mysteries, or More Secrets 
than One j a romance/ 3 vols. 12mo, Lon- 
don, 1820 (translated into French by Jules 
Saladin, 4 vols. 12mo, Paris, 1823). 23. 'The 
One Pound Note, and other tales/ 2 vols. 
12mo, London, 1820. 24. 'Puzzled and 
Pleased, or the Two Old Soldiers, and 
other tales/ 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1822. 
25. 'Live and Learn, or the first John 
Brown, his Friends, Enemies, and Acquaint- 
ances, in Town and Country; a novel/ 
4 vols. 12mo, London, 1823. 26. 'The Polish 
Bandit, or Who is my Bride ? and other 
tales/3 vols. 12mo,London, 1824. 27. ' Young 
John Bull, or Born Abroad and Bred at 
Home/ 3 vols. 12mo, London, 1828. 
28. 'Fashionable Mysteries, or the Rival 
Duchesses, and other tales/ 3 vols. 12mo, 
London, 1829. 29. 'Mystic Events, or the 
Vision of the Tapestry. A Romantic Legend 
of the days of Anne Boleyn/ 4 vols. 8vo, 
London, 1830. 

[Lathom's Works; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; Notes 
and Queries, 2nd ser. iv. 259 ; Fyvie Parish 
Magazine, May 1892; information most kindly 
supplied by the Bey. A. J. Milne, LL.D., minister 
of Fyvie.] G. G. 

LATHROP, JOHN (d. 1653), indepen- 
dent minister. [See Lotheopp.] 

LATHY, THOMAS PIKE {fl. 1820), 
novelist, was born in Exeter in 1771 . Though 
bred to trade he devoted himself from 1800 
to 1821 to literary production. He appears 
to have been in America in 1800, when his 
' Reparation, or the School for Libertines, a 
dramatic piece, as performed at the Boston 
Theatre with great applause/ was published 
at Boston ' for the benefit of the author/ 
The only other work of Lathy's in the Bri- 
tish Museum Library is his ' Memoirs of the 
Court of Louis XlV, in three volumes, with 
splendid embellishments/ London, 1819, 8vo, 
a compilation of some merit, based upon 
contemporary memoirs and letters, and dedi- 
cated to theprince regent. * The Rising Sun/ 
1807, and « The Setting Sun/ 1809, two novels | 
by Eaton Stannard Barrett [q .v.], issued with- 1 
out the author's name, have been wrongly at- 



tributed to Lathy by Watt. He is also cre- 
dited by the same authority with six other 
novels : * Paraclete/ 1805, 5 vols.; 'Usurpa- 
tion/ 1806, 3 vols. ; « The Invisible Enemy/ 
1806, 4 vols.; 'Gabriel Forrester/ 1807, 
4 vols. ; ' The Misled General/ 1807, anon. ; 
j ' Love, Hatred, and Revenge/ 1809, 8 vols. 
t In 1819 Lathy perpetrated a successful 
plagiaristic fraud. At the time a kind of 
mania was prevalent among book-buyers for 
angling literature. Lathy accordingly called 
upon Gosden, the well-known bookbinder 
and publisher, with what he alleged to be an 
original poem on angling. ' Gosden purchased 
the manuscript for 80/., and had it published 
as " The Angler, a poem in ten cantos, with 
notes, etc., by Piscator " [T. P. Lathy, esq.], 
with a whole-length portrait of himself, armed 
j with a fishing-rod and landing-net, leaning 
, sentimentally against a votive altar dedicated 
I to the manes of Walton and Cotton.' After 
a number of copies were printed on royal 
I paper, and one on vellum at a cost of 10/., 
it was discovered that the poem was copied 
almost in toto from ' The Anglers. Eight 
Dialogues in verse/ London, 1768, 12mo (re- 
printed in Ruddiman'8 ' Scarce, Curious, and 
Valuable Pieces.' Edinburgh, 1773), by 'Dr. 
Thomas Scott of Ipswich' [q. v.] The fraud 
was pointed out by Scott's great-nephew, 
the possessor of the original manuscript in 
autograph, in the 'Gentleman's Magazine' 
(1819, if. 407). 

[Biog. Diet, of Living Authors, p. 196 ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit. ii. 689 ; flalkett and Laing's Diet. 
Anoo. Lit. pp. 92, 2217 : Notes and Queries, 3rd 
ser. vii. 17 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. 8. 

LATIMER, HUGH, D.D. (1485 P- 
1566), bishop of Worcester, son of a Leices- 
tershire yeoman-farmer of the same names, 
was born at Thurcaston. From Foxe's state- 
ment that he entered Cambridge at four- 
teen, it has been inferred that he was only 
eighteen when he took his bachelor's degree 
in 1510. The statement of his servant (see 
below), that he was threescore and seven 
in Edward VTs time, places his birth more 
probably between 1480 and 1486. 'My 
father,' he says in a sermon, 'kept me to 
school, or else I had not been able to have 
preached before the King's Majesty [Ed- 
ward VI] now. He married my sisters with 
5/. or twenty nobles apiece ; so that he brought 
them up in godliness and fear of God. He 
kept hospitality for his poor neighbours ; and 
some alms he gave to the poor.' From an- 
other sermon we learn that nis father taught 
him archery, and how to May his body in 
his bow.' In 1497, when his father served 
Henry VH against the Cornish rebels at 
Blacldieath, Hugh buckled on his armour. 



. Latimer 



172 



Latimer 



In' 1506 he was sent to Cambridge, and was 
elected to a fellowship in Clare Hall in Fe- 
bruary 1510, just before graduating B. A. In 
1514 he proceeded M.A. He took priest's 
orders at Lincoln, but the date is not known. 
In 1522 he was one of twelve preachers 
licensed by his university to preach in any 
part of England, and he was also appointed 
to carry the silver cross of the university in 
processions. 

In 1524 he attained the degree of B.D., 
but, as appears by the proctors' books, did 
not pay the usual fees, and his right to the 
degree was afterwards denied. His public 
oration on that occasion was directed against 
the teaching of Melanchthon, as he still ad- 
hered to the old religion. One of his hearers 
was Bilney, the ruture martyr, who be- 
came his intimate friend, and influenced his 
opinions [see Bilney, Thomas]. With Bil- 
ney he went about visiting prisoners and sick 
persons. The first time that he had an inter- 
view with Henry VIII (six years later) he 
obtained the pardon of a woman whom he 
had seen unjustly imprisoned at Cambridge. 
On 28 Aug. 1524 he was named trustee in 
a deed to nnd a priest to sing mass in Clare 
Hall chapel for the soul of one John a Bol- 
ton ; and in October, being at Kimbolton, on 
his way home to Thurcaston, he wrote the 
first of his extant letters, applying to Dr. 
Greene, the vice-chancellor of Cambridge, in 
behalf of Sir Richard Wingfield, who was 
desirous to become steward of the university. 

In 1525 he preached in Latin in the uni- 
versity church. The diocesan, Bishop West 
of Ely, came up to hear him unexpectedly, 
and entered just after he had begun his ser- 
mon. Latimer adroitly changed his dis- 
course, and started from Heb. ix. 11 to de- 
scribe the office of a * high priest ' or bishop. 
West thanked him for his good admonition, 
and asked him to preach a sermon against 
Luther. Latimer wisely answered that he 
could not refute Luther's doctrines, not hav- 
ing read his works, which had been for some 
years prohibited. The bishop was not satis- 
fied, and remarked that Latimer ' smelt of the 
pan/ and would repent. The sole account 
of this interview hardly does justice to West's 
undoubted sagacity. He inhibited Latimer 
from preaching in his diocese, and, to counter- 
act his influence, preached himself in Barn- 
well Abbey, near Cambridge. But Latimer's 
friend, Robert Barnes [a. v.], prior of the 
Austin Friars at Cambridge, being exempt 
from episcopal jurisdiction, lent him his 
pulpit on Sunday, 24 Dec., while Barnes 
himself preached a violent sermon at St. 
Edward's Church. Barnes was soon after- 
wards obliged to abjure before Wolsey as 



legate, and Latimer had to explain himself 
before the same authority. He disowned 
Lutheran tendencies, and, being examined 
by Wolsey's chaplains, Dr. Capon and Dr. 
Marshall, showed himself better versed in 
Duns Scotus than his examiners. He also 
declared what he had said before the Bishop 
of Ely, and in the end was dismissed by the 
cardinal with liberty to preach throughout 
all England. 

On 19 Dec. 1529 Latimer again provoked 
criticism by his two famous sermons ' on the 
card,' preached in St. Edward's Church, in 
I which ne told his hearers allegorically how 
to win salvation by playing trumps. This 
gave offence by his depreciation 01 what he 
called ' voluntary works,' such as pilgrim- 
j ages or costly gifts to churches, in compari- 
son with works of mercy. Prior Buckennam 
[q. v.], of the Black Friars, Cambridge, an- 
swered him by preaching from the game of 
1 dice, showing his hearers now to throw cinque 
and quatre to protect themselves against 
, Lutheranism. Some other foolish observa- 
tions brought upon him a withering re- 
joinder from Latimer ; but some fellows of 
St. John's College continued the controversy 
with Latimer. 

1 Latimer incurred additional displeasure 
because he was known to favour Henry VIII's 
I divorce. In January 1530 the king enjoined 
, silence as to their private dispute both upon 
him and Buckennam. But in the next 
• month Gardiner came to Cambridge and ob- 
tained the appointment of a select committee 
of divines to report upon the validity of the 
marriage to Catherine. In the list of the 
committee which he forwarded to the king, 
Latimer's name, marked, like others favour- 
t able to the king's purpose, with an A, ap- 
1 pears in the class of ' masters in theology,' 
! not in that of doctors. Latimer was at once 
j appointed to preach before the king at Wind- 
sor on 13 March, to the deep annoyance of 
I his opponents ; and the king, highly com- 
I mending his sermon, remarked significantly 
! to the Duke of Norfolk that it was very un- 
palatable to the vice-chancellor of Cam- 
: bridge, who was present during part of it. 
Latimer received for his sermon the usual 
gratuity of 20«. paid to a court preacher, and 
a further sum of 5/. from the privy purse 
! (Cal. Henry VIII, v. 317, 749). His ex- 

Senses to and from Cambridge were also 
efrayed through the vice-chancellor (ib. p. 
I 751). About this time royal letters were 
1 sent to Cambridge for the appointment of 
twelve divines, to join a like number from 
Oxford, in examining books containing ob- 
jectionable opinions. Latimer was one of 
those selected for this duty by the vice-chan- 



Latimer 



173 



Latimer 



cellor of his own university, and he was pre- 
sent on 24 May, when the report of the com- 
mission was presented to the king, and the 
list of mischievous books and errors con- 
tained in them was ordered to be proclaimed 
by preachers in their sermons. 

An animated letter to the king in favour 
of the free circulation of an English Bible on 
1 Dec. 1530 has been erroneously attributed I 
to Latimer by Foxe. Neither of the two 
manuscript copies of this letter in the Public 
Record Office bears the date appended to it 
in Foxe or the name of the writer, who seems 1 
to be a layman, and accuses the clergy of 
tyranny in suppressing 'the Scripture in 
English,' i.e. Tyndale's Bible, one of the 
books disapproved by Latimer and his fellow- 
commissioners. 

Latimer was now in high favour, and by 
the influence of Cromwell and Dr. (afterwards 
Sir William) Butts [q. v.] was presented to 
the benefice of West Kington, or West Kine- 
ton, in Wiltshire, on the border of Glouces- 
tershire. Although in a remote and solitary 
district, the living was valued four years later 
at 17/. 1*. ( Valor Ecclesiasticus, ii. 134), then 
a good clerical stipend. He was instituted 
14 Jan. 1531. Soon afterwards a sermon 
preached by him (probably, as the text indi- 
cates, on 30 May 1531) at the neighbouring 
pariah of Marshfield in Gloucestershire pro- 
voked a remonstrance from William Sner- 
wood, the rector of Dyrham. He was reported 
to have said that almost all the clergy , bishops 
included, instead of being shepherds entering 
by the door, were thieves, whom there was 
not hemp enough in England to hang. Sher- 
wood not unnaturally stigmatised it as a 
' mad satire.' Latimer, in a long and angry 
reply, said that he only referred to ' all popes, 
bishops, and rectors who enter not by the 
door, not to all clergy without qualification 
(Foxe, Martyrs, ed. Townsend, 1838, vii. 
478-84). 

Meanwhile Latimer's preaching had been 
censured for other matters in convocation, and 
articles were drawn up on 3 March against 
him, Edward Crome [q. v.], and Bilney. 
Within a year Crome recanted, Bilney 
suffered at the stake, and Bainham, another 
martyr, had declared that he knew no one 
who preached the pure word of God except 
Latimer and Crome. But Latimer seems to 
have remained almost a twelvemonth unmo- 
lested. He had friends at court, and Sir 
Edward Baynton, a Wiltshire gentleman in 
high favour with Henry VIII, wrote to warn 
him of the complaints made against him. 
Before he left London he had preached at 
Abchurch, it was said in defiance of the 
bishop, but with the consent of the incum- 



bent, at the request of certain merchants, 
and he said he was not aware of any epi- 
scopal inhibition. But the sermon was cer- 
tainly open to misinterpretation ; for he sug- 
gested the possibility of St. Paul, had he 
lived in that day, being accused to the bishop 
as a heretic, and obliged to bear a fagot at 
Paul's Cross. His object was to advocate 
freedom of preaching, the great cure, in 
Latimer's opinion, for the evils of the time. 
He told Baynton that the Bishop of London 
himself would be better employed in preach- 
ing than in trying to interrupt him in that 
duty by a citation. 

The citation, however, could only be served 
on him by Dr. Hilley, chancellor to the 
Italian bishop of Salisbury, Cardinal Cam- 
peggio, and Hilley, as Latimer insisted, could 
himself correct him if necessary, without 
compelling him to take a journey up to Lon- 
don in a severe winter. Latimer had de- 
clared his mind to the chancellor, in presence 
of Sir Edward Baynton, upon purgatory and 
the worship of saints, the chief points on 
which he was accused of heresy. Hilley, 
however, thought best to serve nim with a 
citation (10 Jan. 1532) to appear before the 
Bishop of London at St. Paul's on the 29th. 
He obeyed, and the bishop brought him be- 
fore convocation, where, on 11 March, a set 
of articles, much the same as those sub- 
scribed by Crome, were proposed to him. 
These he refused to sign, ana he was com- 
mitted to custody at Lambeth, but was al- 
lowed an opportunity of going to see Arch- 
bishop Warham. He was prevented by ill- 
ness, but wrote complaining of being kept 
from his flock at the approach of Easter. 
He declared his preaching to be quite in ac- 
cordance with the fathers, and said he did 
not object to images, pilgrimages, praying to 
saints, or purgatory. He only considered 
these things not essential, and there were 
undeniable abuses which he might appear to 
sanction by a bare subscription. Ultimately 
he consented to sign two of the articles, and 
on 10 April he made a complete submission 
before the assembled bishops; whereupon 
he was absolved, and warned to appear on 
15 April for further process. 

Unluckily, he immediately gave new of- 
fence by a letter to one Greenwood, in which 
he denied having confessed to any error of 
doctrine, but only to indiscretion. For this 
he was ordered to appear again and make 
answer on the 19th, when he appealed to the 
king, whose supremacy over the church con- 
vocation had been obbged to acknowledge in 
the preceding year. Henry, however, re- 
mitted the decision of his case to convoca- 
tion, and on the 22nd Latimer confessed that 



Latimer 



174 



Latimer 



he had erred not only in discretion but in doc- 
trine. He was then taken back into favour 
at the king's request, on condition that he 
did not relapse again (Wilkihs, Concilia, 
iii. 746, 748 ; Latimer, Remains, p. 366). A 
few days later he visited, in Newgate, his ad- 
mirer Bainham, then under sentence as a 
relapsed heretic, and urged him not to throw 
away his life without cause, as some at least 
of the articles he had maintained were doubt- 
ful ; but he was obliged to leave him to his 
fate. 

Notwithstanding his recantation, Latimer's 
prosecution had gained sympathy for him in 
the west, and on returning to his benefice he 
was invited to preach at Bristol on 9 March 
1583. In this sermon he was reported to 
have revived his old heresies, and also to have 
declared that our Lady was a sinner. The 
mayor asked him to preach again at Easter; 
but the Bristol clergy took alarm, procured 
an inhibition against any one preaching with- 
out the bishop's license, and set up Drs. 
Hubbardine and Powell to answer Latimer s 
dangerous doctrines from the pulpit. The 
matter was reported in convocation, and a 
copy of Latimer's submission, signed by his 
own hand, was sent down to Bristol. Anne 
Boleyn had just been proclaimed queen, and 
the dean of "Bristol had got into trouble for 
forbidding prayers for her. Latimer's friends, 
headed by John Hilsey [q. v.], prior of the 
Black Friars at Bristol, defended him, and 
Hubbardine and Powell were committed to 
the Tower, with some of the opposite party 
as well. A commission was at the same 
time issued to John Bartholomew, a local 
collector of customs, as a fit person to inves- 
tigate the whole question, with the aid of five 
or six others selected by himself {Calendar 
Henry VIII, vol. vi. Nos. 796, 799, 873, vol. 
viii. No. 1001). And although on 4 Oct. 
following the Bishop of London issued an 
inhibition against Latimer preaching in his 
diocese, it was clear that the whole business 
advanced his favour at court. 

Next spring (1684) he was appointed to 
preach before the king every Wednesday in 
Lent, and the most famous doctors of Oxford 
and Cambridge came to hear him. To give 
an appearance of fair play, Roland Philips, 
the renowned vicar of Croydon, had liberty to 
dispute with him, but he was hampered by a 
threat at least of the Tower. Sir Thomas More, 
when awaiting his examination at Lambeth, 
saw Latimer in the garden very merry, ' for 
he laughed,' says Sir Thomas, ' and took one 
or twain about the neck so handsomely that 
if they had been women I would have weened 
that he had been waxen wanton.' He was 
made a royal chaplain, and licenses to preach 



were granted at his request, always with the 
strict injunction that the preachers should 
say nothing prejudicial to the king's marriage 
with Anne Boleyn. He suggested to Crom- 
well that the commissioners did not push 
sufficiently the obnoxious oath to the suc- 
cession {Remains, p. 867). Next year also, 
shortly before he was made a bishop, he 
was appointed one of nine commissioners to 
investigate the case of Thomas Patmer, a 
heretic. 

Yet in February 1536 a strange report got 
abroad that he had ' turned over the leaf,' and 
in preaching before the king had defended the 
pope's authority, the worship of the Virgin 
1 and saints, and the use of pilgrimages. His 
! promotion in the summer to the bishopric of 
, Worcester is sufficient evidence against the 
* story. The royal assent having been given 
I to his election, 12 Aug., he went up to Lon- 
don from Bristol in the end of the month, 
and, after arranging (with some trouble) about 
his first-fruits and other matters, had his 
temporalities restored 4 Oct., and returned 
as bishop to his diocese, probably in Novem- 
ber. In the interval he had even (though 
in Cromwell's name) given Cranmer a sharp 
reproof for 'looking upon the king's business 
through his fingers*' His advancement may 
have been due to Anne Boleyn's influence, 
to whom on 18 Aug. he gave a bond for 
200/. (Cal. Henry VIII, vol. xi. No. 117) ; 
but we do not find in his writings any ex- 
pression of regard for her. 
I Under Cromwell's visitation some insub- 
1 ordinate monks of the cathedral priory at 
[ Worcester had brought charges of treason 
against their aged prior. The man bore a 
high character, ana his accusers very bad 
ones ; but he had apparently transgressed 
some statutes and been too indulgent to cer- 
! tain brethren who thought Catherine of Arra- 
gon Henry VIH's true wife. A commission 
I was sent down, and in the end he was com- 
pelled to resign. Even the king was inclined 
to continue him in office ; but Latimer's ad- 
, vice being asked, he wrote that if ' that great 
i crime ' (whatever it may have been) was 
! proved against him, it was enough to have 
J snared his life ; but in any case he was too 
' old, and as Cranmer and Dr. Legh (a very bad 
! authority) were agreed as to his incompetence, 
! Latimer subscribed to their opinion. 

In March 1536 Latimer was at Lambeth 
, along with Cranmer and Dr. Nicholas Shax- 
j ton [q. v.] examining heretics, against one of 
! whom a letter of the time states that he 
was the most extreme of the three. He also 
preached at Paul's Cross in his old vein, de- 
nouncing in homely language (not very in- 
telligibly reported) the luxury of bishops, 



Latimer 



175 



Latimer 



abbots, and other ' strong thieves.' Latimer • 
was then in London attending that session of 
parliament in which the smaller monasteries 
were suppressed. Latimer said, in preaching 
before Edward VI, that ' when their enor- l 
mities were first read in the parliament house, 
the*y were so great and abominable that there 1 
wa-s nothing but " Down with them."' But 
lie went on to lament that many of the abbots 
were made bishops to save the charge of their 
pensions. He was dissatisfied, even at the 
time, that there was no real reformation, but 
only plunder. He believed, at least to some 
extent, in the defamatory reports. Yet in 
spite of his strong prejudices, he told the 
king, as he afterwaras declared, that it was 
not well to use as royal stables buildings 
which had been raised and maintained for the 
use of the poor (Sermons, p. 98). 

On 9 June Latimer preached the opening 
sermon to convocation, denouncing tne de- 
gradation of Christ's word by superstitions 
about purgatory and images. In the after- 
noon he preached again, and asked the as- 
sembled clergy what good they had done to 
the people during the last seven years. They 
had Durned a dead man and tried to burn a 
living one (meaning himself) ; but the real 
impulse to preach oftener had come from the 
king. This sermon was delivered in Latin, 
but an English version of it was published 
in the following reign. Being addressed ex- 
clusively to the clergy it did not correct the 
rumours, which grew again, that he had re- 
canted his past preaching. But he cleared 
himself of these imputations completely in a 
sermon at Paul's Cross on the 17th. Convo- 
cation then proceeded to pass acts in accord- 
ance with some of his suggestions. It drew 
up a set of articles of religion and a declara- 
tion touching the sacrament of holy orders, 
both of which Latimer signed with the other 
divines present, and it abrogated a number of 
superfluous holidays. It also delivered an 
opinion, signed by Latimer in like manner, 
declaring that it lay with sovereign princes 
and not with the pope to summon general 
councils. There was no doubt now that he 
was a great promoter of heresy in the king's 
councils, ana in the Lincolnshire and York- 
shire rebellions at the end of the year the 
insurgents repeatedly demanded that he and 
Cranmer should be delivered up to them or 
banished. 

In 1537 he took part in the assembly of 
divines called by the king to settle points of 
doctrine ; and it was probably at this time 
that he held a paper discussion with the king 
himself upon purgatory, and tried to show 
that the dissolution of the monasteries could 
only be justified on the theory that purga- 



tory was a delusion. In July the bishops 
brought their labours to a close in the com- 
position of ' The Institution of a Christian 
Man/ commonly known as 'The Bishops' 
Book.' The theological discussions which 
went to its formation were not to Latimer's 
mind. He declared that they perplexed him, 
and that he ' had lever be poor parson of 
poor Kineton again than to continue thus 
Bishop of Worcester.' When Darcy was 
committed to the Tower, Latimer went with 
Cromwell to visit him there and helped in his 
examination. HehadgothometoHartlebury, 
Worcestershire, by 1 1 Aug. Soon afterwards 
he visited his diocese, and issued injunctions 
to his clergy, urging each of them to obtain, 
if possible, a whole Bible, or at least a New 
Testament, both in Latin and in English, 
before Christmas. He was called up again 
to London early in November to preach the 
funeral sermon of Jane Seymour. He seems 
to have been very ill, and wrote to excuse him- 
self for not calling on Cromwell beforehand. 
That duty done, he once more returned to his 
episcopal residence at Hartlebury, where he 
was visited by Barnes, probably to discuss the 
will of Humphrey Monmouth, under which 
they and two other preachers, Crome and 
Taylor, were to preach thirty sermons in 
honour of the deceased (Stbtpe, EccL Mem. 
1. ii. 368). 

In February 1538 he was again in London, 
when the rood of Boxley was exposed and 
burned ; after which he carried in his hand 
and threw out of St. Paul's a small image 
which a popular legend had declared eight 
oxen could not move. Meanwhile in his own 
diocese, which at that time included Bristol, 
puritanism had been encouraged by his ap- 

E ointment as bishop. In his own cathedral 
e had caused an image of the Virgin to be 
stripped of its jewels and ornaments. He 
was anxious that ' our great Sibyl,' as he 
called the image, should burn in Smithfield 
'with her old sister of Walsingham, her 
young sister of Ipswich, with their two 
other sisters of Doncaster and Penrice.' He 
was ably supported by Henry Holbeach [q. v.], 
the new prior of his cathedral. 

In April 1638 Cranmer and Latimer were 
commissioned to examine John Forest [q. v.], 
who, after acknowledging the royal supre- 
macy, had retracted and been condemned for 
heresy. Latimer, who wrote to Cromwell that 
the prisoner was too well treated in Newgate, 
accepted with singular levity the commission 
to preach, or to 'play the fool' at his exe- 
cution. Later in the year many other images 
were brought to London and burned, the 
' Sibyl ' among them. The larger monasteries 
and the houses of friars were now beginning 



Latimer 



176 



Latimer 



to be suppressed. Latimer used his influence 
with Cromwell that the houses of Black and 
Grey Friars in Worcester might be bestowed 
on the city in relief of its burdens. In Oc- 
tober he was at the head of a commission to 
investigate the nature of the famous ' blood of 
Hailes, which was found to be honey or some 
yellowish gum, long venerated as the blood 
of Christ. 

Latimer depended much on Cromwell's sup- 
port, and approved many of that ministers 
unpopular acts ; but the terms in which he 
applauded the sacrifice of Cardinal Pole's in- 
nocent family to the vengeance of Henry VIII 
in the end of 1538 can only excite horror. 
4 1 heard you say once/ he wrote to Crom- 
well, ' after you had seen that furious invec- 
tive of Cardinal Pole, that you would make 
him to eat his own heart, which you now 
have, I trow, brought to pass ; for he must 
now eat his own heart, and be as heartless 
as he is graceless.' Latimer excused himself 
to Cromwell for not giving him a very hand- 
some Christmas present that year by an ac- 
count of his finances. During the three years 
that he had been bishop he had received 
upwards of 4,000/. For first-fruits, repairs, 
and debts he had paid 1,700/., and at that 
time he had but 180/. in ready money, out 
of which he would have to pay immediately 
105/. for tenths and 20/. for his New-year s 
gifts— to the king presumably. 

In 1689 he was called to London to attend 
the parliament which met on 28 April, and 
convocation, which began at St. Paul's on 
2 May. It was important to show, in the 
face of a papal excommunication, how little 
England nad departed from the old principles 
of tne faith, and Latimer was appointed one 
of a committee of divines, both of the old 
school and of the new, who were to draw up 
articles of uniformity. They failed to agree 
in ten days, and under pressure from the king 
the Act of the Six Articles was carried on 
16 June. During the next three days Lati- 
mer, who had been a regular attendant in 
parliament, was absent from his place. The 
act was quite opposed to his cqnvictions, and 
even he was hardly safe from its extreme 
severity. It received the royal assent on the 
28th, and on 1 July he and Shaxton, bishop 
of Salisbury, both resigned their bishoprics. 

Latimer afterwards declared that he had 
resigned in consequence of an express intima- 
tion from Cromwell that the long wished 
him to do so. This the king himself subse- 
quently denied. But it is clear his resigna- 
tion was accepted without the least reluc- 
tance, while he, according to Foxe, gave a 
skip on the floor for joy, on putting off his 
rochet. A contemporary letter (MS. in Lisle 



Letters in Public Record Office) says that 
he escaped to Gravesend and was brought 
back. He was at once ordered into custody, 
and remained nearly a year in the keeping 
of Sampson, bishop of Chichester. His con- 
finement was not rigorous, but for some time 
he dailv expected to be called to execution. 
From this rate, it would appear by a letter 
of later date, he was saved by the inter- 
vention of some powerful friend (probably 
Cromwell), who is reported to have said to 
the king, * Consider, sir, what a singular man 
he is, and cast not that away in one hour 
which nature and art hath been so many 
years in breeding and perfecting' (State 
Papers, Ireland, Eliz. vol. x. No. 50). In 
May 1540, when Bishop Sampson was sent 
to the Tower, it was at first thought that 
Latimer would be set free, and even made 
bishop once more (Correspondance Politique 
de MM. de Castillon et de Marillac, p. 188). 
The king, however, ordered that he should 
still be kept in Sampson's house under guard. 
In July he was set at liberty by the general 
pardon ; but before the month was out his 
patron Cromwell had been sent to the block, 
and his chaplain Garrard and his old friend 
Barnes had perished at Smithfield. That 
he attempted to intercede for Barnes at this 
time (which he was hardly in a position to 
do) rests only on a misinterpretation of some 
words of Barnes's own in a misdated letter. 
On his liberation, Latimer was ordered to 
remove from London, desist from preaching, 
and not to visit either of the universities or 
his own old diocese (Original Letters, p. 215, 
Parker Soc). For nearly six years his life 
becomes an absolute blank, except that we are 
told by Foxe that soon after he had resigned 
his bishopric he was crushed almost to death 
by the fall of a tree. 

In 1546, when his friend Crome had got 
into trouble for his preaching, Latimer and 
some others were brought before the council, 
charged with having encouraged him ' in his 
folly.' When apprehended, his goods and 
papers in the country were well searched 
(Daseht, Acts of the Privy Council, i. 458). 
He admitted having had some communica- 
tion with Crome, but complained of a set of 
interrogatories administered to him, and de- 
sired to speak with the king himself before 
he made answer. He at length made a reply 
which the council did not consider satisfac- 
tory. But he was released from the Tower 
next year by the general pardon, on Ed- 
ward VTs accession, and his eloquence was 
at once recognised as likely to be serviceable 
to the new government. 

On Sunday, 1 Jan. 1548, after eight years' 
silence, Latimer preached the first of four 



Latimer 



177 



Latimer 



sermons delivered at Paul's Cross. He also, 
it would seem, preached on Wednesday, 
the 18th, in the covered place called 'the 
Shrouds/ outside St. Paul's, his famous ser- 
mon * of the Plough,' in which he declaimed 
against many public evils, especially ' un- 
preaching prelates,' and declared the devil 
to be the most assiduous bishop in England. 
This was published separately in the same year. 
On Wednesday, 7 March, a pulpit was set up 
for him in the king's privy garden at West- 
minster, as the Chapel Royal was too small 
Here he preached on the duty of restoring 
stolen goods with such good effect that a de- 
faulter gave him 20/. ' conscience money' to 
return into the exchequer. This was followed 
next Lent by 820/. more, and the Lent fol- 
lowing by 180/. 10a. The money came from 
John Bradford [q. v.], the future martyr, and 
50/. of it was awarded to the preacher by the 
council as a gratuity (Sermons, p. 262 ; com- 
pare Nichols, Lit. Remains of Edward VI, 
cxxvii). It was doubtless to these Lenten 
sermons in 1548 that Lord Seymour referred 
when examined before the council in the next 
spring. The king, after asking Seymour's 
advice, sent 20/. for Latimer, and 20/. for his 
servants (Brit Mus. Add. MS. 14024, f. 104). 
In April Latimer was appointed on a com- 
mission with Cranmer and others for the trial 
of heretics, some of whom were induced to 
abjure. About this very time, if not a few 
months earlier, both he and Cranmer gave 
up their belief in transubstantiation (Orig. 
Letters, Parker Soc, p. 822, and note). On 
8 Jan. 1549 the House of Commons peti- 
tioned for the restoration of Latimer to his 
old bishopric of Worcester (Journals of the 
House of Commons, i. 6) ; but he was content 
to remain court preacher merely. The seven 
sermons which he preached before the king 
in the following Lent are a curious combina- 
tion of moral fervour and political partisan- 
ship, eloquently denouncing a host of current 
abuses, and paying the warmest tribute to 
the government 01 Somerset. He was in- 
dignant at the insinuation that it was the 
government of a clique, and would not last. 
When popular sympathy was moved by the 
execution of Lord Seymour, he not only 
justified it from the pulpit by a number of 
scandalous anecdotes, but intimated a strong 
suspicion that Seymour had gone to everlast- 
ing damnation. These passages were wisely 
suppressed in later editions of the sermons. 
Not even in Tudor times did they appear 
creditable to the preacher. 

A curious entry in the churchwardens' ac- 
counts of St. Margaret's, Westminster, shows 
the excitement occasioned by his preaching 
in that church some time in 1549, 1*. Qd. 

vol. xixn. 



being paid ' for mending of divers pews that 
were broken when Dr. Latimer did preach' 
(Nichols, Illustrations of Antient Times, 
p. 13). In April of that year he joined in 
passing sentence on Joan tiocher [q. v.], who 
was burnt in the year following (Buenbt, 
v. 248, ed. Pocock). On 6 Oct. he was named 
on the commission of thirty-two to reform 
the canon law, but he was not a member of 
the more select commission of eight, to whom 
the work was immediately afterwards en- 
trusted (Stbtpb, Cranmer, p. 388, ed. 1812). 
In the beginning of 1550 he is said to have 
been very ill, so that he despaired of recovery, 
but on 10 March (Dematts, p. 378) he found 
energy enough to preach a last sermon before 
King Edward, which, like some of his previous 
discourses, was in two parts, forming really 
two sermons, each of considerable length. 
A renewed offer of a bishopric seems to have 
been made to him not long before (Original 
Letters, p. 465, Parker Soc.) 

In the autumn of 1550 he went to Lin- 
colnshire, where he had not been since his 
ordination (Sermons, p. 298), and preached 
at Stamford on 9 Nov. On 18 Jan. 1651 he 
was appointed one of a commission of thirty- 
two to correct anabaptists and persons who 
showed disrespect to the new prayer-book 
(Rymer, xv. 250, 1st ed.) It does not ap- 
pear, however, that he took any active part 
in these proceedings, and it is doubtful 
whether he was ever m London during the 
remaining two years of Edward's reign. Part 
of that time he was the guest of John Glover 
at Baxterley Hall in Warwickshire, and 
during another part of it he was with the 
Duchess of Suffolk at Grimsthorpe, Lincoln- 
shire. In an undated letter of the duchess 
to Cecil, written in June 1552, she regrets 
not having been able to send Latimer a buck 
for his niece's churching (State Papers, Dom. 
Edw. VI, vol. xiv. No. 47). Careless copyists 
have misread * wife' for ' niece,' but Latimer 
was apparently a bachelor. 

At tnis time he is described by his at- 
tached Swiss servant, Augustine Bernher, 
as being, although 'a sore bruised man/ 
over threescore and seven, most assiduous in 
preaching, generally delivering two sermons 
each Sunday, and rising every morning, 
winter and summer, at two o'clock to study 
(Sermons, p. 320). He fulljr anticipated, 
however, that on Mary's accession he should 
be called to account for his doctrine, especi- 
ally after Gardiner was released from the 
Tower. On 4 Sept. 1553 a summons was 
issued to bring him up to London (Hatnbb, 
State Papers, p. 179), but apparently there 
was every desire to allow him to escape. He 
had private notice six hours before it was 



Latimer 



178 



Latimer 



delivered, and the pursuivant was ordered to 
leave it to himself to obey or fly. Latimer, 
however, told the man he was a welcome 
messenger, and said he was quite prepared to 
go and give an account of his preaching 
(Sermons, p. 321). On the 13th he appeared 
before the council, ' and for his seditious de- 
meanour was committed to the Tower ' with 
his attendant, Augustine Bernher (MS. Karl. 
643). His imprisonment, though probably 
not exceptionally severe, was trying to so old 
a man, and in winter he sent word to the 
lieutenant that if he was not better looked 
to he might perhaps deceive him ; meaning, 
as he afterwards explained, that he should 

Srish by cold and not, as expected, by fire, 
e was,however, comforted by writings sent 
to him by his fellow-prisoner, Ridley. In 
fact it would seem that they were allowed to 
prepare and write out a joint defence on the 
charge of heresy. Bernher acted as Latimer's 
secretary, and copied out the writings sent 
him by Ridley. 

In March 1564 Latimer, Ridley, and Cran- 
mer were sent down to Oxford, to dispute 
with the best divines of both universities 
on three articles touching the mass. On 
14 April the proceedings were begun in St. 
Marys Church by the reading of a commis- 
sion from convocation to discuss the three 
questions. The three captives appeared 
before the commissioners, Latimer ' with a 
kerchief and two or three caps on his head, 
his spectacles hanging by a stringat his 
breast, and a staff in his hand/ He was 
allowed a chair. He protested that owing 
to age, sickness, want of practice, and lack 
of books, he was almost as meet to discuss 
theology as to be captain of Calais ; but he 
would declare his mind plainly. He com- 
plained, however, that he haa neither pen 
nor ink, nor any book but the New Testa- 
ment, which he said he had read over seven 
times without finding the mass in it, nor yet 
the marrow-bones or sinews thereof. A dis- 
cussion was appointed for Wednesday fol- 
lowing, the 18th. On that day Latimer, who 
was very faint and ' durst not drink for fear 
of vomiting/ handed written replies to the 
three propositions, defining his own position. 
Then complaining that he had been silenced 
by the outcry on his former appearance he 
explained what he meant by the four marrow- 
bones of the mass as four superstitious prac- 
tices and beliefs in which it mainly consisted. 
A discussion of three hours followed, although 
he protested that his memory was 'clean 
gone/ On Friday following all three prisoners 
were brought up to hear their sentence, after 
being once more adjured to recant, and were 
formally excommunicated. Next day mass 



was again celebrated, with the host carried 
in procession, which the prisoners were 
brought to view from three different places. 
Latimer, who was taken to the bailiff's nouse, 
expected his end at once, and desired a quick 
fire to be made ; but when he saw the proces- 
sion he rushed into a shop to avoid looking 
at it. 

A long delay followed, although the realm 
was formally reconciled to the church of 
Rome on 30 rfov. 1554, and the persecution 
began in February 1554-5. It was not till 
28 Sept. 1555 that the cardinal sent three 
bishops to Oxford to examine the three 
prisoners further, with power to reconcile 
them if penitent, or else nand them over to 
the secular arm. During this interval they 
were more strictly guarded than they had 
been before the disputation ; each was lodged 
in a separate place, with a strange man to 
wait upon him, and pens, ink, and paper were 
strictly forbidden to them. A liberal diet 
was, however, allowed them, and the sym- 
pathy of friends, and even strangers, found 
means to send them presents and messages. 

Ridley and Latimer appeared before the 
three bishops in the divinity school on 30 Sept. 
Latimer complained of having to wait, 
' gazing upon the cold walls/ during Ridley's 
examination, and was assured it was an 
accident. He then knelt before the bishops, 
' holding his hat in his hand, having a ker- 
chief on his head, and upon it a nightcap or 
two, and a great cap (such as townsmen use, 
with two broad flaps to button under the 
chin), wearing an old threadbare Bristol 
frieze gown girded to his body with a penny 
leather girdle, at the which hanged by a long 
string of leather his testament, and his spec- 
tacles without case depending about his neck 
upon his breast/ He made a spirited reply 
to an exhortation to recant from Whyte, 
bishop of Lincoln. In the end his answers 
were taken to five articles, all of which he 
was held to have confessed. He was re- 
manded till next day. 

Accordingly, 1 Oct., both Ridley and Lati- 
mer appeared again. Latimer was called, 
after Ridley had received sentence, the cloth 
being meanwhile removed from the table at 
which Ridley had stood, because Latimer, it 
was said, had never taken the degree of doctor. 
He complained of the pressure of the multitude 
on his entering the court, saying he was an 
old man with * a very evil back/ He declared 
that he acknowledged the catholic church, 
but denied the Romish, and adhered to his. 
previous answers, without admitting the 
competence of the tribunal which derived 
its authority from the pope. Sentence was 
then passed upon him by the Bishop of Lin- 



Latimer 



179 



Latimer 



coin, Latimer in vain inquiring whether it 
were not lawful for him to appeal ' to the 
next general council which shall be truly 
called in God's name.' 

On the 16th he and Ridley were brought 
out to execution by the mayor and bailiffs 
of Oxford, at ' the ditch over against Balliol 
College/ Ridley went first, Latimer follow- 
ing as fast as age would permit. When 
Latimer neared the place Ridley ran back 1 
and embraced him. For a few minutes the , 
two conversed together. Then Dr. Richard 
Smith preached a sermon in the worst spirit 
of bigotry. Ridley asked Latimer if he would 
speak in reply, but Latimer desired him to 
begin, and both kneeled before the vice- , 
chancellor and other commissioners to desire 
a hearing. No hearing, however, was allowed 
them .unless they would recant, which they . 
steadfastly refused to do. After being stripped 
of some outer garments they were fastened j 
to the stake by a chain round the middle of j 
both. Ridley's brother brought him a bag of ' 
gunpowder, and tied it about his neck ; after 1 
which, at Ridley's request, he did the same for 
Latimer. The fagots were then lighted at Rid- 
ley's feet. ' Be of good comfort, Master Ridley,' 
said Latimer ; ' we shall this day light such 
a candle, by God's grace, in England as I 
trust shall never be put out.' The old man 
succumbed first to the flames, and died with- 
out much pain. 

The seven sermons preached before Ed- 
ward VI in March-April 1549 were pub- 
lished collectively in that year. Others ap- 
peared separately in 1548 and 1550. Twenty- 
seven of Latimer's sermons were published 
collectively in 1562, and with 'others not 1 
heretofore set forth in print ' in 1571. Later 
collective editions are dated 1575, 1578, 1584, 
1596, and 1635. All Latimer's extant writ- 
ings were edited for the Parker Society in 
1844-5. 

A portrait by an unknown artist is in the 
National Portrait Gallery. 

[Latimer's Remains and Sermons (Parker 
Soc); Original Letters (Parker Soc) ; Foxe's 
Acta and Monuments ; Calendar of Henry VIII, 
vols. iv. &c.; State Papers of Henry VIII; 
Tytlei's England under Edward VI and Mary ; 
Strype's Memorials, in. ii. 288 sq. (ed. 1822); 
Machyn's Diary and the Chronicle of Queen 
Jane (Camden Soc.) ; Stow's Chronicle ; Lives 
by Gilpin, Corrie, and Demaus. The revised 
edit. (1881) of the last is referred to.] J. G. 

LATIMER, WILLIAM, first Baron 
Latimer (d. 1804), was a member of a 
family which had been settled at Billinges 
in Yorkshire since the time of Richard I. 
On chronological grounds it is improbable 
that he is, as stated by Dugdale, the Wil- 



liam Latimer who was sheriff of Yorkshire 
from 1253 to 1259, and again in 1266-7. 
The holder of these offices was more pro- 
bably his father. The elder Latimer was sent 
to assist Alexander III of Scotland in 1256, 
was escheator-general north of the Trent 
in 1257, and in December 1263 was one of 
those who undertook that the king would 
abide by the award of Louis IX. He sup- 
ported the king in the barons' war, and 
is referred to in the 'Song of the Barons' 
(Wright, Pol. Songs, p. 63). He was at va- 
rious times in charge of the castles of Picker- 
inv, Cockermouth, York, and Scarborough. 
He was alive in Mav 1270 (Cal. Docts. Scotl. 
i. 2561). 

William Latimer the younger may be the 
baron of that name who took the cross in 
1271. No doubt it is he who was sum- 
moned to serve in Wales in December 1276, 
and again in May 1282. At the defeat of 
the English at Menai Straits, 6 Nov. 1282, 
he escaped by riding through the midst of 
the waves (Hemingbttrgh, ii. 11). He was 
present in parliament on 29 May 1290, when 
a grant was made ' pur fille marier ' {Rot 
Pari. i. 25 a), but his first recorded writ of 
summons is dated 29 Dec. 1299. In April 
1292 he was summoned to attend at Norham 
equipped for the field. He sailed in the ex- 
pedition for Gasconv which left Plymouth on 
§ Oct., reaching Chatillon on 23 Oct. At 
the beginning of 1295 Latimer was in com- 
mand at Rions. He seems to have remained 
in Gascony till 1297, in which year he was 
employed in Scotland, and was present at the 
battle of Stirling on 10 Sept., when the Eng- 
lish were defeated by Wallace (Chron. de 
Melsa, ii. 268, Rolls Ser.) In 1298 he ac- 
companied Edward to Scotland, and was pre- 
sent at the battle of Falkirk on 22 July. In 
August he was in command at Berwick. 
Next year, in April, he was appointed a 
commissioner to treat for the exchange of 
prisoners, and was one of those summoned to 
attend the council at York in July for the 
consideration of the affairs of Scotland 
(Stevenson, Hist. Documents illustrative of 
the Hist, of Scotland, ii. 296-8, 370, 379). 
In July he was engaged in a raid into Gallo- 
way, and in August was again at Berwick, 
being at this time the king's lieutenant in 
the marches. In June 1300 he was at the 
siege of Oaerlaverock. In October 1300 he 
was again keeper of Berwick, and in Septem- 
ber 1302 was in command at Roxburgh. In 
February 1301 he was present in the parlia- 
ment at Lincoln, and was one of the barons 
who joined in the letter to Pope Boniface. 
Latimer died 5 Dec. 1304, and was buried 
at Hempingham or Empingham, Rutland 

n2 



Latimer 



1 80 



Latimer 



(Hbmingbuegh , ii. 241 ). Hemingburgh save 
he had seen service in many lands. The 
author of the * Song of Caerlaverock ' says 
one could not find a more valiant or prudent 
man. He married Alice, also called Amicia 
or Agnes, elder daughter and coheiress of 
Walter Ledet, baron Braybrooke, who re- 
presented the Ledets, lords of Wardon, and 
died in 1257, when his daughters were aged 
twelve and eleven years respectively. The 
younger daughter, Christiana, married La- 
timers brother John, and from this mar- 
riage the barons Latimer of Braybrooke and 
the present Lord Braybrooke descend. By 
his wife, who died in 1316, William Lati- 
mer had two sons : John, who died without 
issue in 1299, having married in 1297 Isabel, 
daughter and heiress of Simon de Sherstede, 
and William, who is noticed below. He 
had also a daughter Johanna, who married 
Alexander Comyn of Buchan (Cal. Docts. 
Scotl. iii. 233). 

Latimer, William, second Baron Lati- 
mer (1276 P-1327), son of the above, was 
employed in Scotland in 1297 and 1300, and 
in 1803 was engaged in a raid from Dun- 
fermline across the Forth. In March 1304, 
with John de Segrave and Robert Clifford, he 
defeated Simon Fraser and William Wallace 
at Hopprewe in Tweeddale (ib. ii. 1432, iv. 
474). In 1306 he had a grant of the forfeited 
lands of Christopher Seton in Cumberland. 
He was taken prisoner by the Scots at Ban- 
nockburn (Gbopfre y Baker, p. 8, ed. Thomp- 
son), and was not released till after February 
1315 (Cal. Boots. Scotl. iii. 419). He was a 
supporter of Thomas of Lancaster, but in 1319 
was pardoned for adhering to the earl, and 
afterwards sided with the king. He was 
present at the defeat of Thomas of Lancaster 
at Boroughbridge on 16 March 1322, and was 
afterwards made governor of York, where he 
still was in January 1323 (ib. iii. 803). Lati- 
mer had been summoned to parliament in 
his father's lifetime in 1299. He died in 
1327. He married Lucia, daughter and co- 
heiress of Richard de Thwenge of Danbv, 
Yorkshire, previously to 11 Sept. 1299 (tb. 
ii. 1091). in 1313 he obtained a divorce 
from her, and afterwards married Sibill, 
widow of William de Huntingfield. By 
his first wife he had a son, William, third 
baron Latimer, born about 1801, who died in 
1335, leaving by his wife Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of John, lord Botetourt, a son, William, 
who succeeded as fourth baron, and is sepa- 
rately noticed. 

[Walter of Hemingburgh (Engl. Hist. Soc,) ; 
Cal. of Documents relating to Scotland; Steven- 
son's Historical Documents ; Dugdale's Baronage, 
ii. 30 ; Burke s Dormant and Extinct Peerage ; 



Nicolas's Song of Caerlaverock, 11. 253-7 ; 
Nicolas's Historic Peerage, pp. 72, 280 ; Records 
of the Architectural and Archaeological Society 
of Buckinghamshire, vi. 48-60, art by Mr. W. L. 
Button.] C. L. K. 

LATIMER, WILLIAM, fourth Baron 
Latimer (1329 P-1381), was son of William, 
third baron, by Elizabeth, daughter of John, 
lord Botetourt [see under Latimer, Wil- 
liam, d. 1304]. He was six years old at his 
father's death in 1335, and had livery of his 
lands in 1351, but the homage was deferred on 
account of his absence at Calais in the royal 
service. He served in Gascony in 1359, but 
in the same year was appointed governor of 
Becherel in Brittany, where he was serving 
! on 80 Sept. 1360 (Fcedera, iii. 510). On 
8 Dec. of the latter year he was appointed 
' the king's lieutenant in the duchy, and on 
30 Sept. 1361 lieutenant and captain for John 
I de Montfort, remaining in Brittany for some 
I years, and having charge of the castles of 
Becherel and Trungo (ib. iii. 625, 658-9, 662). 
i At the end of 1361 he was made a knight of 
j the Garter, in succession to Sir William 
FitzWaryne, who had died on 28 Oct. In 
September 1364 he was present with John 
de Montfort at the siege of Auray, and also 
at the subsequent battle against Charles de 
I Blois. After this he was sent by John to 
I England to obtain the king's advice as to the 
proposed truce with Charles's widow, and 
( toot part in the subsequent negotiations, 
which resulted in a truce between the rival 
claimants to the duchy of Brittany (Lobi- 
neau, i. 369, 377, 380, ii. 607). In 1366 
Latimer was still serving in Brittany, but soon 
afterwards returned to England, and in 1368 
was made warden of the forests beyond Trent. 
In 1369 he became chamberlain of the king's 
household. On 5 July 1370 he was appointed 
one of the wardens of the west march of Scot- 
land, and some time in the same year guardian 
of St. Sauveur le Vicomte, a lucrative post, 
which he resigned before 26 Nov. 1370 
(Foedera, iii. 903). In February 1371 he was 
one of the triers of petitions for England, 
Wales, and Scotland, and served in the same 
capacity in the parliaments of January and 
October 1377, October 1378, April 1379, and 
January 1380 {Rolls of ParUainenf). On 
1 Jan. 1373 Latimer was appointed to treat 
with King Fernando of Portugal, and pre- 
viously to 10 Nov. 1374 was constable of 
Dover Castle and warden of the Cinque ports. 
In September and October 1375 he was em- 
ployea on missions to France and Flanders, 
and on 2 Jan. 1376 was a commissioner of 
array in Kent (Fcedera, iii. 981, 1017, 1039, 
1042, 1045). During all this time he was 
high in favour with Edward III, or, to speak 



Latimer 



181 



Latimer 



more correctly, with John of Gaunt, whose 
influence was then paramount. But when 
the Good parliament met in April 1376 one 
of the first demands of the commons was for 
the removal of certain bad advisers. They 
further proceeded to impeach Latimer, this 
being the earliest record of the impeachment 
of a minister of the crown by the commons. 
The charges against him were that he had 
been guilty of oppression in Brittany ; had 
sold the castle of St. Sauveur to the enemy, 
and impeded the relief of Becherel in 1876 ; 
that he had taken bribes for the release of 
•captured ships, and retained fines paid to the 
king, notably by Sir Robert Knolles [a. v.], 
and the city of Bristol ; and finally, that in 
association with Robert Lyons he had ob- 
tained money from the crown by the repay- 
ment of fictitious loans (Chron. Anglue, pp. 
76-8 ; Rolls of Parliament, ii. 824-6). While 
.the impeachment was still pending a report 
was spread that a messenger from Rochelle 
had been smuggled out of the way by Lati- 
mer. The messenger was at length found, 
but the clamour against Latimer was much 
increased by this incident. Latimer is alleged 
to have bribed this messenger and Sir Thomas 
Katrington, late warden of St. Sauveur, to 
keep silence, but neither his own precautions 
nor the influence of John of Gaunt availed 
to protect him. The lords declared the 
charges proved, and condemned him to fine 
and imprisonment at the king's pleasure, and 
at the request of the commons he was re- 
moved from his office and from the royal 
council. But on 26 May 1876 Latimer was 
released on bail, and, though Lancaster had 
been obliged to sentence him to imprisonment 
and forfeiture of his place, the attempt to 
bring him to justice proved unsuccessful. 
Moreover, when, through the death of the 
Prince of Wales on 8 June, John of Gaunt 
recovered his influence, Latimer was restored 
to greater favour than ever. In the parlia- 
ment of January 1877 the commons, now 
under John's influence, petitioned for his re- 
storation {ib. ii. 372 b). Previously, on 7 Oct. 
1376, he had been made one of the executors 
of the king's will ( Fcedera, iii. 1080). After 
the death of Edward III Latimer was sent 
on a mission from the king to the citizens of 
London, to propose a reconciliation between 
them and Lancaster. He was placed on the 
royal council 17 July 1377, but was once 
more excluded bv the commons in October 
(ib. iv. 10). Latimer took part in the fight 
with the Spaniards at Sluys in this'year, and 
was afterwards made governor of Calais. In 
1 380 he accompanied the Earl of Buckingham 
[see Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Glott- 
CE8TBB] on his expedition through France into j 



Brittany as constable of the host. In October 
he was with Buckingham at Rennes, and was 
one of the envoys sent to John de Montfort 
to confirm him in his English alliance. After- 
wards he served in the siege of Nantes during 
November and December, and when the siege 
was raised on 2 Jan. 1881 was stationed at 
Hennebon. John de Montfort proved faith- 
less to his old allies, and Buckingham re- 
turned to England on 11 April. Before his 
departure he commissioned Latimer to hold 
an interview with the duke in his behalf. 
Latimer died of a sudden stroke of paralysis 
on 28 May 1381 (Malvbbnb ap. Higdbn, 
Poli/chronicon, ix. 1^, and was buried at 
Guisborough, Yorksnire. The St. Albans 
chronicler, a hostile witness, describes him 
as a man of very lax morality, and a slave to 
avarice. His luxurious habits made him of 
no use in war. He was proud, cruel, and 
irreligious, deceitful and untrustworthy. He 
had enough of eloquence, but a lack of wis- 
dom (Chron. Anglia, pp. 84-5). Latimer 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Fitz- 
alan, earl of Arundel. She died in 1384, 
leaving a daughter, Elizabeth (1357-1395), 
who married John, lord Neville of Raby, and 
had one son, John Neville, summoned to par- 
liament as Baron Latimer from 1404 to 1430, 
when he died without offspring. Elizabeth 
Latimer married, secondly, Robert, lord Wil- 
loughby de Eresby. Her daughter, Elizabeth, 
married Thomas, third son of her second hus- 
band by a former marriage, and the barony 
of Latimer is now vested in, though not 
claimed by, Lord Willoughby de Broke as 
her heir-general. 

[Chronicon Angli», 1328-88, ed. Thompson, 
the best, and, with the exception of the Rolls of 
Parliament, the only authority for the circum- 
stances of Latimer's impeachment; Walsingham's 
Historia Anglicana; Higden's Polychronicon 
(these three are in the Rolls Series) ; Froissart's 
Chroniques, vol. viii. ed. Buchon ; Rymer's 
Fcedera, Record edition ; Lobineau's Histoire de 
Bretagne; Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 30; Beltz's 
Memorials of the Order of the Garter, pp. 146-8 ; 
art. by Mr. W. L. Rutton in Proc. of Architec- 
tural and Archaeological Soc. for Buckingham- 
shire, vi. 48-60.] C. L. K. 

LATIMER, WILLIAM (1460 ?-l 545), 
classical scholar, born about 1460, was elected 
in 1489 a fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 
where he spent several years in studying logic 
and philosophy, and graduated B. A. After- 
wards he travelled in Italy with Grocyn and 
Linacre, continuing his studies in the univer- 
sity of Padua, and acquiring a knowledge of 
Greek. During his residence abroad he gra- 
duated M.A., and it appears that after his 
return to Oxford he was incorporated in that 



La Touche 



182 



Latrobe 



degree in 1513 (Oxf. Univ. Reg., Oxf. Hist. 
Soc, ed. Boase, i. 89). Ee ' became most 
eminent, and was worthily numbered among 
the lights of learning in his time by John Le- 
land ' (Lblaot, Encomia, pp. 18, 74). About 
the beginning of the reign of Henry VHI 
he was tutor to Reginald Pole, afterwards 
cardinal and archbishop of Canterbury, by 
whose influence he subsequently obtained 

Preferment in the church. He was a pre- 
endary of the cathedral church of Salisbury 
and rector of Wotton-under-Edge, and also 
of Saintbury, Gloucestershire, where he died 
at a very advanced age, about September 
1546. 

He was a neat friend of Sir Thomas More 
and Richard Pace (Pacbus, Be Ihictu, p. 64 ; 
cf. Hist MSS. Comm. 1st Rep. p. 25) ; was 
learned in sacred and profane letters; and, 
as Erasmus remarks, was ' vere theologus in- 
tegritate vit® conspicuus.' Of his writings 
none are known to be extant except some 
' Epistoto ad Erasmum.' Erasmus reproached 
him with his unwillingness to appear in print. 
In conjunction with Linacre and Grocyn he 
was engaged in translating Aristotle's works 
into Latin, but after their death he abandoned 
the undertaking. 

[Bale's Scriptt. Brit. Cat. ix. 8 ; Collectanea 
(Oxf. Hist. Soc), ii. 346, 354, 366, 372; Erasmi 
Epistolae, 1519, pp. 318, 321 ; Johnson's Life of 
Linacre, pp. 18, 159, 204, 263-5 ; Kennett MS. 
46, f. 47 ; Lilii Elogia de Viris Illustrious ; 
More's Life of Sir Thomas More (Hunter), p. 80 ; 
Pits, De Anglwe Scriptoribus, p. 695 ; Tanner's 
Bibl. Brit. p. 469 ; Wood's Annals (Gutch), i. 
657, H. 24; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), i. 147.] 

T. C. 

LA TOUCHE, WILLIAM GEORGE 
DIGGES (1746-1803), resident at Baesorah, 
eldest son of James ftigges La Touche by 
his second wife, Matilda, daughter ofWilHam 
Thwaites, was born in 1746. David Digues 
La Touche (1671-1746), the founder of the 
Irish branch of the La Touche family, born 
near Blois in France, fled to an uncle in 
Amsterdam on the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes. He entered Caillemotte's Huguenot 
regiment, came to England with the prince 
of Orange, served at the battle of the Boyne, 
and remained in Dublin after his regiment 
was disbanded, first as a maker of poplins 
and later as a banker. He died while at 
service in Dublin Castle, 17 Oct. 1746, and 
left by his first wife, Judith Biard, two sons, 
David Digues and James Digges La Touche. 

The latter's son, William George Digges La 
Touche, entered St. Paul's School, London, 
30 Aug. 1767, and proceeded to Bassorah in 
1764 with Moore, the British resident, to 
whose position he succeeded. He assisted 



travellers and gained the goodwill of the* 
natives. When Zobier was captured by the 
Persians in 1776, he ransomed 1 the inhabi- 
tants at his own expense, and so saved them 
from slavery. During the siege of Bassorah 
in 1775 La Touche gave the principal citizens, 
with their wives and families, shelter in the 
English factory. Two interesting letters ad- 
dressed to Sir Robert Ainslie by La Touche 
from Bassorah in 1782 are preserved among 
the Marquis of Lansdowne's manuscripts 
(Hist MSS. Qmm. 6th Rep. p. 254). 
La Touche returned about 1784, and married 
Grace, daughter of John Puget, a London 
banker. He now became a partner in La 
Touche's bank in Dublin, and by his Lon- 
don connections and his well-known honesty 
largely increased its business. He built the 
family mansion in St. Stephen's Green, and 
purchased the country house of Sans Souci, 
near Dublin. He cued in Dublin 7 Nov* 
1803, and left four sons. The eldest son, 
James Digjges La Touche (1788-1827), en- 
tered Trinity College, Dublin, as a fellow- 
commoner on 2 Oct. 1803, graduated B.A., 
taking a gold medal in 1808, managed the 
bank, and was a great supporter of Sunday 
schools. He died in 1827, and left issue by 
his wife, Isabella, daughter of Sir James 
Lawrence Cotton, bart., of Rockforest. 

The families of La Touche residing at 
Marlay and Bellevue respectively both de- 
scend from David Dirges La Touche, the 
elder son of the immigrant. With the La 
Touches of Bellevue Alexander Knox [q. v.} 
used to live. 

[Urwick's Biographical Sketches of James 
Digges La Touche; Gardiner's Reg. of St. Paul's 
School ; Taylor's Travels from England to India 
by way of Aleppo; Burke's Landed Gentry; 
Lecky's Hist, of England, iv. 482, vi. 568; notea 
supplied by G. P. Moriarty, esq.] 

LATROBE, CHARLES JOSEPH 
(1801-1875), Australian governor and tra- 
veller, born in London on 20 March 1801, was 
son of Christian Ignatius Latrobe [q. v.] He 
received the usual Moravian education, with 
a view to entering the Moravian ministry, 
to which his father belonged, but abandoned 
this design in order to travel. He began by 
wandering in Switzerland, 1824-6, where 
he nroved himself a worthy pioneer of the 
1 Alpine Club, and, unaccompanied by guide 
, or porters, ascended mountains and passes 
J hitherto unexplored by Englishmen. In 1830 
he made a long walking tour in the Tyrol, 
and in 1832 went to America with his friend 
Count Albert Pourtales, and, after visiting the 
chief cities in the States, sailed down the Mis- 
sissippi to New Orleans, whence in 1834 he 
■ struct across the prairies, in company with 



Latrobe 



183 



Latrobe 



Washington Irving, into Mexico. In 1837 
he was commissioned by government to re- 
port on the working of the funds voted for 
the education of the West Indian negroes, 
and made a tour of the islands; and in 1839 
he was appointed (30 Sept.) superintendent 
of the Port Phillip district of New South 
Wales, a post which was converted (27 Jan. 
1851) into the lieutenant-governorship of 
Victoria, on the separation of that district 
from the parent colony. This was the time 
of the gold fever, when the population of 
Victoria rose in six months from fifteen 
thousand to eighty thousand, and the go- 
vernor's position was no sinecure. Latrobe's 
upright and honest character, however, made 
him generally popular. He retired on 5 May 
1854, was made C.B. 30 Nov. 1858, and died 
in London on 2 Dec. 1876. He was buried 
at the Sussex village of Littlington, near 
Eastbourne, where he spent the last years of 
his life. He was twice married, and left a 
son and four daughters. 

Latrobe published many pleasantly written 
descriptions of his travels. His books are en- 
titled : 1. ' The Alpenstock, or Sketches of 
Swiss Scenery and Manners,' 1825-6, Lon- 
don, 1829. 2. ' The Pedestrian : a Summer's 
Ramble in the Tyrol/ London, 1832. 3. 'The 
Rambler in North America,' 1832-3, 2 vols., 
London, 1835 ; reprinted at New York. 
4. ' The Rambler in Mexico in 1834/ London, 
1836. These last two are in the form of letters. 
5. ' The Solace of Song/ poems suggested by 
travels in Italy, London, 1837. He also 
translated Hallbeck's ' Narrative of a Visit . . . 
to the New Missionary Settlement of the 
United Brethren/ 

[Heaton's Australian Dictionary of Dates; 
Athenaeum, No. 2512, 18 Dec. 1875; Gent. Mag. 
1859, i. 86 ; private information.] 8. L. P. 

LATROBE, CHRISTIAN IGNATIUS 
(1758-1836), musical composer, eldest son 
of the Rev. Benjamin Latrobe, a prominent 
Moravian minister, was born at Fuhieck, near 
Leeds, 12 Feb. 1758. The familv is said to 
have been of Huguenot extraction, and to 
have originally settled in Ireland, coming 
over there with William of Orange. In 1771 
Christian went to Niesky, Upper Lusatia, for 
study at the Moravian college there, and 
after completing his course was appointed 
teacher in thejpedagogium or high school. 
He returned to England in 1784,was ordained, 
and in 1787 became secretary to the Society 
for the Furtherance of the Gospel. In 1795 he 
succeeded James Hutton [q. v.] as secretary 
of the Unity of the Brethren in England, 
and at the Herrnhut synod of 1801 was ap- 
pointed a 'senior civilis,' an office of the 
ancient brethren's church which he was the 



last to hold. As an advocate of the missions 
of his church he laboured at home with great 
zeal, and in 1815-16 undertook a visita- 
tion in South Africa, an account of which he 
published under the title of ' Journal of a 
Voyage to South Africa* (London, 1818). 
Besides this work and a translation of Los- 
kiel's 'History of the Missions among the 
Indians in North America,' Latrobe wrote 
an account of the voyage of the brethren 
Kohlmeister and Kmoch to Ungava Bay, and 
published ' Letters on the Nicobar Islands ' 
(London, 1812). « Letters to my Children/ 
a pleasant little volume, was issued in 1851 
by his son, John Antes Latrobe. 

Latrobe possessed some musical talent 
and composed a large number of anthems, 
chorales, &c, of no little excellence. His 
first works were chiefly instrumental; three 
sonatas for pianoforte which Haydn had com- 
mended were published and dedicated to him. 
His other printed compositions include a 
setting for tour voices of Lord Roscommon's 
version of the ' Dies Ir» ' (1 799) ; ' Anthem for 
the Jubilee of George IH' (1809); 'Original 
Anthems for 1, 2, or more voices ' (1823) ; 
'Te Deum performed in York Cathedral;' 



' Miserere, Fs. 51 ; ' and ' Six Airs on Serious 
Subjects, words by Cowper and Hannah More.' 
He was editor of the first English edition 
of the ' Moravian Hymn Tune Book.' The 
work for which he is chiefly remembered is* a 
' Selection of Sacred Music from the Works 
of the most eminent Composers of Germany 
and Italy '(6 vols. 1806-26). By means of this 
publication, the detailed contents of which 
are printed in Grove's ' Dictionary of Music,' 
Latrobe first introduced a large number of 
the best modern compositions to the notice 
of the British public. He died at Fairfield, 
near Liverpool, 6 May 1836. His sons, John 
Antes and Charles Joseph, are separately 
noticed. 

[Brief Notices of the Latrobe Family, London, 
privately printed, 1864 (a translation of article, 

1 revised by members of the fam ily/ in the Brueder- 
Bote, November 1864, a periodical published in 
the German province of the brethren's church) ; 
Grove's Diet, of Music, ii. 102; Musical Times, 
September 1851 ; private information ; Holmes's 
Hist, of Protestant Church of United Brethren, 

2 vols. London, 1825.] J. C. H. 

LATROBE, JOHN ANTES (1799-1878), 
writer on music, son of Christian Ignatius 
Latrobe [q. v.], was born in London in 1799. 
He received his education at St. Edmund 
Hall, Oxford, graduated B.A. 1826, M.A. 
1829, took orders in the church of England, 
served as curate at Melton Mowbray, Tin- 
tern (Monmouthshire), and other places, and 
finally became incumbent of St. Thomas's, 



Latter 



184 



Latter 



Kendal, a post which he held from 1840 to 
1865. In 1858 he was made an honorary 
canon of Carlisle Cathedral. He died, un- 
married, at Gloucester, where he had been 
living in retirement, on 19 Nov. 1878. La- 
trobe was the author of ' The Music of the 
Church considered in its various branches, 
Congregational and Choral,' London, 1831, a 
book which was much valued in its day, but 
which, owing to its obsolete views, is now 
seldom quoted. His other publications in- 
clude : ^Instructions of Chenaniah : Plain 
Directions for accompanying the Chant or 
Psalm Tune/ London, 1832; ' Scripture Illus- 
trations/ London, 1838 ; and two volumes of 
original poetry, ' The Solace of Song/ 1887, 
and 'Sacred Lays and Lyrics/ 1850. He 
compiled the Hymn Book used in his church 
at Kendal, and several of his own hymns 
were included in it. 

His brother, Petbb Latkobb (1795-1868), 
took orders in the Moravian church, and suc- 
ceeded his father as secretary of the Moravian 
mission. He too had musical talent, both 
as an organist and composer ; he wrote for 
an edition of the ' Moravian Hymn Tunes' an 
' Introduction on the Progress of the Church 
Psalmody/ which shows a wide knowledge 
of the subject. 

[Brief Notices of the Latrobe Family, as cited 
under Christian Ignatius Latrobe; private 
information which shows that the statement in 
Grove's Diet, of Music (ii. 102) that J. A. Latrobe 
was an organist in Liverpool is incorrect.] 

J. C. H. 

LATTER, MARY (1726-1777), authoress, 
daughter of a country attorney, was born at 
Henley-upon-Thames in 1725. She settled 
at Reading, where her mother died in 1748. 
Her income was small, and she indulged a 
propensity for versification. Among her early 
attempts were some verses ' descriptive of the 
persons and characters of several ladies in 
Reading/ which she thought proper to disown 
in a rhymed advertisement inserted in the 
* Reading Mercury/ 17 Nov. 1740. In 1769 
appeared at Reading ' The Miscellaneous 
Works, in Prose and Verse, of Mrs. Mary 
Latter/ in three parts, consisting respectively 
of epistolary correspondence, poems, and 
soliloquies, and (part lii.) a sort of prose poem, 
prompted by a perusal of Young's 'Nifjht 
Thoughts/ and entitled 'A Retrospective 
View of Indigence, or the Danger of Spiri- 
tual Poverty/ A short appendix treats of 
temporal poverty, and describes the writer as 
resident ' not very far from the market-place, 
immersed in business and in debt ; sometimes 
madly hoping to gain a competency ; some- 
times justly fearing dungeons and distress/ 
The work is inscribed to Mrs. Loveday, wife 



of John Loveday [a. v.] of Caversham. In 
1763 she published a tragedy entitled ' The 
Siege of Jerusalem by Titus Vespasian/ to 
which was prefixed ' An Essay on the Mystery 
and Mischiefs of Stagecraft. The play had 
previously been accepted by Rich, the patentee 
of Covent Garden, who took the authoress 
under his protection, desiring her ' to remain 
in his house in order, as he kindly said, that 
by frequenting the theatre she might improve 
in the knowledge of it. 1 Rich died before 
the play could be produced, but it was sub- 
sequently performed at Reading (1768) and 
proved a failure. In addition to the above, 
Mrs. Latter wrote : 1. • A Miscellaneous 
Poetical Essay in three parts/ 1761, 8vo. 
2. ' A Lyric Ode on the Birth of the Prince 
of Wales ' (George IV), 1763, 8vo. 3. < Li- 
berty and Interest : a Burlesque Poem on 
the Present Times/ London, 1764, 4to (see 
Gent Mag. 1764, p. 91). 4. * Pro and Con, 
or the Opinionists, an ancient fragment/ 
1771, 8vo. She died at Reading on 28 March 
1777, and was buried in the churchyard of 
St. Lawrence in that town. 

[Baker's Biog. Dram. i. 439, iii. 272 ; Coates's 
Hist, of Reading, p. 447; Doran's Hist, of 
Reading, p. 273 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ii. 589 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] T. S. 

LATTER, THOMAS (1816-1853), soldier 
and Burmese scholar, son of Major Barre" 
Latter, an officer who distinguished him- 
self in the Gorkha war of 1814 (see Mill, 
British India, ed. Wilson, viii. 22, 52), was 
born in India in 1816. He obtained a com- 
mission in 1836 from the East India Com- 
pany in the 67th Bengal infantry, then sta- 
tioned in Arracan. There he devoted his 
leisure to the study of the Burmese language, 
and in 1845 published a Burmese grammar, 
which although subsequent to the primers of 
Adoniram Judson, the American missionary, 
was the first scholarly treatise on the subject. 
At the commencement of the negotiations 
respecting breaches of the treaty of Yandaboo 
(1826), Latter left his regiment to serve as 
chief interpreter to Commodore Lambert's 
expedition, and on the outbreak of the second 
Burmese war he served Sir Henry Thomas 
Godwin [q, v.] in the same capacity. On 
14 April 1852 he led the storming party des- 
patched by Godwin against the eastern en- 
trance of the Shwe Dagon pagoda, and acted 
so gallantly that Laurie, the historian of the 
war, called him the ' Chevalier Bayard of the 
expedition.' He took part in the capture of 
Pegu in June 1852, and when shortly after- 
wards the town of Prome, which was one of 
the chief rallying-places of the enemy, was 
occupied, Latter was on 30 Dec. 1852 ap- 
pointed resident deputy commissioner. The 



Laud 



185 



Laud 



post was rendered a particularly difficult one 
by the fact that, although open warfare had 
ceased, the Burmese were still avowedly 
hostile to British influence — an anomalous 
state of things which lasted until the defini- 
tive treaty of 1862. The vigilance and ac- 
tivity which Latter exhibited in repressing 
disaffection in the neighbourhood of Prome 
during the following year rendered him spe- 
cially obnoxious to the court of Ava, and at 
two o'clock on the morning of 8 Dec. 1858 he 
was murdered in his bed. He was buried at 
Prome with military honours on the follow- 
ing day. 

[Laurie's Burmese Wars and Pegu, passim ; 
East India Registers, 1863 and 1854; Men of 
the Reign, 1885, p. 520 ; Brit. Mns. Cat.] T. S. 

LAUD, WILLIAM (1573-1645), arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, born at Reading 7 Oct. 
1578, was the only son of William Laud, a 
clothier. His mother, whose maiden name 
was Lucy Webbe, was widow of John Ro- 
binson, who, as well as her second husband, 
was a clothier of Reading. The younger 
William Laud was educated at the free 
borough school of that town. In 1589 he 
proceeded to St. John's College, Oxford, 
matriculating on 17 Oct., and was in 1590 
nominated to a scholarship set apart for boys 
educated at Reading school. In 1593 he be- 
came a fellow on the same foundation. He 
graduated B.A. in 1594, M.A. in 1598, and 
D.D. in 1608 (Hbtltn, Cypr\anus Anglicus, 
ijp. 41-5; Clark, Oaf. Univ. Meg., Oxf. Hist. 

As an undergraduate Laud had for his tutor 
John Buckeridge [a. v.lwho became president 
of St. John's in 1605. "Buckeridge was one of 
those who, during the closing years of Eliza- 
beth's reign, headed at the two universities 
a reaction against the dominant Calvinism, 
and who, standing between Roman Catholi- 
cism on the one hand and puritanism on the 
other, laid stress on sacramental grace and 
on the episcopal organisation of the church 
of England. Buckeridge's teaching proved 
congenial to Laud, who was by nature im- 
patient of doctrinal controversy, and strongly 
attached to the observance of external order. 
Laud was ordained deacon on 4 Jan. 1601, 
and priest on 5 April in the same year. On 
4 May 1603 he was one of the proctors for 
the year. On 3 Sept. 1603 he was made 
chaplain to Charles Blount, earl of Devon- 
shire [q. v.], and on 26 Dec. 1605 he married 
his patron to the divorced wife of Lord Rich, 
an action for which he was afterwards 
bitterly penitent (Works, iii. 81, 131, 132). 

By this time Laud had come into collision 
with the Oxford theologians. There was a 
sharpness of antagonism about him, and a 



perfect fearlessness in expressing his views, 
which could not fail to rouse opposition. 
When in 1604 he took the degree of bachelor 
of divinity, he maintained ' the necessity of 
baptism/ and * that there could be no true 
church without diocesan bishops/ thereby 
incurring a reproof from Dr. Holland, who 
was in the chair. On 26 Oct. 1606 he 
preached a sermon at St. Mary's, for which 
he was called to account by the vice-chan- 
cellor, Dr. Airay, on the ground that it con- 
tained popish opinions. Laud, however, 
escaped without having to make any public 
recantation, though he became a marked man 
in the university as one who sought to intro- 
duce the doctrines of Rome into the church. 
On the other hand, the increasing number of 
those who were hostile to Calvinism were on 
his side. Preferments flowed in. In 1607 
he became vicar of Stanford in Northamp- 
tonshire. Having taken the degree of D.D. 
in 1608, he was in the same year made 
chaplain to Bishop Neile, and on 17 Sept. 

E reached before the king at Theobalds. On 
Oct. 1610 Laud resigned his fellowship to 
attend to his duties at Cuxton in Kent, to the 
living of which he had recently been appointed 
by Bishop Neile (' Diary 1 in Works, in. 134). 

On 10 May 1611 Laud was elected to 
the presidentship of St. John's, Buckeridge 
having been appointed to the see of Roches- 
ter. Even before his election an ineffectual 
attempt had been made to exclude him by 
the influence of Archbishop Abbot and Chan- 
cellor EUesmere, the main pillars of the Cal- 
vinist party at court. After the election 
was completed, Laud's opponents urged that 
it had been in some respects irregular. On 
29 Auff. King James heard the parties, and 
decided that the election was to stand good 
on the ground that the irregularity had arisen 
from an unintentional mistake (ib. iii. 135; 
Works, iii. 34 ; ' Answer to Lord Say's Speech/ 
Works, vi. 88 ; letters between James I and 
Bishop Bilson, State Papers, Dom. lxiv. 35, 
36, lxvi. 25\ 

The headship of a college did not satisfy 
the mind of a man who was aiming at a re- 
form of the church, and indeed Laud's posi- 
tion at Oxford was not altogether comfort- 
able. In 1614 he was violently attacked by 
Dr. Robert Abbot from the university pulpit 
for having declared in a sermon that presby- 
terians were as bad as papists, and was scorn- 
fully asked whether he was himself a papist 
or a protestant. His isolation in the uni- 
versity may to some extent account for what 
would in the present day be considered as un- 
seemly eagerness for promotion, shown in a 
complaint to his patron, Bishop Neile. In 
1614 indeed Neile, then bishop of Lincoln, 



Laud 



1 86 



Laud 



gave him the prebend of Buckden,andin 1615 
the archdeaconry of Huntingdon. In 1616 
the king promoted him to the deanery of 
Gloucester (Hbylyn, pp. 60-8). 

Before Laud paid his first visit to Glouces- 
ter the king told him to set in order whatever 
was amiss. Not only had the fabric of the 
cathedral been neglected, but the communion 
table was allowed to stand in the centre of 
the choir, a position which it occupied at 
that time in most of the parish churches, 
though in most cathedrals, and in the king's 
chapel, it was placed at the east end. Laud 
persuaded the chapter to pass acts for the 
repair of the building and the removal of 
the communion table, but did not explain 
his action in public, and gave deep offence 
to the aged bishop, Miles Smith, a learned 
hebraist and stout Calvinist, as well as to 
a large part of the population. This affair 
at Gloucester clearly exhibits the causes of 
Laud's failure in late life. If he had au- 
thority on his side, he considered it unneces- 
sary even to attempt to win over by persua- 
sion those who differed from him (ib. p. 63). 

In 1617 Laud accompanied the king to 
Scotland, where he gave offence by wearing 
a surplice at a funeral (Diary ; Nichols, 
Progresses, iii. 344). On 22 Jan. 1621 he 
was installed as a prebendary of Westmin- 
ster, and on 29 June of the same year the 
king gave him the bishopric of St. Davids, 
with permission to hold the presidentship of 
St. Jonn's in commendam. l But/ wrote Laud 
in his diary, ' by reason of the strictness of 
that statute, which I will not violate, nor 
my oath to it, under any colour, I am re- 
solved before my consecration to leave it ; ' 
and in fact he resigned the headship on 5 Nov., 
his consecration being on the 18th. He re- 
fused to allow Archbishop Abbot to take 
any part in the rite, on the ground that he 
was disqualified by an accidental homicide 
recently committed by him. According to 
Hacket (p. 63), James gave Laud the bi- 
shopric only under pressure from Charles and 
Buckingham ; and it is quite possible that 
James perceived that Laud would be better 
placed in the deanery of Westminster, for 
which he had first intended him. Williams, 
however, on being made bishop of Lincoln, 
had sufficient influence to secure the reten- 
tion of the deanery, and Laud had to be pro- 
vided for in some other way. 

On 23 April 1622 James sent for Laud, 
asking him to use his influence with the 
Countess of Buckingham, who was attracted 
towards the church of Rome by the argu- 
ments of Percy, a Jesuit who went by the 
name of Fisher [see Fisher, John, 1569- 
1641]. By the king's orders there had been 



two conferences held in her presence between 
Fisher and Dr. Francis White, and on 24 May 
1622 a third conference was held, in whicn 
Laud took the place of White. The subject 
then discussed was the infallibility of the 
church. 

Laud's arguments on this occasion, toge- 
ther with their subsequent enlargement in 
his account of the controversy published in 
1639, mark his ecclesiastical position in the 
line between Hooker and Chilfingworth. On 
the one hand he acknowledged the church of 
Rome to be a true church, on the ground 
that it ' received the Scriptures as a rule of 
faith, though but as a partial and imperfect 
rule, and both the sacraments as instru- 
mental causes and seals of grace ' ( Works, 
ii. 144). He strove against the position 
' that all points defined by the church are 
fundamental' (ib. ii. 31), attempting as far 
as possible to limit the extent of ' soul-saving 
faith ' (ib. ii. 402). The foundations of faith 
were ' the Scriptures and the creeds ' (ib. ii, 
428). When doubts arose l about the mean- 
ing of the articles, or superstructures upon 
them — which are doctrines about the faith, not 
the faith itself ,unless when they be immediate 
consequences — then, both in and of these, a 
lawful and free general council, determining 
according to Scripture, is the best judge 
on earth ' (ib,) Laud, in short, wished to 
narrow the scope of dogmatism, and to bring 
opinions not necessary to salvation to the 
bar of public discussion by duly authorised 
exponents, instead of to that of an authority 
claiming infallibility (on the bibliography of 
the controversy see the editor'sprelace to the 
' Relation of the Conference,' Works, vol. ii.) 

Though Laud's arguments failed perma- 
nently to impress the Countess of Bucking- 
ham, they gave him great influence over her 
son. On 15 June, as he states in his diary, 
he ' became C[onfessor] to my Lord of Buck- 
ingham,' and was afterwards consulted by 
him on his religious difficulties. 

Soon afterwards Laud, for the first time, 
visited his diocese, entering Wales on 6 July, 
and leaving Carmarthen for England on 
15 Aug. (' Diary ' in Works, iii. 139, 140). He 
ordered the building of a chapel at his epi- 
scopal residence at Abergwifly, presenting 
it with rich communion plate (Hbtlyx, p. 
88). During the remainder of James's reign 
Laud continued on good terms with Buck- 
ingham and the king, while there was an 
estrangement between him and Lord-keeper 
Williams, and Archbishop Abbot. 

On 27 March 1625 James died, and with 
the accession of Charles I Laud's real pre- 
dominance in the church of England began. 
James's sympathies with Laud were mainly 



Laud 



187 



Laud 



evoked by the breadth of his theological 
judgments ; Charles also sympathised in his 
advocacy of authority over the external 
actions of ministers and congregations. 

Shortly after his accession Charles asked 
Laud to inform him who among the clergy 
were suitable for promotion. Laud gave 
him a list in whicn the names of the pro- 
minent clergy were marked with and P, 
the orthodox to be favoured or the puritan 
to be discouraged. The breadth of theoreti- 
cal opinion which distinguished Laud's views, 
as enunciated in his conference with Fisher, 
was consistent with much narrowness in 
dealing with individuals. In reality puri- 
tanism was master of the field, and by no 
means inclined to tolerate those who assailed 
it. Laud, knowing that his opinions were 
those of a minority among the clergy, and 
of a still smaller minority among the laity, 
looked to the royal power to redress the 
balance. Circumstances thus combined with 
his own sense of the value of external disci- 
pline and with his own unsympathetic nature 
to blind him to the danger of using the king 
as an instrument for the reform of the church. 
The unwritten tradition of Anglicanism, that 
it was the duty of kings to support a learned 
and large-minded clergy against the dog- 
matism of Rome on tne one side and of 
Geneva on the other, found a hearty sup- 
porter in Laud. He would have been very 
different from what he was if he had stopped 
to ask what effect the crushing of his oppo- 
nents by the royal authority would have 
upon the independence of religious thought. 

At all events Laud's opponents could not 
teach him the lesson of toleration. Charles's 
first House of Commons insisted on punish- 
ing Richard Montague [q. v.] for using anti- 
Calvinistic arguments against the Roman ca- 
tholics, and for appealing to the king for pro- 
tection. On 2 Aug. 1626 Laud and two other 
bishops wrote to the king on Montague's be- 
half. The church of England, they said, at 
the time when it was reformed, ' would not be 
too busy with every particular school-point. 
The cause why she held this moderation was 
because she could not be able to preserve any 
unity among Christians if men were forced 
to subscribe to curious particulars disputed 
in schools ' ( Works, vi. 244). With strange, 
but not inexplicable inconsistency, the three 
bishops reminded the king ' that we cannot 
conceive what use there can be of civil 
government in the commonwealth, or of 
preaching or external ministry in the church, 
if such fatal opinions as some which are 
opposite and contrary to those delivered by 
Mr. Montague shall be publicly taught and 
maintained.' It is unnecessary to seek else- 



where for the causes of Laud's failure during 
his own life and of the success which at- 
tended his principles after his death. In 
pleading against the intolerance of the puri- 
tans he was at one with the best spirit of his 
time. In pleading for the use of authority 
against the opinions of the intolerant, he was 
animated by fear of destruction in the im- 
mediate present. 

On 16 Jan. 1626 Laud was one of four 
bishops who, writing to Buckingham in 
favour of Montague's book, advised that no 
one should be allowed to discuss the ques- 
tions at issue ' by public preaching or writ- 
ing ' (ib. vi. 249). Preaching before Charles's 
second parliament on 6 Feb. 1626, Laud 
magnified the king's authority in the state 
as well as in the church, as he had already 
done in his sermon at the opening of the first 
parliament of the reign (ib. i. 63). By this 
time the House of Commons regarded him 
as hostile to civil liberty as well as to reli- 
gious truth. Laud, in fact, took the king's 
part on all points in his struggle with the 
commons. He prepared the speeches which 
Charles delivered on 29 March and 11 May 
in behalf of Buckingham (ib. iv. 354), and 
he certainly criticised and corrected Buck- 
ingham's defence delivered on 8 June {State 
Papers, Dom. xxvii. 25). 

Charles showed his gratitude to Laud 
abundantlv. On 30 Sept. 1626 he sent him 
a message oy Buckingham that he was to be 
dean of the Chapel Royal. On 2 Oct. Buck- 
ingham told him ' what the king had further 
resolved concerning ' him ' in case the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury should die ' ( Works, iii. 
196). On 29 April 1627 Charles made him 
a privy councillor (ib. iii. 205). On 17 June 
he promised him the bishopric of London. 
On 9 Oct. Laud was included in a commis- 
sion — subsequently revoked on 24 June 1628 
— for executing the office of archbishop dur- 
ing Abbot's sequestration. On 1 July 1628 
the congS (TSlire for the bishopric of London 
was signed by the king (ib. iii. 206, 208). 

It was at Laud's advice that, before the 
end of 1628, Charles issued the declaration 
prefixed to a new edition of the articles now 
printed in the prayer-book. It was an at- 
tempt to avert distractions in the church by 
upholding the articles as the standard of 
faith and prohibiting controversial preach- 
ing. All questions of the external policy of 
the church were to be decided by convoca- 
tion (Heylyn, p. 170). When parliament 
met in 1629, the House of Commons as- 
serted its right to maintain gmte a different 
standard of doctrine and discipline, but when 
its dissolution on 2 March brought the par- 
liamentary life of England to a close for 



Laud 



1 88 



Laud 



eleven years, Laud, through his influence 
with Charles, became master of the ecclesi- 
astical situation. 

The difference between Laud and the 
House of Commons was one which had been 
inherent in the church of England since the 
days of Henry VIII. Laud was the intel- 
lectual successor of the men of the new learn- 
ing, who had attempted, with the king at 
their back, to reform the church under the 
influence of constituted authorities and 
learned inquiry. The commons were the 
intellectual successors of the men who, under 
the influence of continental teachers, first of 
Zwingli and afterwards of Calvin, attempted 
to extract a definite system of doctrine from 
the scriptures. In Laud's time, however, 
this latter mode of thought characterised the 
greater part of the clergy and of the religious 
laity, so that Laud, in attempting to revive 
a system which seemed to have passed away, 
found himself at issue with the conservatism 
which clings to existing habits of thought, 
and which is as dissatisfied with an attempt 
to reproduce the ideas of a past generation 
as it would be with an attempt to introduce 
ideas altogether unknown. Ignoring the ex- 
ample of Andrewes, who, without irritating 
any one, had simply recommended the ob- 
servance of the religious usages of which he 
approved, Laud held it incumbent on him 
to compel observance even by those who dis- 
approved of them. In his mind the external 
obligation always took precedence of the 
spiritual conception. Uniformity to him was 
the surest propagator of unity of spirit. He 
was, as he himself acknowledged, an Aris- 
totelian (' Hist, of the Troubles and Trial,' 
Works, iv. 69), a disciple of the teacher to 
whom the formation of habits was the main 
security of moral excellence. He sought, 
too, for the rule of ecclesiastical belief and 
conduct in the law of the church as it had 
been formed in the period of the Reformation, 
ignoring alike the practice of the mediaeval 
church and the customs which had grown 
up without legal sanction in recent years. 

In this way, quite irrespectively of the 
value of the practices which he inculcated, 
Laud, by his failure to take into account 
existing habits, brought himself into collision 
with the higher puritanism of his time as 
well as with the mere disorder and unruli- 
ness, of which there was enough and to spare. 
He did not himself expect success. He 
wrote to Vossius on 14 July 1629 ( Works, 
vi. 265) that he had done his best to find a 
quiet way out of the difficulty, especially in 
what he regarded as non-essentials, but that 
his fears outweighed his hopes; that he 
dreaded a schism, though he would rather 



pray than prophesy, and left the future to 
God. 

In the contest which he was now carry- 
ing on Laud showed himself absolutely fear- 
less. An attempt has, indeed, been made to 
represent him as timid and superstitious, on 
the ground that he noted down some of his 
dreams in his private diary. Until it can be 
shown that in any single instance he allowed 
his conduct to be deflected by these, it may 
be taken that he noted them simply as curio- 
sities. On 29 March 1629 a paper inti- 
mating that his life was sought was picked 
up, but it only drew from him the ejacula- 
tion : * Lord, I am a grievous sinner ; but I 
beseech Thee, deliver my soul from them 
that hate me without a cause ' (' Diary,' 
Works, in. 210). 

On 12 April Laud was elected chancellor 
of the university of Oxford. On 80 Oct. 
1628 he had had the satisfaction of hearing 
that the university had passed a statute 
drawn up by him, by which the election of 
! proctors is still regulated, and in the follow- 
ing January he induced the Earl of Pem- 
broke, his predecessor as chancellor, to buy 
the Baroccian collection of Greek manu- 
scripts and to present them to the university 
! ( Works, iii. 209, v. 10 note o). 
I Laud's first act showed at least his in- 
tention of proceeding in his new position 
| with fairness. He ordered notice to be taken 
of two sermons, one directed against devout 
gestures in churches and the otner justifying 
' the five articles commonly called Arminian- 
ism,' and laying ' an aspersion upon the synod 
of Dort.' During the remainder of 1630 Laud 
did his best to restore discipline, not only 
enforcing the wearing of caps and gowns, 
but also insisting on the due performance 
of such exercises as were then required for 
the attainment of degrees (ib. v. 8-84). 

On 4 June 1680 Laud took part in passing 
a cruel sentence upon Leighton in the Star- 
chamber, and found an opportunity of de- 
1 fending episcopacy against the presbyteri- 
anism which Leighton held to be the divine 
constitution of the church. According to 
Leighton {Epitome, p. 83), as soon as the 
sentence was passed Laud took off his cap 
and ' gave thanks to God who had riven him 
the victory over his enemies.' The story 
j may have been exaggerated, if it was not 
I untrue. It is also on Leighton's authority 
I that we learn that the lifelong friendship 
! between Laud and Wentworth dated from 
I this occasion. 

\ On 16 Jan. 1631 Laud consecrated the 

, church of St. Catherine Cree in London, ac- 

] cording to a form which had been drawn up 

by Andrewes (Andrewes, Minor Works, p. 



Laud 



189 



Laud 



316). Though the story told by prejudiced i 
witnesses at his trial may be rejected as in- j 
credible (see Gardiner, Hist of Engl 1603- 
1642, vii. 244, notes 1 and 2), there can be , 
no doubt that his appearance outside the 
pate of the church in full canonicals, and j 
his bowing towards the altar, gjave offence 
to the puritans who swarmed in the city. | 
The question of bowing in church was at 
that tune a burning one. A certain Giles j 
Widdowes, having written in defence of the 
practice, was attacked by Prynne in a book 
entitled ' Lame Giles, his Haltings/ One 
Page prepared to answer Prynne, but was 
checked by Abbot on the ground that con- 
troversy was to be avoided. Laud, however, 
at once intervened. The university of Ox- 
ford, now under Laud's dictation, licensed 
Page's book, Laud having declared that the 
king was unwilling that Prynne's ignorant 
writings should remain unanswered. Both 
the king and the Bishop of London seem to 
have drawn a distinction between a contro- 
versy about the ceremonies of the church 
which were to be regulated by law and a 
controversy about predestination which was 
a matter of opinion. An attempt having 
been made at Oxford to reopen the latter 
dispute in the pulpit, Charles, on 23 Aug. 
1631, summoned the offenders before him- 
self, and ordered the expulsion of the erring 
preachers and the deprivation of the proctors 
who had failed to call them to account (Hey- 
lyn, p. 203). 

Scarcely any one of Laud's actions brings 
out more clearly the legal character of his 
mind than his treatment of the question of 
bowing in church. His own habit was to bow 
whenever the name of Jesus was pronounced, 
and also towards the east end on entering 
a church ; but he recognised that while the 
former practice was enforced by the canons 
the latter was not, and while he required 
observance of the one he only pressed the 
other by the force of his example, excepting 
where it was legalised by the statutes of 
particular churches. In other respects he 
required conformity to the law, patiently, 
indeed, when there was any prospect of 
winning over those who had hitherto re- 
fused obedience, but without the slightest 
regard for conscientious objections to con- 
formity. In the court of high commission 
he was exceedingly active, especially in 
cases of immorality. He was determined 
that no offender should escape punishment 
on account of wealth or position, and in May 
1632 he took part in successfully resisting a 
prohibition issued by the judges of the court 
of common pleas at the instance of Sir Giles 
Alington, who had married his own niece. 



In his action in repressing antinomians and 
separatists he had the co-operation of Abbot. 

Laud's dislike of disorder showed itself in 
the hard sentence which in February 1633 
he urged in the Star-chamber in the case of 
Henry Sherfield, the breaker of a window in 
which God the Father was depicted, and in 
the same month he approved nighly of the 
verdict in the exchequer chamber dissolving 
the feoffment for the acquisition of impro- 
priations, and directing that the patronage 
of the feoffees, who had intended to make 
use of it to present puritans to benefices, 
should be transferred to the king. In his own 
college at Oxford Laud's liberality had shown 
itself in the new buildings. In London he 
was dissatisfied with the slackness of the 
citizens in contributing to the repairs of the 
dilapidated cathedral, and induced the privy 
council to urge the justices of the peace to 
gather money for the purpose from the whole 
country. 

Hitherto, except in the courts of Star- 
chamber and high commission, and in the 
rare instances in which he could set in 
motion the direct authority of the king, 
Laud's action had been confined to the dio- 
cese of London and the university of Oxford. 
On 6 Aug. 1633, after his return from Scot- 
land, whither he had gone with the king, 
he was greeted by Charles, who had just 
heard of Abbot's death, with the words : 
' My Lord's Grace of Canterbury, you are 
very welcome ' (Heylyn, p. 250). Two days 
before Laud recorded in his ' Diary ' that ' there 
came one to me, seriously, and that avowed 
ability to perform it, and offered me to be a 
cardinal.' Another entry on 17 Aug. states 
that the offer was repeated. 'But/ adds 
Laud, 'my answer again was that some- 
what dwelt within me which would not 
suffer that till Rome were other than it is.' 
Laud's intellectual position would be neces- 
sarily unintelligible to a Roman catholic in 
those days, and would be no better appre- 
ciated by a puritan. 

As archbishop of Canterbury Laud had at 
his disposal not only whatever ecclesiastical 
authority was inherent in his office, but also 
whatever authority the king was able to 
supply in virtue of the royal supremacy. The 
combination of the two powers made him 
irresistible for the time. On 19 Sept. 1633 
the king wrote to the bishops, evidently at 
Laud's instigation, directing them to restrict 
ordination, except in certain specified cases, 
to those who intended to undertake the care 
of souls (ib. p. 240). The direction was in- 
tended to stop the supply of the puritan 
lecturers, who were maintained by congrega- 
tions or others to lecture or preach, without 



Laud 



190 



Laud 



being compelled to read the service to which 
they objected. 

Upon his removal to Lambeth Laud set 
his chapel in order, placing the communion 
table at the east end. On 3 Nov. 1633 he 
spoke strongly in the privy council in favour 
of that position in the case of St. Gregory's, 
when the king decided that the liberty al- 
lowed by the canons for placing the table at 
the time of the administration of the com- 
munion in the most convenient position was 
subject to the judgment of the ordinary. No 
one was likely to be made a bishop by Charles 
who failed to take Laud's view in this matter. 
Laud also succeeded in compelling the use of 
the prayer-book in 1633 in the English regi- 
ments in the Dutch service, and in 1634 in 
the church of the Merchant Adventurers at 
Delft. 

At home nothing ecclesiastical escaped 
Laud's vigilance. Before his promotion, 
in 1632, he had complained to the king of 
the interference of Chief-justice Richardson 
with the Somerset wakes, and in 1633, when 
Richardson was before the privy council to 

E* ve an account of his conduct in the matter, 
lud rated him so severely that the chief 
justice on leaving the room declared that he 
had ' been almost choked with a pair of lawn 
sleeves.' The republication of the * Declara- 
tion of Sports ' by Charles on 10 Oct. 1633 
had the archbishop's warm approval, if, in- 
deed, he did not instigate the step. Laud 
was the consistent opponent of anything re- 
sembling the puritan Sabbath. On 17 Feb. 
1634 he spoke in the Star-chamber in much 
the same spirit against the sour doctrines of 
the'Histriomastix.' He denied, in sentencing 
Prynne, that stage-plays were themselves 
unlawful. They ought to be reformed, not 
abolished. If there were indecencies in them, 
it was * a scandal and not to be tolerated.' It 
was not Laud's official business to purify the 
stage, and we hear of no further advice of his 
tending in this direction. On the other hand, 
he called for a heavy sentence on Prynne, 
though when on Prynne's second appearance 
in the Star-chamber on 11 June 1634, Noy 
asked that the prisoner might be debarred 
from going to church and from the use of 
pen, ink, and paper, Laud at once interfered. 
There was a kind of official severity in Laud, 
a belief that severe punishments were needed 
to deter men from resisting constituted au- 
thorities, but a certain amount of personal 
kindliness underlying it can occasionally be 
detected. 

As far as the civil government was con- 
cerned Laud was in opposition to Richard 
Weston, first earl of Portland, the lord trea- 
surer, whom he held to be corrupt and inert. 



That single-eyed devotion to the king's inte- 
rests which obtained the name of ' Thorough ' 
in the correspondence between himself and 
Wentworth led him to attack all who shel- 
tered their own self-seeking under pretexts 
of unbounded loyalty. On 15 March 1635 
Laud was, upon Portland's death, placed on 
the commission of the treasury and on the 
committee of the privy council for foreign 
affairs. His dealings with temporal affairs 
were not successful. He did his best to be 
rigidly just, but his financial knowledge was 
not equal to the task he had undertaken, and 
in the affair of the soap monopoly he com- 
mitted mistakes which exposed him to the 
attacks of his adversaries. All opposition 
he took as a personal slight, and he even 
quarrelled witn his old mend Windebank 
for voting against him on this matter. As 
for foreign affairs they remained, as before, in 
Charles's own hands. 

In his treatment of ecclesiastical questions 
Laud continued blind to the necessity of 
giving play to the diverse elements which 
made up the national church. In 1634 he 
claimed: the right of holding a metropolitical 
visitation in the province of Canterbury, 
while Archbishop Neile held one in the pro- 
vince of York. For three years, from 1634 
to 1687, Laud's vicar-general, Sir Nathaniel 
Brent [q. v.], went from one diocese to an- 
other, enforcing conformity. Irregularities 
in the conduct of services and dilapidations 
in the fabric of churches were all noticed and 
amendment ordered. Some of the irregula- 
rities complained of were mere abuses, others 
were committed in order to avoid practices 
opposed to the spirit of puritanism. The real 
question at issue was whether in the face of 
tne difficulties in the way of so strict an en- 
forcement of uniformity it would be possible 
to avoid the disruption of the church. In 
refusing even to entertain the question Laud 
did not differ from his opponents ; but the 
conscientious rigidity with which he enforced 
his views did much to ripen the question 
for consideration at no distant date. 

The changes which Laud now ordered were 
intended merely to remove illegal abuses; 
but it was inevitable that some of them 
should be regarded as evidence of his inten- 
tion to draw the church into a path which 
would ultimately lead to a reunion with 
Rome. This was especially the case with 
his direction for fixing the communion table 
at the east end of the churches. The opposi- 
tion created was the greater, as Rome was at 
the same time making an effort to extend her 
influence in England, and in that effort Laud 
was naturally, though quite untruly, regarded 
as an accomplice. From the end of 1634 to 



Laud 



i 9 i 



Laud 



the summer of 1636 Panzani was in England 
on a mission from the pope, listening to those 
who, in their dislike of puritanism, brooded 
over the idea of a reunion of the churches of 
Home and England. Laud correctly gauged 
the situation when he told the king that if* he 
wished to go to Rome the pope would not stir 
a step to meet him ; ' but his clear-sightedness 
gained him no popular credit. 

In 1636 Lauovs preference for external 
power over spiritual influence received a cu- 
rious illustration. On 6 March Charles made 
Juxon, the bishop of London, lord treasurer. 
' No churchman/ Laud noted in his ' Diary,' 
* had it since Henry VII's time. I pray God 
bless him to carry it so that the church may 
have honour and the king and the state ser- 
vice and contentment by it, and now if the 
church will not hold up themselves under 
God I can do no more ' ( Works, iii. 226). He 
could not see that the exercise of secular au- 
thority was in itself a source of weakness to the 
church. In his hands the church came to be 
regarded as an inflicter of penalties rather than 
a helper on the path of godliness and purity. 

One side, though not the most important, 
of Laud's deficiency in this respect was after- 
wards set forth in Clarendon's 'History' (i. 
196) : ' He did court persons too little, nor 
cared to make his designs and purposes appear 
as candid as they were, by showing them in 
any other dress than their own natural beauty 
and roughness, and did not consider enough 
what men said or were like to say of him. 
If the faults and vices were fit to be looked 
into and discovered, let the persons be who 
they would that were guilty of them, they 
were sure to find no connivance of favour 
from him. He intended the discipline of the 
church should be felt as well as spoken of, 
and that it should be applied to the greatest 
and most splendid transgressors, as well as 
to the punishment of smaller offences and 
meaner offenders ; and thereupon called for 
or cherished the discovery of those who were 
not careful to cover their own iniquities, 
thinking they were above the reach of other 
men or their power and will to chastise.' 

On 21 June 1636 the privy council ac- 
knowledged Laud's claim to visit the uni- 
versities. He prized the judgment as enabling 
him to overriae the opposition of Cambridge. 
At Oxford he had long been master, and on 
22 June he sent down a body of statutes, 
which were cheerfully accepted by convoca- 
tion. On 29 Aug. he appeared at Oxford to 
do honour to the king, who was then on a 
visit to the university, and on the 30th 
showed him over the Bodleian Library, and 
took him round St. John's. 

Meanwhile puritans attacked him and his 



system with scurrilous bitterness. When, 
on 14 June 1637, three of them, Prynne, 
Burton, and Bastwick, were brought up for 
sentence in the Star-chamber, Laud seized 
the opportunity of delivering a speech, which 
is as instructive on his position as a discipli- 
narian as the conference with Fisher is on his 
views concerning doctrine ( Works, vi. 36). 
In the course of his speech Laud referred 
bitterly to a book issued by Bishop Williams 
under the title of 'The Holy Table, Name and 
Thing/ in which a compromise in the dispute 
about the position of the communion table 
was recommended. Williams was at this 
time being prosecuted in the Star-chamber 
and high commission court for personal of- 
fences, and on 30 Aug., after he had been sen- 
tenced, Laud by the King's command offered 
him a bishopric in Wales or Ireland, on con- 
dition that, besides resigning the see of 
Lincoln and his other benefices, he would 
acknowledge himself guilty of the crimes 
imputed to him, and his error in publishing 
his book (Lambeth MS8. mxxx. fol. 68 b). 

In spite of all that he was now doing, Laud 
was unable to understand why his mainte- 
nance of the strict severity of the law of the 
church should be interpreted as savouring of 
a tendency to be on good terms with Rome, 
and on 22 Oct., many conversions to Roman 
Catholicism having been made through the 
agency of Con, who had recently succeeded 
Panzani as papal agent, he took the oppor- 
tunity of complaining at the council 01 the 
favour shown to Roman catholics, and of 
asking that Walter Montagu, the Earl of 
Manchester's Roman catholic son, might be 
prosecuted before the court of high commis- 
sion. By this Laud drew down on himself 
the displeasure of the queen. 'I doubt not,' 
he wrote to Wentworth, 'but I have enemies 
enough to make use of this. Indeed, my lord, 
I have a very hard task, and God, I beseech 
Him, make me good corn, for I am between 
two great factions, very like corn between 
two mill-stones ' (Laud to Wentworth, 1 Nov. , 
ib. vii. 378). He found the queen's influence 
too strong to be resisted. At his impor- 
tunity, indeed, Charles consented to issue a 
proclamation threatening the Roman catho- 
lics with the penalties of the law; but when 
it appeared on 20 Dec. it was found that it 
had been so toned down as to be practically 
worthless. 

At the same time Laud was not unmindful 
of the duty of encouraging those who under- 
took the church's defence by argument. He 
took an interest in the publication of Chil- 
lingworth'8 ' Religion of Protestants ' towards 
the end of 1637, and though in the spring of 
1638 he sent for John Hales [q. v.] of Eton 



Laud 



192 



Laud 



to complain of his tract on ' Schism/ warning 
him that ' there could not be too much care 
taken to preserve the peace and unity of the 
church,' he treated him in a friendly way, and 
took no repressive measures against him. No 
doubt Chillingworth, and still more Hales, 
held opinions in which the archbishop did not 
share, but he saw in their appeal to reason as 
against dogmatism allies in his double conflict. 

Laud was already involved in that inter- 
ference with the Scottish church which 
proved ultimately disastrous to his system, 
when he accompanied the king to Scotland 
in 1633 he had been shocked by the uneccle- 
siastical appearance of the churches, and on 
one occasion an intimation that the change 
he disliked had been made at the Reforma- 
tion drew from him the remark that it was 
not a reformation but a deformation. Charles's 
proposal to issue new canons and a new 
prayer-book for the Scottish church may have 
been suggested by Laud ; at any rate, the arch- 
bishop heartily supported it. The work was 
indeed entrusted to the Scottish bishops, but 
it was sent to the king to revise, and in that 
revision Charles was guided by the opinions 
of Laud and Wren. Officially Laud had 
nothing to do with the matter, but it was 
perfectly well understood in Scotland how 
great his influence was, and the canons and 
prayer-book were there held to have emanated 
directly from him whom they entitled the 
pope of Canterburv. 

When, on 23 July 1637, the explosion took 
place at St. Giles's Church at Edinburgh, 
and the Scottish bishops were growing 
frightened at the result of their handiwork, 
Laud urred